• ‘Had we used the Navy’s bare fist instead of its gloved hand’: The absence of coastal assault vessels in the Royal Navy by 1914

      Fuller, Howard (British Commission for Military History, 2017-06-02)
      This paper will briefly chart how and why the Royal Navy chose not to develop coastal assault vessels—namely heavy-gunned, light-draught monitors specially designed to absorb damage from modern mines or torpedoes—until well after the First World War began. Churchill and Fisher envisaged these particular men-of-war as the floating equivalent of tanks, both ‘intended to restore to the stronger power an effective means of the offensive’. Only when they were finally launched and deployed in sufficient numbers could serious plans for projecting power directly against the German coastline be safely considered. So where were the monitors before the war?
    • Hart, Sir David Michael (1940–2013)

      Seifert, Roger (Oxford University Press, 2017-01)
    • Has the Russian consumers' attitude changed in recent years?

      Sullivan, Vivienne; Adamson, Ivana (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      This study examined consumers in the post-Soviet Russia and their willingness to make effective consumer choices. A sample of consumers (n=79) took part and were asked to explore the concept of ‘consumer rights’. They were asked to report an incident in which they complained about an unsatisfactory product or service, to describe the outcome of the complaint, and provided the outcome of the complaint was unsatisfactory, and how they resolved the problem. Finally, the sample was asked to discuss the Russian product/service providers’ attitudes towards customer complaints. The results suggest that the concept of ‘consumer rights’ does not have much meaning for the majority of Russians, and no statistically significant differences based on age or education were found. However, gender differences were found to be statistically significant (F=3.089,p<.05).
    • Having a voice: a collaborative research project exploring the challenges and assets of people experiencing homelessness

      Massie, Rachel; Machin, Richard; McCormack, Fiona; Kurth, Judith (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-10-15)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the lived experience of people who have experienced homelessness and street activity, and professional stakeholders’ views about the challenges faced by this client group. The study sought to identify measures to improve the current situation for both individuals experiencing homelessness and professionals working with them. Design/methodology/approach: Peer researchers with lived experience of multiple and complex needs conducted semi-structured interviews/surveys with 18 participants (eight individuals experiencing homelessness and street activity and ten professional stakeholders). The authors of the paper conducted a thematic analysis of the data. Findings: This paper offers insights into both the current challenges and assets for people who are or have been homeless in an urban setting. Key findings include the need for a coordinated partnership approach to address pathways to support, and the importance of developing opportunities for meaningful activity and building on local resources including giving homeless people a voice. These findings are discussed within the context of current policy (Housing First) and legislation (Homelessness Reduction Act 2017) and the impact on integrated care for people who have experienced homelessness. Research limitations/implications: The views explored in this study are specific to one city centre in the West Midlands; thus, generalisability may be limited. Originality/value This study presents a participatory research approach with peer researchers exploring the perspective of individuals experiencing homelessness and wider stakeholders. The findings of this research are considered with reference to the provisions of the HRA 2017.
    • Heading for disaster: Extreme work and skill mix changes in the emergency services of England

      Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger (SAGE Publications, 2017-02-01)
      This article examines the impact on staff of state-imposed public sector reforms alongside austerity cuts since 2010 in the emergency services of England. We discuss the contextual imperatives for change in the police, fire and ambulance services while exploring their unique labour management and industrial relations’ structures and systems. As elsewhere, the burden of cuts and reforms has fallen on the workforce managed through skill mix changes. Such site-level management responses to austerity are being implemented despite staff concerns, increased dangers to the public, and their non-sustainable nature.
    • History and Revolution: Refuting Revisionism

      Haynes, Michael J. (London: Verso, 2007)
      In History and Revolution, a group of respected historians confronts the conservative, revisionist trends in historical enquiry that have been dominant in the last twenty years. Ranging from an exploration of the English, French, and Russian revolutions and their treatment by revisionist historiography, to the debates and themes arising from attempts to downplay revolution’s role in history, History and Revolution also engages with several prominent revisionist historians, including Orlando Figes, Conrad Russell and Simon Schama. (Verso)
    • ‘Horseplay: Beastly Cinematic Performances in Steven Spielberg’s War Horse’

      Hockenhull, Stella; George, Amber; Schatz, J.L. (Lexington Press, 2016)
    • How can leaders and managers in the police support the learning of others and at the same time, support their own?

