• Calling the police: The use of the Non-Emergency 101 in England and Wales

      Bain, Andy; Brooks, Graham; Golding, Bob; Ellis, Tom; Lewis, Chris (2016-02-08)
      Many calls for assistance received by the police are issues of non-emergency, and with public spending cuts ever-present, there is need to revisit the uses of a single non-emergency number (SNEN) as a way to reduce the non-emergency call volume. This paper is a review of one local service in England. We examine the need and development of SNEN, report the findings of our own research, and conclude that a service such as SNEN is a worthwhile approach that helps reduce the number of inappropriate calls to the police, increases access to services and reduces fear regarding low-level disorder
    • Can Brotherhood be Sold Like Soap…Online? An Online Social Marketing and Advocacy Pilot Study Synopsis

      Cugelman, Brian; Thelwall, Mike; Dawes, Philip L. (SpringerLink, 2007)
      Having engaged one billion users by early 2006, the Internet is the world’s fastest-growing mass communications medium. As it permeates into countless lives across the planet, it offers social campaigners an opportunity to deploy interactive interventions that encourage populations to adopt healthy living, environmental protection and community development behaviours. Using a classic set of social campaigning criteria, this paper explores relationships between social campaign websites and behavioural change.
    • Carbon footprint of polycrystalline photovoltaic systems

      Stylos, Nikolaos; Koroneos, Christopher (Elsevier, 2014-02)
      The environmental and energy parameters of Photovoltaic (PV) systems play a very important role when compared to conventional power systems. In the present paper, a typical PV-system is analyzed to its elements and an assessment of the material and energy requirements during the production procedures is attempted. A Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is being performed on the production system of photovoltaics. Energy and environmental analyses are extended to the production of the primary energy carriers. This allows having a complete picture of the life cycle of all the PV-components described in the present study. Four different scenarios are examined in detail providing every possible aspect of scientific interest involving polycrystalline PV systems. In order to obtain concrete results from this study, the specific working tool used is the Eco-Indicator ’95 (1999) as being reliable and widely applied and accepted within LCA community. A process that relates inventory information with relevant concerns about natural resource usage and potential effects of environmental loadings is attempted. Large-scale PV-systems have many advantages in comparison with a conventional power system (e.g. diesel power station) in electricity production. As a matter of fact, PV-systems become part of the environment and the ecosystems from the moment of their installation. Carbon Footprints of various PV-systems scenarios are greatly smaller than that of a diesel power station operation. Further technological improvements in PV module production and in the manufacture of Balance-of-System components, as well as extended use of renewable energy resources as primary energy resources could make Carbon Footprint of PV-systems even smaller. Extended operational period of time (O.P.T.) of PV-systems determined by system reliability should be given special attention, because it can dramatically mitigate energy resources and raw materials exploitation.
    • Causal maps of information technology and information systems

      Singh, Gurmak (University of Wolverhampton, 1998-09)
      It is becoming increasingly recognised that a cognitive view of the individual user executing various tasks at the interface is an inadequate conceptual framework for developing information systems. The conventional cognitive setting has disregarded the importance of how these users execute work tasks in the real world when using information systems. Furthermore, the design process is heavily biased towards scientific problem solving methodologies that omit the psychological cognitive styles of the users. In this paper, IT and IS managers are considered as the ‘influencers’ in the development of information systems; a role that forms the shape of the system. A methodology for deriving the causal maps is described and then applied to twenty IT and IS managers. The maps are analysed from three perspectives; information analysis, end-users involvement in the development stages and characteristics of the users. The resulting causal maps are used to develop a conceptual framework for development of IS.
    • CEFTA: Between the CMEA and the European Union

      Dangerfield, Martin (London, Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This article uses the CEFTA experience to explore interactions between subregional integration and the EU pre-accession process. It covers the following issues. What contributions did CEFTA make to the EU membership endeavour? In which ways did the EU membership drive impact on the subregional cooperation process? Were restrictions on the form of integration applied (basic trade liberalisation in the CEFTA case) a conscious choice or are there inbuilt limits to subregional integration pursued in the EU pre-accession context? What factors influenced the institutionalisation and widening issues? Does the CEFTA experience offer any lessons for other subregional integration exercises, including those already underway - as in the West Balkans - or purportedly on the agenda - as in the 'United Economic Space' planned by certain former Soviet states? The discussion is organised as follows: introduction/preliminaries; the origins of CEFTA; the evolution of CEFTA cooperation; outcomes of CEFTA cooperation; the future of CEFTA. (Informaworld)
    • Ceilings are out - why women are now stuck in the 'glass labyrinth'

      Jones, Jenni (IoD West Midlands, 2018-01)
      Forget out-dated concepts such as the glass ceiling - it’s the sticky floor and the glass labyrinth which is holding women back in the workplace,How can we create a more gender-diverse workforce at all levels? We need to help each other and involve men more.
    • Celebrity Creatures: The ‘Starification’ of the Cinematic Animal

      Hockenhull, Stella; Qiong Yu, Sabrina; Austin, Guy (Edinburgh University Press, 2016)
    • Challenges in discriminating profanity from hate speech

