• Gender as Symbolic Capital and Violence: The Case of Corporate Elites in Turkey

      Yamak, Sibel; Ergur, Ali; Özbilgin, Mustafa F.; Alakavuklar, Ozan Nadir (John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2016-01-18)
      Based on a Bourdieusian approach, drawing on qualitative analyses of 63 life interviews, our study demonstrates that gender is performed as both symbolic capital and violence by corporate elites within the dominant ideologies of patriarchy and family in Turkey. Our analysis reveals that, in the male-dominated context of Turkey, female elites appear to favour male alliances as a tactical move in order to acquire and maintain status in their organizations, whereas male elites appear to remain blind to the privileges and constraints of their own gendered experience of symbolic capital and violence. Our study also illustrates that gender order is still preserved, despite beliefs to the contrary that equality in education, skills, experience and job performance may liberate women and men from gender-based outcomes at work.
    • Gender disparities and positioning in collaborative hospitality and tourism research

      Rahimi, Roya; Koseoglu, Mehmet Ali; King, Brian (Emerald Publishing, 2019-07-06)
      Purpose: To explore gender disparities in the production of tourism knowledge with particular reference to academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: Authorship and co-authorship analyses were conducted of data extracted from articles and research notes published between 1965 and 2016 in 25 hospitality and tourism journals. Findings: Gender imbalances are evident in the production of knowledge, though the disparities appear to be decreasing. While heterophilic research collaborations (those between men and women) show some evidence of higher productivity, homophilic collaborations (between males) have greater impact. The findings highlight gender imbalances in international collaborations, in SSCI listed journals, in first authoring, and by country. There is evidence of higher collaborative levels amongst male authors and the differences have increased over time. The positioning of men and women within tourism scholarly networks shows no marked differences. Practical Implications: This data-driven analysis provides decision-makers and policymakers with evidence to support well targeted programs that advance female contributions in hospitality and tourism research collaborations. For example, senior academics and University administrators might offer support for female researchers to become more actively involved in hospitality and tourism research groups and projects. Universities or schools might also seek to encourage collaborations between male and female researchers in their performance indicators. Originality/Value: This study is one of the first to examine gender disparities and positioning in collaborative hospitality and tourism research.
    • Gender, microcredit, and poverty alleviation in a developing country: the case of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan

      Hussain, Javed; Mahmood, Samia; Scott, Jonathan (Wiley, 2018-11-06)
      The paper explores the impact of financial exclusion on financial and human poverty amongst women in Pakistan. The findings suggest that persistent financial exclusion, gender discrimination, and conservative religious values adversely impact women’s empowerment. There is an inverse correlation between the size of microcredit and women’s financial poverty, which is not the case for human poverty. Larger families experienced higher rates of poverty reduction than smaller families. The study offers evidence, and supports theories on the impact of microcredit upon poverty alleviation. These findings inform policy makers, women entrepreneurs, and microfinance institutions.
    • Gender, money and professional identity: medical social work and the coming of the British National Health Service

      Gosling, George Campbell; School of Social, Historical and Political Studies, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Taylor & Francis, 2017-06-14)
      The arrival of the British National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 heralded significant changes for all health workers, but the establishment of a ‘free’ health service was especially meaningful for the hospital almoners—or medical social workers, as they were starting to be known—who had previously been responsible for the assessment and collection of patient payments. It was on this basis they had gained a foothold in the hospital, capitalising on gendered assumptions of financial understanding and behaviour. Yet what might have caused an identity crisis was embraced. This was a dual strategy of both repositioning the profession in alignment with the planned NHS and of asserting an enhanced professional status by distancing themselves from the handling of payment. It was an episode in the history of this distinctly female profession that speaks to women’s historic relationship with money.
    • Gender-equal management approach: Handbook

      Machold, Silke; Wang, Wen; Machold, Silke; Wang, Wen (Narodna in Univerzitetna Knijznica, 2015-12-21)
      Equality between men and women is one of the founding principles and values of the European Union. Yet, women continue to be under-represented in boards and top management teams of companies. In 2014, only 20% of the board members of the top public listed companies in the EU28 countries were women. The picture is similar in the South/East European countries of Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia and Slovenia, with little or no change in the recent past. This gender imbalance in the highest decision-making teams in companies is not only a social but also an economic concern. Our data, and that from elsewhere, show that improving gender balance in boards and top management teams improves board dynamics and leads to better governance, strengthens stakeholder relations and CSR, and ultimately reflects in improved company performance. Promoting gender balance is therefore as much a matter for competitiveness of companies as it is for social justice. The barriers that exist are complex and multi-faceted, ranging from deeply ingrained social norms, to individuals’ attitudes and behaviours, to gender-biased organisational cultures and practices. Based on the evidence from surveys, interviews and good practice case studies, we put forward five recommendations for how companies can improve gender balance in their top decision-making teams.
    • Generating More Heat than Light? Debates on Civil Liberties in the UK