      Jones, Jenni; University of Wolverhampton Business School, Wolverhampton, UK (Emerald, 2018-04-30)
      The purpose of this article is to discuss and attempt to demonstrate that formal mentoring is a helpful tool to develop current and future managers within the changing context of the Police, and to highlight how managers can have both a helpful and hindering influence on mentoring programmes and the learning within them. A longitudinal qualitative case study approach was chosen and semi-structured interviews were conducted alongside focus groups. The findings showed that both mentees and mentors perceived they were learning within the mentoring relationship. Also, despite some common themes in relation to the key moderating factors, managers were seen as both facilitating and hindering these relationships. It was recognised that although interesting to compare and contrast the findings between the two different case study organisations, the findings drawn from this study may not be directly applicable to other mentoring programmes beyond these UK Police Forces. More could have been explored in the focus groups and information could have been collected from those that did not attend the interviews or the focus groups. This research adds value as there is little written about the mentoring and managers, within the interesting changing context of the UK Police force. The insights from this mentoring research suggest that there is much learning to be gained by both parties through mentoring and that line managers need to be encouraged away from the day to day reactive approach towards being more proactive with supporting the personal development of their team members (and themselves) into the future. If they are more involved and supportive of L&D interventions, then they and their team members will gain more from the experience and this will ultimately help them to make a more positive difference within their role.
    • How can mentoring support women in a male-dominated workplace? A case study of the UK police force

      Jones, Jenni (Springer Nature, 2017-01-10)
      There is little academic research in relation to mentoring, learning and women, particularly in the male dominated organisational context of the UK Police. Currently, there is a Home Office drive to address inequality with the UK Police with a number of initiatives proposed including mentoring interventions, flexible working arrangements and positive action recruitment initiatives. The purpose of this study is to investigate what policewomen mentees and mentors perceive they are learning through formal mentoring over time and how this makes a difference for them in the workplace. This will provide insights into whether Government investment in formal mentoring is the right intervention to help create a more gender reflective, more equal workforce, in the Police. This study takes a critical realist position and an interpretivist theoretical perspective investigating a single case study organisation. Key themes, spread across the four phases of the mentoring lifecycle were explored through 68 semi-structured interviews and four focus groups. Key findings have been uncovered in relation to learning outcomes for these police women, both as mentees and mentors. It was found that mentoring added value across all four learning domains (cognitive, skills, affective-related and social networks) and that the largest number of responses over time, were in relation to the affective-related domain, particularly building self-confidence. These findings are significant as they demonstrate that formal mentoring programmes can support and empower women within the specific workplace of the UK Police. In conclusion, if women are being precluded from breaking the ‘glass labyrinth’ due to lack of knowledge, opportunity and networks to progress within this context, then mentoring could be part of this solution. If the masculine organisational culture is also creating prejudice and obstacles for women in the workplace (the ‘concrete floor’), then mentoring might be one way towards breaking down these barriers. Also, if all (or some) of these factors are contributing to women’s lower self-confidence levels and the ‘sticky floor’ syndrome, then again the findings suggest that mentoring may be part of the solution towards empowering women beyond their current role. It is hoped that these insights will impact the emphasis put on the various Home Office recommendations and the initiatives offered by different Police forces. It is also hoped that these insights will have implications for other organisations who are considering investing in mentoring interventions, for similar groups or beyond.
    • How do Motivation, Pre-Visit Information Search and Destination Image affect Post-Visit Behavioural Intention? The case of an island destination.

      Li-Hui Chang; Stylos, Nikolaos; Shih-Shuo Yeh; Yu-Yun Tung (International University College, 2015)
      The purpose of this study is to examine tourists' pre and post visit behaviours in Kinmen and the change of their perceived destination image about the place. Questionnaire interview was used to survey international tourists to Kinmen, Taiwan. The relevant survey was based on a selfadministered questionnaire that finally generated 563 responses out of initially 610 questionnaires that were distributed. Thus, the return rate was 94%. The results indicate that pre-visit behaviour (comprised of motives, information search, and destination image) can influence post-visit behavioural intention directly and through decision making. Decision making also possess direct impact on post-visit behavioural intention, but has no mediating effect. The study has also indicated that certain socio-demographic variables possess significant influence on tourists' pre-visit behaviours. Firstly, young and non-married respondents with less monthly salary are more likely to visit Kinmen for learning motives. Secondly, education level is the strongest predictor for tourists' information search behaviours. Finally, socio-demographic variables possess little impact on destination image.
    • A Hundred Years On: Recent and Changing Views on the History of the First World War

