• Ideals, Reality and Meaning: Homemaking in England in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

      Ponsonby, Margaret (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
      Advice books in the first half of the nineteenth century offered homemakers instructions for creating the ideal home. The problem for the design historian is to ascertain with what results the homemaker mediated these instructions. This article suggests using lists of house contents, which survive in a variety of forms, and adopting a qualitative approach to their analysis. Evidence for a number of middle-class homes is used to explore the variations. The symbolic value of individual objects and their role within the material culture of the home is examined - in particular, the use of textiles to articulate the practical and symbolic functions of living rooms. Although all the examples followed the general tendencies of the period as described in advice books, they also showed distinct differences according to social status,age. sex and occupation. A qualitative approach to the evedence permits exploration of the differences between homes and the possible social and cultural meaning that they conveyed. (Oxford University Press)
    • Identifying Communists: Continuity in Political Policing, 1931-1951

      Millar, Grace (Stout Research Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2017)
      On 14 April 1931, Constable E.R. Trask wrote a report which began: ‘I respectfully report that acting on instructions received, I attended a Communist Meeting, which was held in the Communist hall.’ 1 He carefully noted the names of all those who attended whom he believed to be communists. This typified police practice at that time. In other words, identification and surveillance of suspected or known communists in meetings, on demonstrations and in other settings, dominated political policing long before the Cold War. For the New Zealand Police Force, anti-communism was an organising worldview with communist influence their general explanation for any radical activity. This article examines how New Zealand police officers understood dissent among unemployed workers in the 1930s and during the 1951 waterfront dispute, and concludes that continuity in political policing prevailed, despite the momentous events of World War Two and the early Cold War years which intervened. It argues that policing methodology is a form of social knowledge, so that the words in the written police archives need to be seen in the broader perspective of surveillance as a knowledge system into which new constables were socialised. For example, each year detectives from other centres were sent to Christchurch during its Show Week in November to keep their ‘own city criminals under observation and to point them out’ to local police.2 This model of policing was already dated by the 1930s, even more so by the 1950s, but it continued to inform and structure political policing.
    • Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

      Ventrella, Matilde (Cogitatio, 2017-06-23)
      Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.
    • Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Satisfaction: The Case of a Budget Hotel Chain

      Rahimi, Roya; Kozak, Metin (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-28)
      Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a successful marketing strategy that has been proven to improve customer satisfaction and retention in the hotel business. CRM can bring many benefits to the hotel business, though there are some associated challenges such as the implementation process, which can prove to be time consuming, expensive, and complex in nature. Such challenges often bring a significant risk of failure, and these risks become more significant in budget hotels, due to inadequate supporting budgets and the lack of strong branding and loyalty schemes. This study considers the changes that have emerged in the last decade as regards customer expectations when staying in budget hotels. We use qualitative approaches to investigate the overlaps between customer expectations and managers’ perceptions of CRM applications. The findings reveal that regardless of all changes, value for money and core products continue play a critical role in customers’ overall satisfaction of budget hotels. This suggests there is a need to align management and customer perspectives on CRM, in order to optimize customer value in terms of delivery and experience. Keywords: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Customer Satisfactions, Satisfaction Criteria, Customer Expectation and Budget Hotels.
    • The importance of collaboration and competition within and outside the OECD

      Jackson, Ian; McManus, John (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2016-08-10)
      The purpose of this paper is to address the role of the OECD in the global marketplace. The paper highlights some current trends in the global market and the changing role of the OECD. In this context, the authors discuss various perspectives on the role of OECD in a globalized world. The authors focus on recent debates on the state of the global economy and the changing position of the OECD in the world market. The authors apply a conceptual approach combined with analyses of data and secondary material. The authors also put forward an argument for investigating what determines competition within and outside the OECD. In this context, creating markets within a global economy requires considerable stimulus on the part of national governments. This necessitates national governments working together in partnership with national and global firms to reduced bureaucracy and increase transparency to boost trade in a cost effective manner. This is seen by some economists to be a prerequisite to future competitiveness. Finally, the authors seek to demonstrate how leading countries within the OECD are building innovative capability to master the challenges and opportunities that the new emerging economies present (such as Brazil).
    • In Proportion