      Moran, Jonathan (Oxford University Press, 2007)
      This article deals with the debate over civil liberties in the United Kingdom, particularly the argument that civil liberties have been unreasonably restricted in the UK as part of the state's counter-terrorist policy. Arguments that the UK is facing an unprecedented threat to its civil liberties are examined, as are counter-arguments, including the idea that defenders of civil liberties display an excessive pessimism. The article argues that civil liberties have been constrained, but a focus on counter-terrorism shows the situation is not as bad as critics think. The main threat to civil liberties may come from outside the field of counter-terrorist operations and lies in some developments in normal criminal investigation and public order but more importantly, the processes and practices of the public and private sector (particularly surveillance) as part of what is termed the ‘risk society.’
    • Generation Z consumers' expectations of interactions in smart retailing: A future agenda

      Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Stylos, Nikolaos; Fotiadis, Anestis K. (Elsevier, 2017-01-31)
      Retailing is witnessing a transformation due to rapid technological developments. Retailers are using smart technologies to improve consumer shopping experiences and to stay competitive. The biggest future challenge for marketing and consequently for retailing seems to be generation Z, since members of this generation seem to behave differently as consumers and are more focused on innovation. The aim of this paper is to explore Generation Z consumers' current perceptions, expectations and recommendations in terms of their future interactions in smart retailing contexts. To do so, we used a qualitative approach by conducting a series of semi-structured in depth interviews with 38 university students-consumers in the UK market. The findings showed that smart technologies have a significant influence on generation Z consumers' experiences. Moreover, this particular group of consumers expects various new devices and electronic processes to be widely available, thus offering consumers more autonomy and faster transactions. In addition, they expect the technology to enable them to make more informed shopping decisions. Interviewees also stressed the importance of training consumers how to use new smart retailing applications. In addition, some of the participants were sceptical about the effects of further advancing smart retailing on part of the job market. Relevant theoretical and practical implications are also provided.
    • Generic behavioural criteria of managerial effectiveness: An empirical and comparative study of UK local government.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a “partnership-research” study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the “local government” setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing “leadership and management behavioural competency framework”. Additionally, it reveals and discusses the extent to which the results are consistent with equivalent and comparable findings from an equivalent study within a “central government” department. Design/methodology/approach – Concrete examples of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour were collected using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) of Flanagan, and the obtained data were analysed using content and thematic analytic methods. Findings – The paper finds that from a total of 218 usable critical incidents 50 discrete behavioural items were identified, of which 25 were examples of “effective” and 25 of “ineffective” behaviour. A comparison against equivalent findings from the “central government” study revealed high degrees of overlap with 92 per cent of the “effective” and 96 per cent of the “ineffective” behavioural items being the same as, similar to, or containing some congruence of meaning. Research limitations/implications – Although the number of CIT informants (n=40) falls at the top end of the typical sample range for qualitative research, it is possible that data collection “saturation” has not been reached. Whereas the subject of the present “local government” study was first line and middle managers, the focus of the compared “central government” study also included senior managers. Originality/value – The results of this replica research lend additional empirical support to those who believe in “generic” and “universalistic “ explanations of managerial and leadership effectiveness.
    • German Migrants in Post-war Britain

      Weber-Newth, Inge; Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (London: Frank Cass Publishers, 2006)
      Weber-Newth and Steinert consider German migration to Britain after World War II, using written sources and interviews.
    • ‘Get a blue and you will see your money back again’: staffing and marketing the English prep school, 1890–1912

      Benson, John (Cambridge University Press, 2014-05-07)
      This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers (and/or as coaches). It will be suggested that while prep schools certainly placed enormous emphasis upon sport, few of them employed Blues; and that even the small number which did, generally did so only on a part-time, seasonal or casual basis – and made virtually no mention of them in their marketing.
    • Goal clarity and trust in management in educational mergers