      Malmasi, Shervin; Zampieri, Marcos; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.; Research Group in Computational Linguistics, University of Wolverhampton, UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2017-12-13)
      In this study, we approach the problem of distinguishing general profanity from hate speech in social media, something which has not been widely considered. Using a new dataset annotated specifically for this task, we employ supervised classification along with a set of features that includes -grams, skip-grams and clustering-based word representations. We apply approaches based on single classifiers as well as more advanced ensemble classifiers and stacked generalisation, achieving the best result of accuracy for this 3-class classification task. Analysis of the results reveals that discriminating hate speech and profanity is not a simple task, which may require features that capture a deeper understanding of the text not always possible with surface -grams. The variability of gold labels in the annotated data, due to differences in the subjective adjudications of the annotators, is also an issue. Other directions for future work are discussed.
    • Change levers for unifying top-down and bottom-up approaches to the adoption and diffusion of e-learning in higher education

      Singh, Gurmak; Hardaker, Glenn (Taylor & Francis, 2017-02-16)
      Using Giddens’ theory of structuration as a theoretical framework, this paper outlines how five prominent United Kingdom universities aimed to integrate top-down and bottom-up approaches to the adoption and diffusion of e-learning. The aim of this paper is to examine the major challenges that arise from the convergence of bottom-up perspectives and top-down strategies. Giddens’ theory is used to understand the dynamics of organisational change as they pertain to the adoption and diffusion of e-learning. This is intended to support our understanding of the interplay between top-down strategy and bottom-up adoption of e-learning. From the research and from our findings, we present a set of change levers that are intended to provide practical value for managers responsible for the diffusion of e-learning strategy in higher education.
    • Chinese entrepreneurship: the development of small family firms in China

      Poutziouris, Panikkos; Wang, Yong; Chan, Sally (Emerald, 2002)
      This explorative paper considers the recent developments in the emerging small family business sector in post-reform China as the country embraces socio-economic and structural transition from a centrally planned to a market-orientated system. The important contributions that Chinese small family firms play in the acceleration of private sector development across the social and industrial sectors as well as the geographic boundaries of the Pacific Rim are highlighted. The authors propose typologies of Chinese entrepreneurship and tentative enterprise policy recommendations for the future development of small private family businesses in China.
    • Clad in Iron: The American Civil War and the Challenge of British Naval Power

      Fuller, Howard (Praeger Publishers Inc., 2007)
      This work addresses many persistent misconceptions of what the monitors were for, and why they failed in other roles associated with naval operations of the Civil War (such as the repulse at Charleston, April 7, 1863). Monitors were 'ironclads'- not fort-killers. Their ultimate success is to be measured not in terms of spearheading attacks on fortified Southern ports but in the quieter, much more profound, strategic deterrence of Lord Palmerston's ministry in London, and the British Royal Navy's potential intervention. During the American Civil War, one of the greatest fears of the Union government was that the United Kingdom might intervene on the side of the Confederacy. This book is a unique study that combines a lively and colourful narrative with a fresh interpretation of the American effort to avoid a naval war with Great Britain. The author chronicles the growth and development of the Union "Ironclads," beginning with U.S.S. Monitor, during the American Civil War.Unlike other similar histories, however, the author does not simply recount the battle actions of these metal monsters. Instead, he crafts a fast-paced narrative that focuses on the military men and government officials who drove the decision-making processes, and outlines the international ramifications of the revolution in naval affairs that took place in the 1860s. He demonstrates that Federal ironclads were not constructed solely in response to their Confederate counterparts, but, even more importantly, to counter the ocean-going iron ships of the Royal Navy. The author places the naval developments of the Civil War within the broader context of Anglo-American relations and the rapidly developing international rivalry between the United States and Britain. The wide reaching implications of the technological advances, and the unprecedented expansion of the U.S. Navy are usually depicted as a sidebar to the main events of the Civil War. This work, however, brings a new perspective to this important yet overlooked aspect of diplomacy during this time.
    • Clio in the business school: Historical approaches in strategy, international business and entrepreneurship

      Perchard, A; MacKenzie, NG; Decker, S; Favero, G (Informa UK Limited, 2017-02-17)
      © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. On the back of recent and significant new debates on the use of history within business and management studies, we consider the perception of historians as being anti-theory and of having methodological shortcomings; and business and management scholars displaying insufficient attention to historical context and privileging of certain social science methods over others. These are explored through an examination of three subjects: strategy, international business and entrepreneurship. We propose a framework for advancing the use of history within business and management studies more generally through greater understanding of historical perspectives and methodologies.
    • Coalminers, Coalowners and Collaboration: The Miners' Permanent Relief Fund Movement in England, 1860-1895.