      Waddington, P. A. J.; Stenson, Kevin; Don, David (Oxford University Press, 2004)
      This article examines the view, expressed authoritatively in the Macpherson report (1999), that racial disproportionality in police stop and search is attributable to officers selectively targeting minority groups. The research on which this article is based replicates Home Office research (Miller and MVA 2000) that profiled the population ‘available’ in public places to be stopped and searched. Using a combination of data sources, this article extends that research in two directions: first, by exploring the issue of visibility and how it has an impact upon decisions to stop and search; and, secondly, by investigating whether disproportionality might arise indirectly from the way in which police direct their efforts in relation to time, place and types of motor vehicle. Finally, we discuss the implications of this research for the concept of ‘institutional racism’.
    • In support of evidence-based management and research-informed HRD through HRD professional partnerships: an empirical and comparative study

      Hamlin, Robert G. (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2002)
      This article describes a programme of practice-grounded empirical management research set within an NHS Trust Hospital in the UK that was conducted as part of an HRD Professional Partnership of the kind advocated by Jacobs (1997). The research was concerned with identifying the criteria of managerial effectiveness at the middle and front-line levels of management using critical incident technique and factor analytic methods. The results are compared against those from an equivalent partnership research study carried out previously by the author within one part of the British Civil Service, namely the Anglia Collection of HM Customs & Excise. The findings lend support to the notion of the 'universally effective manager', and provide empirical support for the potential development of evidence-based and research-informed approaches to management and human resource development within the case-study NHS Trust Hospital, and possibly beyond.
    • In support of research-based organisation change and development through professional partnerships

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Campbell, Fiona; Stewart, Jim; Reidy, Margaret (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      This paper provides a review and synthesis of current practice in the field of Organisation Change and Development (OCD). Five key 'failings' of managers contributing to the low success rate of OCD programmes are identified. To overcome these 'failings' a case is made for more evidence and research - based OCD practice, particularly OD initiatives informed and shaped by organisationally based research facilitated through 'university-organisation' professional partnerships of the kind advocated by Jacobs (1997). A framework conceptualising OCD Professional Partnerships is presented. This suggests an integrative and cyclical process connecting OCD research and consultancy which follow a similar sequence of stages with outcomes that are mutually beneficial and reinforcing. A UK example of an OCD Professional Partnership set within one part of the British Civil Service is presented which demonstrates how OCD practice can be profoundly influenced and enhanced by academically rigorous internal research. This is compared against a USA example set within a municipal government department. A number of common lessons are drawn of relevance to OCD practitioners and organisational leaders concerned with strategic change issues.
    • In support of universalistic models of managerial and leadership effectiveness: Implications for HRD research and practice

      Hamlin, Robert G. (Wiley, 2004)
      Various researchers have recently challenged contingent models of managerial and leadership effectiveness, arguing that logic suggesting the universality of manager and supervisory leader behaviors is compelling, although there is sparse empirical evidence to support this view. A comparative study of the findings from three previous empirical factor analytic studies into the criteria of managerial effectiveness, carried out in three different types of public sector organizations in the United Kingdom, support the view that universalistic as opposed to contingent models are more consistent with the facts. A generic model of managerial and leadership effectiveness is presented, and the implications for HRD research and practice are discussed.
    • Independent inventors and inbound open innovation: using a resource-based approach to create a tool for screening inventor approaches in order to facilitate technology in-licensing

      Smeilus, Gavin; Harris, Robert J.; Pollard, Andrew (2013)
      Open innovation literature identifies independent inventors as a source of novel external knowledge. This knowledge may be licensed into an organisation in order to supplement internal R&D activity, typically as part of an inbound open innovation strategy. In opening an organisation up to approaches from individuals the capacity of the core team to identify promising licensing opportunities is diminished by the sheer volume and variable quality of approaches received. Based on a survey of 202 UK independent inventors this paper utilises a resource-based approach to identifying the key resources possessed by successful independent inventors. Using this data, we devise a preliminary screening tool to facilitate technology in-licensing from independent inventors.
    • Information systems to support choice: a philosophical and phenomenological exploration