      Mason, Roger B. (SAe Publications, 2007)
      Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore employees’ opinions on goal clarity, trust in management and perceptions of organisational readiness for change in the context of the changes caused by the merger to form the Durban Institute of Technology (DIT) in order to increase knowledge about the human aspects of mergers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey of staff was conducted, with a sample of respondents completing a questionnaire, which investigated whether or not there were relationships among the change variables, namely goal clarity, trust in management and perception of organisational readiness for change. Findings: The key finding of the study is that the goals of the institution were not clarified sufficiently during the change process at DIT. The correlation of goal clarity, trust in management and perceptions of organisational readiness for change were all significant at the p < 0.01 level; and the direction of the relationship between the variables was strongly positive (between 0.7 and 1.0). Implications: The results suggest that management success in identifying organisational goals clearly during a change initiative could help improve employees’ attitudes, thereby increasing the likelihood of merger success, and minimising the negative reactions and staff dissatisfaction often associated with mergers. Originality/Value: Although there is a lot of research in the generic field of mergers and considerable research into mergers in higher education, both overseas and in South Africa, there is a lack of research in the human aspects of mergers. This is especially true of the three key change variables of perceptions of readiness for change, goal clarity and trust in management. Furthermore, what research there is has not focussed on the opinions of individual employees, but on the opinions of trade unions and student representatives. Therefore, this study contributes to filling an important gap in the literature on higher education mergers in South Africa.
    • Gothic entrenpreneurs: a study of the subcultural commodification process.

      Goulding, Christina; Saren, Michael (Oxford: Elsevier, 2007)
      This chapter: The ‘new dominant logic of marketing’ switches the view of firms as the principal economic producers and value creators to one in which customers are actually engaged in the value creation and marketing process (Normann and Ramirez, 1993; Vargo and Lusch, 2004; Wikstrom, 1996). This chapter examines how subcultures play an important part in enabling consumers to act proactively and productively in the market as entrepreneurs. This book: Marketing and consumer research has traditionally conceptualized consumers as individuals- who exercise choice in the marketplace as individuals not as a class or a group. However an important new perspective is now emerging that rejects the individualistic view and focuses on the reality that human life is essentially social, and that who we are is an inherently social phenomenon. It is the tribus, the many little groups we belong to, that are fundamental to our experience of life. Tribal Marketing shows that it is not individual consumption of products that defines our lives but rather that this activity actually facilitates meaningful social relationships. The social 'links' (social relationships) are more important than the things (brands etc.) The aim of this book is therefore to offer a systematic overview of the area that has been defined as "cultures of consumption"- consumption microcultures, brand cultures, brand tribes, and brand communities. It is though these that students of marketing and marketing practitioners can begin to genuinely understand the real drivers of consumer behaviour. It will be essential to everyone who needs to understand the new paradigm in consumer research, brand management and communications management. * The first comprehensive text to capture the diversity of research in the area and offer an authoritative and easily digestible overview. *Challenges accepted marketing theory such as segmentation and sets the benchmark for contemporary thinking on topical issues. * Internationally renowned team of editors and contributors.
    • Great Britain

      Badsey, Stephen; Daniel, U.; Gatrell, P.; Janz, O.; Jones, H.; Keene, J.; Kramer, A.; Nasson, B. (Freie Universität Berlin, 2017-03-09)
      Great Britain was with its Empire the most powerful of the major belligerents, the most politically and socially stable, and the best able to endure the strains of the war. Its great naval, financial and diplomatic strengths were critical to the Allied victory. Its unprecedented creation of a mass army was a major strain, and victory required progressive government involvement in economic and social matters. The immediate effect of the war was to slightly flatten the country’s social structure, but other effects are disputed. In political and military terms Great Britain was a substantial winner from the war, and except in relation to the United States it emerged stronger than before.
    • Greece’s Ulrike Meinhof: Pola Roupa and the revolutionary struggle

      Kassimeris, G (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-31)
      © 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Pola Roupa’s arrest in 2016 was the final nail in the coffin of Revolutionary Struggle, the first guerrilla group to emerge on Greece’s terrorist landscape after the 2002 collapse of 17 November, the country’s premier terrorist organisation for almost three decades and one of Europe’s longest-running terror gangs. Drawing on the judicial investigation findings, courtroom testimonies, RS communiqués and interviews with counter-terrorism officials, this article tells the story of Pola Roupa, the first female leader of a Greek terrorist group in an attempt to understand the political reasons and motivational factors that led to her involvement in terrorism. At the same time, the article hopefully contributes to the study and understanding of women and terrorism by providing an insight into the role and experience of a female militant inside Greece’s gender-conservative and overwhelmingly male-dominated armed struggle movement.
    • Greek Everyman: Andreas Papandreou at 100