      Badsey, Stephen; Hain, Jasmin; Kroll, Frank-Lothar; Munke, Martin (Duncker & Humblot, 2017-08-21)
      The impetus of the one-hundredth anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War of 1914-18 has provided opportunities for the re-evaluation of both historical understanding of the war, and of its commemoration and remembrance. 1 With the deaths of the last war veterans, the war must be understood in terms of remembrance rather than of memory, as well as in terms of its history. As fresh findings have emerged from the investigation of historical evidence, so the history of the war has been greatly modified, and these new historical findings have begun to impact on the approach to the study of remembrance. The last decade (or so) of historical research has been characterised by a new openness and new approaches, as well as fresh controversies. These have included several recent publications on the war’s origins and outbreak, on its conduct in both military and social terms, and on its aftermath. In many areas of research, old assumptions and national or regional histories, and narrower methodological approaches, are being replaced by the beginnings of a real global history for what was truly a world war.
    • Ideals, Reality and Meaning: Homemaking in England in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century

      Ponsonby, Margaret (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
      Advice books in the first half of the nineteenth century offered homemakers instructions for creating the ideal home. The problem for the design historian is to ascertain with what results the homemaker mediated these instructions. This article suggests using lists of house contents, which survive in a variety of forms, and adopting a qualitative approach to their analysis. Evidence for a number of middle-class homes is used to explore the variations. The symbolic value of individual objects and their role within the material culture of the home is examined - in particular, the use of textiles to articulate the practical and symbolic functions of living rooms. Although all the examples followed the general tendencies of the period as described in advice books, they also showed distinct differences according to social status,age. sex and occupation. A qualitative approach to the evedence permits exploration of the differences between homes and the possible social and cultural meaning that they conveyed. (Oxford University Press)
    • Identifying communists: continuity in political policing, 1931-1951

      Millar, Grace (Stout Research Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2017-05-31)
      On 14 April 1931, Constable E.R. Trask wrote a report which began: ‘I respectfully report that acting on instructions received, I attended a Communist Meeting, which was held in the Communist hall.’ 1 He carefully noted the names of all those who attended whom he believed to be communists. This typified police practice at that time. In other words, identification and surveillance of suspected or known communists in meetings, on demonstrations and in other settings, dominated political policing long before the Cold War. For the New Zealand Police Force, anti-communism was an organising worldview with communist influence their general explanation for any radical activity. This article examines how New Zealand police officers understood dissent among unemployed workers in the 1930s and during the 1951 waterfront dispute, and concludes that continuity in political policing prevailed, despite the momentous events of World War Two and the early Cold War years which intervened. It argues that policing methodology is a form of social knowledge, so that the words in the written police archives need to be seen in the broader perspective of surveillance as a knowledge system into which new constables were socialised. For example, each year detectives from other centres were sent to Christchurch during its Show Week in November to keep their ‘own city criminals under observation and to point them out’ to local police.2 This model of policing was already dated by the 1930s, even more so by the 1950s, but it continued to inform and structure political policing.
    • Identifying victims of human trafficking at hotspots by focusing on people smuggled to Europe

      Ventrella, Matilde (Cogitatio, 2017-06-23)
      Research has shown that smuggling of migrants is associated with human trafficking. Hence, victims of human trafficking amongst smuggled migrants should be identified by EU Member States at hotspots established by the European Commission, to overcome the migrant and refugee crisis. Identified victims should be given a visa and a programme of protection to escape their traffickers. In order to achieve these objectives, research suggests that EU law on migrant smuggling should be amended and the Temporary Protection Directive should be applied to smuggled persons when there is an indication that they may be victims of human trafficking. This approach should be adopted by the EASO in cooperation with police forces investigating smuggling and trafficking at hotspots.
    • Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Customer Satisfaction: The Case of a Budget Hotel Chain

      Rahimi, Roya; Kozak, Metin (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-28)
      Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a successful marketing strategy that has been proven to improve customer satisfaction and retention in the hotel business. CRM can bring many benefits to the hotel business, though there are some associated challenges such as the implementation process, which can prove to be time consuming, expensive, and complex in nature. Such challenges often bring a significant risk of failure, and these risks become more significant in budget hotels, due to inadequate supporting budgets and the lack of strong branding and loyalty schemes. This study considers the changes that have emerged in the last decade as regards customer expectations when staying in budget hotels. We use qualitative approaches to investigate the overlaps between customer expectations and managers’ perceptions of CRM applications. The findings reveal that regardless of all changes, value for money and core products continue play a critical role in customers’ overall satisfaction of budget hotels. This suggests there is a need to align management and customer perspectives on CRM, in order to optimize customer value in terms of delivery and experience. Keywords: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Customer Satisfactions, Satisfaction Criteria, Customer Expectation and Budget Hotels.
    • The importance of accountability for the relationship between governance and performance of UK charities