      Benson, John (Maney Publishing, 2003)
      British coal-mining history has long been influenced by the classic, conflictual view of industrial relations, according to which the history of the industry is best understood in terms of a courageous trade union leadership inspiring a united workforce in an unending struggle against self-interested and intransigent employers. Accordingly, it is the purpose of the paper to argue that the miners' permanent relief fund movement repays more serious attention than the conventional perspective allows. It will be shown that the movement attracted a large membership, and provided the mining community with a major source of compensation for industrial accidents. It will be suggested that the permanent relief funds owed their success not just to their administrative efficiency but to the collaborationist foundations upon which they were predicated. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Coalowners, Coalminers and Compulsion: Pit Clubs in England, 1860-80

      Benson, John (Taylor & Francis, 2002)
      It is suggested that, insofar as coalowner stereotyping rests upon the denigration of pit clubs, it stands in need of substantial modification. It is true that many coalowners organised pit clubs for their own purposes, and that the assistance they provided was seriously and sometimes scandalously deficient. However, it is shown that many owners offered their pit clubs significant financial support, and that the clubs provided their members with benefits in a form, and on a scale, which both contributed towards the relief of coalfield suffering and compared well with the assistance provided by the other agencies to which coalminers and their dependants had access.
    • Coastal Command and the Second World War

      Buckley, John (Centre for Air Power Studies, RAF, 2018-03-01)
      From 1939 to 1945 RAF Coastal Command played a crucial role in maintaining Britain’s maritime communications, thus securing the United Kingdom’s ability to wage war against the Axis powers in Europe. Its primary role was in confronting the German U-boat menace, particularly in the 1940-41 period when Britain came closest to losing the Battle of the Atlantic and with it the war. The importance of air power in the war against the U-boat was amply demonstrated when the closing of the Mid-Atlantic Air Gap in 1943 by Coastal Command aircraft effectively brought victory in the Atlantic campaign. Coastal Command also played a vital role in combating the German surface navy and, in the later stages of the war, in attacking Germany’s maritime links with Scandinavia.
    • Codifying the Law on Evidential Burdens

      Glover, Richard M. (Vathek Publishing, 2008)
      This article examines the concept of the evidential burden and argues that the decision in R v Malinina illustrates that the concept of the evidential burden is in desperate need of clarification. It will be contended that, ultimately, codification would be the best means of achieving that end.
    • Cognitive processing of multiword expressions in native and non-native speakers of English: evidence from gaze data

      Yaneva, Victoria; Taslimipoor, Shiva; Rohanian, Omid; Ha, Le An (Springer International Publishing, 2017-10-26)
      Gaze data has been used to investigate the cognitive processing of certain types of formulaic language such as idioms and binominal phrases, however, very little is known about the online cognitive processing of multiword expressions. In this paper we use gaze features to compare the processing of verb - particle and verb - noun multiword expressions to control phrases of the same part-of-speech pattern. We also compare the gaze data for certain components of these expressions and the control phrases in order to find out whether these components are processed differently from the whole units. We provide results for both native and non-native speakers of English and we analyse the importance of the various gaze features for the purpose of this study. We discuss our findings in light of the E-Z model of reading.
    • Collocational constructions in translated Spanish: what corpora reveal

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Springer International Publishing, 2017-10-26)
      In recent years, Construction Grammar has emerged as an enhanced theoretical framework for studies on phraseology in general, and particularly for collocational analysis. This paper aims at contributing to the study of collocational constructions in translated Spanish. To this end, the construction [V PP_ de miedo ] is analysed in detail. Our methodology is corpus-based and compares subtitled translations with general Spanish, American Spanish and Peninsular Spanish. The findings suggest that collocational constructions in translated Spanish have a clear preference for the Peninsular standard. They reflect features of translationese, as well as universal traits such as simplification, normalisation, and convergence. Another interesting finding refers to corpus selection, as giga-token corpora appear to provide more fine-grained analysis that conventional, balanced corpora.
    • Commercial and Construction ADR: Lawyers’ Attitudes and Experience

      Brooker, Penny; Lavers, Anthony (Sweet & Maxwell, 2001)
      Findings of large scale survey of solicitors and barristers specialising in commercial and construction fields on their familiarity with ADR, particularly mediation and their perception of its usefulness and effectiveness.
    • Commercial Lawyers' Attitudes and Experience with Mediation

      Brooker, Penny; Lavers, Anthony (Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, 2002)
      This paper considers the application of mediation for commercial disputes following the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR), which encouraged the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). A report is given on a survey of lawyers practising in the UK commercial litigation field and the respondents' experience of using ADR. An analysis is made of the settlement outcomes reported for mediation and respondents' attitudes to the appropriate use of ADR for commercial-related disputes. Mediation, practically to the exclusion of any other method of ADR, is being employed in some sectors of commercial work and survey respondents are repeat-users of the process. The majority of mediations reported concerned breach of contract and professional negligence cases. Data suggests that the specific categorisation of a commercial disputes as (say) professional negligence, personal injury or breach of contact is unlikely to affect mediation achieving full settlement. Commercial respondents were of the opinion that mediation is suitable for a wide variety of commercial case-types but breach of contract, professional negligence, general negligence and debt cases were specifically perceived to be appropriate. Commercial respondents reported that the major determinants for mediation reaching a successful outcome are the attitude and expectation of the parties in taking part in good faith and their willingness to compromise.