      Kassimeris, G (Wiley, 2019-04-26)
      © The Author 2019. The Political Quarterly © The Political Quarterly Publishing Co. Ltd. 2019 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd 2019 marks 100 years since the birth of Andreas Papandreou, Greece's first socialist prime minister and an extraordinary figure of twentieth century European politics. Looking back, the central purpose of this article is to answer pivotal questions about Papandreou and his career. What have been the major turning points in his life? What were his main beliefs? What motivated him and his politics? What were his political priorities and methods? What did he want to achieve as prime minister? Why did he become so involved in foreign policy issues? What were his assets as prime minister? Did they outweigh his shortcomings as a politician and leader? Did power change him and how? What will be Papandreou's place in history?.
    • Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology: a comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research

      Goulding, Christina (Emerald, 2005)
      Purpose – The paper aims to look at some of the problems commonly associated with qualitative methodologies, suggesting that there is a need for a more rigorous application in order to develop theory and aid effective decision making. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines three qualitative methodologies: grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology. It compares and contrasts their approaches to data collection and interpretation and highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses associated with each one. Findings – The paper suggests that, while qualitative methodologies, as opposed to qualitative methods, are now an accepted feature of consumer research, their application in the truest sense is still in its infancy within the broader field of marketing. It proposes a number of possible contexts that may benefit from in-depth qualitative enquiry. Originality/value – The paper should be of interest to marketers considering adopting a qualitative perspective, possibly for the first time, as it offers a snap-shot of three widely-used methodologies, their associated procedures and potential pitfalls.
    • Grounded Theory: some reflections on paradigm, procedures and misconceptions

      Goulding, Christina (University of Wolverhampton, 1999-06)
      There has been ongoing debate within the social sciences over the nature of epistemological claims made by both positivist and interpretivist researchers. Within the interpretivist paradigm there are numerous methodologies for constructing knowledge, each of which have their own underlying philosophies, practices, and methods of interpretation. Grounded theory is one such methodology. However, it is a methodology which is sometimes perceived as pseudo positivistic, defiling the canons of humanistic research which emphasises the subjective experience of the other. This paper discusses grounded theory, the missing methodology on the interpretivist agenda, and argues that it is an extension of the methods used by the symbolic interactionists. It discusses the underlying philosophy of the methodology and proceeds to present the key concepts associated with its application. Finally,the paper reviews and addresses some of the major criticisms of grounded theory in order to explicate it as a humanistic and interpretivist method of enquiry. This paper is an early version of a chapter for a proposed book on grounded theory. It extends the discussion of grounded theory published in two academic papers by the author: Goulding, C. (1998) Grounded Theory: the missing methodology on the interpretivist agenda Qualitative Market Research: an international journal 1(1) Goulding, C. (forthcoming) Consumer Research, Interpretive Paradigms, and Methodological Ambiguities European Journal of Marketing 33(7/8)
    • Grounded theory: the missing methodology on the interpretivist agenda

      Goulding, Christina (MCB UP Ltd, 1998)
      There has been considerable discussion in recent years over the application of interpretive methodologies such as phenomenology, hermeneutics, and semiotics within the field of marketing research, particularly consumer behaviour. However, while these approaches have inspired a wealth of publications, scant attention has been paid to the potential of grounded theory. This is attributed largely to misconceptions regarding both the principles of the method and the two distinct approaches associated with the original authors, Glaser and Strauss (1967). The paper outlines the development of the method and explicates the philosophy underpinning its procedures. Finally, it suggests that grounded theory if applied in its true sense has scope and potential for the study of consumer behaviour and consumption experiences given its emphasis on context, theoretical emergence, and the social construction of realities.
    • Guanxi, Trust, and long-term orientation in Chinese business markets

      Lee, Don; Dawes, Philip L. (American Marketing Association, 2005)
      This research focuses on buying firms' trust in a supplier's salesperson and posits that this type of trust is determined by characteristics of the salesperson, the interpersonal relationships between a salesperson and the buying firm's boundary personnel, and characteristics of personal interactions between these two parties. More important, the authors discuss the concept of interpersonal relationships in the context of Chinese culture and model it as a three-dimensional latent construct, which, in some literature, is called guanxi. A key aspect of this research is that the authors investigate the impact of each dimension of guanxi on salesperson trust separately. Moreover, the authors consider the buying firm's trust in the supplying firm and its long-term orientation toward the supplier the consequences of salesperson trust. To test the model, the authors use data collected from 128 buying organizations in Hong Kong. The sampled firms are from both the government and private sectors.