      Bellante, G; Berardi, Laura; Machold, Silke; Nissi, E; Rea, Michele (SIW, 2016-04-22)
      The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between governance characteristics of non-profit organizations (NPOs) (CEO duality and board size) and their performance, considered as their ability to collect financial resources. The study is conducted on a sample of 200 UK registered charities that work in a context characterized by a medium to high level of “mandatory” accountability. With a regression analysis we verify strong positive relationships between the NPOs’ financial performance and the CEO duality and board size. Further analyses show that if the charities increase their level of accountability through the use of additional voluntary disclosure mechanisms and tools such as the use of social networks, these relationships are confirmed. Qualitative characteristics of governance and voluntary accountability of UK charities are also analysed in association with some classes of revenues using the logistic regression method and the multiple correspondence analysis.
    • In Proportion

      Waddington, P. A. J.; Stenson, Kevin; Don, David (Oxford University Press, 2004)
      This article examines the view, expressed authoritatively in the Macpherson report (1999), that racial disproportionality in police stop and search is attributable to officers selectively targeting minority groups. The research on which this article is based replicates Home Office research (Miller and MVA 2000) that profiled the population ‘available’ in public places to be stopped and searched. Using a combination of data sources, this article extends that research in two directions: first, by exploring the issue of visibility and how it has an impact upon decisions to stop and search; and, secondly, by investigating whether disproportionality might arise indirectly from the way in which police direct their efforts in relation to time, place and types of motor vehicle. Finally, we discuss the implications of this research for the concept of ‘institutional racism’.
    • In support of evidence-based management and research-informed HRD through HRD professional partnerships: an empirical and comparative study

      Hamlin, Robert G. (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2002)
      This article describes a programme of practice-grounded empirical management research set within an NHS Trust Hospital in the UK that was conducted as part of an HRD Professional Partnership of the kind advocated by Jacobs (1997). The research was concerned with identifying the criteria of managerial effectiveness at the middle and front-line levels of management using critical incident technique and factor analytic methods. The results are compared against those from an equivalent partnership research study carried out previously by the author within one part of the British Civil Service, namely the Anglia Collection of HM Customs & Excise. The findings lend support to the notion of the 'universally effective manager', and provide empirical support for the potential development of evidence-based and research-informed approaches to management and human resource development within the case-study NHS Trust Hospital, and possibly beyond.
    • In support of research-based organisation change and development through professional partnerships

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Campbell, Fiona; Stewart, Jim; Reidy, Margaret (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      This paper provides a review and synthesis of current practice in the field of Organisation Change and Development (OCD). Five key 'failings' of managers contributing to the low success rate of OCD programmes are identified. To overcome these 'failings' a case is made for more evidence and research - based OCD practice, particularly OD initiatives informed and shaped by organisationally based research facilitated through 'university-organisation' professional partnerships of the kind advocated by Jacobs (1997). A framework conceptualising OCD Professional Partnerships is presented. This suggests an integrative and cyclical process connecting OCD research and consultancy which follow a similar sequence of stages with outcomes that are mutually beneficial and reinforcing. A UK example of an OCD Professional Partnership set within one part of the British Civil Service is presented which demonstrates how OCD practice can be profoundly influenced and enhanced by academically rigorous internal research. This is compared against a USA example set within a municipal government department. A number of common lessons are drawn of relevance to OCD practitioners and organisational leaders concerned with strategic change issues.
    • In support of universalistic models of managerial and leadership effectiveness: Implications for HRD research and practice

      Hamlin, Robert G. (Wiley, 2004)
      Various researchers have recently challenged contingent models of managerial and leadership effectiveness, arguing that logic suggesting the universality of manager and supervisory leader behaviors is compelling, although there is sparse empirical evidence to support this view. A comparative study of the findings from three previous empirical factor analytic studies into the criteria of managerial effectiveness, carried out in three different types of public sector organizations in the United Kingdom, support the view that universalistic as opposed to contingent models are more consistent with the facts. A generic model of managerial and leadership effectiveness is presented, and the implications for HRD research and practice are discussed.