      Hassall, John (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      The paper examines the role of decision support, or “choice making” systems and models based upon three groupings of ideas (or frameworks). Firstly, the philosophy of choice is examined with reference to the viewpoints of classicism, modernism and post-modernism as they relate to the way in which preferences are determined and valorised. Secondly, this tripartite framework is examined with reference to the philosophical works of Soren Kierkegaard who is sometimes regarded as the first existentialist philosopher. Third, some parallels are drawn between the models and frameworks thus far described and the psychotherapeutic model developed (initially) by Eric Berne, known as Transactional Analysis. Finally, a review and synthesis of some of the ideas introduced is attempted.
    • Informatization of local democracy: A structuration perspective

      Parvez, Zahid (IOS Press, 2006)
      Academics and researchers face a challenge of making sense of the role e-democracy plays in the democratic process and with what implications. This requires a deeper understanding of the objectives and assumptions that underpin e-democracy innovations, as well as institutional and technology structures that condition their role in democratic engagement. This paper interprets case study data collected from three UK local authorities in light of Giddens Structuration theory to make sense of the role e-democracy plays in the democratic process. From the data, it elicits and identifies categories of social structures as perceived by different actors surrounding e-democracy. The insights gained suggest that social structures influence actors in prioritising, shaping and appropriating e-democracy and thus, in moderating its role in local democracy. Using these insights the paper offers some useful suggestions for enhancing democratic engagement through e-democracy projects.
    • Innovation and the export performance of firms in transition economies: the relevance of the business environment and the stage of transition

      Recica, Fisnik; Hashi, Iraj; Jackson, Ian; Krasniqi, Besnik (Inderscience, 2019)
      This paper investigates the impact of product and process innovation on firms’ export performance in transition economies (TEs) which embarked on a systemic change from a planned to a market economy in the early 1990s. The research builds on the technology gap theory and the analysis of the self-selection of firms into the export market. Unlike other studies that have focused on the export behaviour of firms in developed economies where business environment is generally stable and favourable, the paper controls for the relevance of business environment and the stage of transition on export performance of firms. The paper uses the firm-level Business Environment and Performance Survey data undertaken by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2002, 2005 and 2008 in 29 TEs. Findings show that the impact of innovation on export performance increases with the transition reforms. Macroeconomic instability acts as a moderating factor of export performance in countries at high transition stage, as it pushes firms to export more, as a risk shifting mechanism. The main implication of the study is that the impact of some explanatory factors on export performance differs through the stages of transition.
    • Insolvency Law: Corporate and Personal

      Keay, Andrew; Walton, Peter (Pearson, 2003)
      Insolvency Law provides a clear, readable and comprehensive account of the principles of insolvency law in England and Wales in relation to both corporate and personal debtors. This concise text contains detailed academic analysis and covers areas of debate and controversy. The subject of insolvency is set in its social, economic and historical context with brief extracts from judgements and statutes provided. It covers the subject in appropriate depth and breadth to make it suitable for single-module teaching of the subject. (Pearson)
    • Institutional pressures and sustainability assessment in supply chains

      Kauppi, Katri; Hannibal, Claire (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017-11)
      Purpose: Firms are increasingly held accountable for the welfare of workers across entire supply chains and so it is surprising that standard forms of governance for socially sustainable supply chain management have not yet emerged. Assessment initiatives have begun to develop as a proxy measure of social sustainable supply chain management. This research examines how social sustainability assessment initiatives instigate and use institutional pressures to drive third party accreditation as the legitimate means of demonstrating social sustainability in a global supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Ten assessment initiatives focused on assuring social sustainability across supply chains are examined. Data is collected through interviews with senior managers and publicly available secondary material. Findings: The findings show how the social sustainability assessment initiatives act by instigating institutional pressures indirectly rather than directly. Coercive pressures are the most prevalent and are exerted through consumers and compliance requirements. The notion of pressures operating as a chain is proposed, and the recognition that actors within and outside of a supply chain are crucial to the institutionalization of social sustainability is discussed. Originality/value: Studies on sustainable supply chain management often focus on how companies sense and act upon institutional pressures. To add to the extant body of knowledge this study focuses on the sources of the pressures and demonstrates how assessment initiatives use coercive, normative and mimetic pressures to drive the adoption of social sustainability assessment in supply chains.
    • Integration of the environmental management aspect in the optimization of the design and planning of energy systems

      Theodosiou, Giorgos; Stylos, Nikolaos; Koroneos, Christopher (Elsevier, 2014-06-17)
      The increasing concerns regarding the environmental pollution derived from anthropogenic activities, such as the use of fossil fuels for power generation, has driven many interested parties to seek different alternatives, e.g. use of renewable energy sources, use of “cleaner” fuels and use of more effective technologies, in order to minimize and control the quantity of emissions that are produced during the life cycle of conventional energy sources. In addition to these alternatives, the use of an integrated procedure in which the environmental aspect will be taken into account during the design and planning of energy systems could provide a basis on which emissions reduction will be dealt with a life cycle approach. The work presented in this paper focuses on the examination of the possibilities of integrating the environmental aspects in the preliminary phase of the conventional design and planning of energy systems in conjunction with other parameters, such as financial cost, availability, capacity, location, etc. The integration of the environmental parameter to the design is carried out within a context where Eco-design concepts are applied. Due to the multi-parameter nature of the design procedure, the tools that are used are Life Cycle Analysis and Multi-criteria Analysis. The proposed optimization model examines and identifies optimum available options of the use of different energy sources and technologies for the production of electricity and/or heat by minimizing both the financial cost and the environmental impacts, with regard to a multiple objective optimization subject to a set of specific constraints. Implementation of the proposed model in the form of a case study for the island of Rhodes in Greece revealed that an optimized solution both cost and environmental-wise, would be an almost balanced participation of renewables and non-renewable energy sources in the energy mix.
    • Intelligent local governance: a developing agenda

      Worrall, Les (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the issues which surround making local government more intelligent. In particular, the focus of the paper is to examine how better research and more effective knowledge management can assist this process. Local government is a particularly fertile area for analysis given the large scale managerial and structural changes being occasioned within it and a developing central government agenda to reinvent local democracy. The paper argues that developments are needed in several areas. The need for more effective information management, the need for better frameworks for assessing performance, the need to develop the "strategic capacity" of local authorities, and, perhaps most importantly, the need to create an environment in which intelligent local governance can develop and flourish.
    • Internal marketing and the mediating role of organisational competencies

      Ahmed, Pervaiz K.; Rafiq, Mohammed; Saad, Norizan M. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2003)
      The paper proposes and empirically evaluates a new internal marketing (IM) implementation model as a framework for implementing marketing strategies. The paper proposes the concept of IM mix or a set of controllable instruments inside the organisation that can be used effectively to influence employees so that they are motivated and act in a customer-oriented fashion. In the model organisational competencies mediate the relationship between IM mix and business performance. Additionally, the model postulates that application of marketing-like philosophy and marketing-like tools internally moderates the relationship between IM mix and organisational competencies. All the major hypotheses were supported by the empirical research. In particular the IM mix was shown to be a reliable measure and strongly related to business performance. The research supports the view that organisational competencies mediate the relationship between the IM mix and business performance.
    • International internet marketing: A triangulation study of drivers and barriers in the business-to-business context in the United Kingdom

      Eid, Riyad (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      internet technology by business-to-business marketing companies that operate at the international level. Design/methodology/approach - A review of the literature concerning the diffusion and adoption of innovations precedes a triangulation study involving a questionnaire-based survey of 123 companies (a 59 percent response rate) and case studies of four others, all located in the UK. Data were factor-analysed, following testing for validity, reliability and adequacy of the research instrument. Findings - The paper concludes that powerful drivers of international internet-based marketing in business-to-business firms will generally outweigh significant barriers to its adoption in the future. It also explains how innovation-diffusion theory identifies factors instrumental in the adoption of internet marketing. Research limitations/implications - The study was confined to business-to-business marketers, based in the UK and operating internationally. Several suggestions are made for elaboration and extension, including investigation of business-to-consumer users and of other industry types. Practical implications - The findings provide international marketing strategists with important marketing intelligence insights into the benefits of harnessing the power of the internet, the obstacles to be expected in practice, and plans for doing so both efficiently and effectively. Originality/value - Much of what has been written about the application of the internet to marketing is speculative and exploratory. This study, based on responses from practising international marketers, offers something more substantial to marketing planners.
    • International Response to the Money Laundering Threat

      Haynes, Andrew (City & Financial, 2003)
      A Practitioner's Guide to International Money Laundering Law and Regulation brings together a wealth of expertise to examine global regulatory developments. In over 25 chapters, it covers, amongst other areas; the US and UK response; "know your customer" issues; investigations; terrorist financing; and EU directives. In addition, the law and regulation in over 50 territories is also summarised.