• A General Much Maligned: The Earl of Manchester as Army Commander in the Second Newbury Campaign (July to November 1644)

      Wanklyn, Malcolm (Sage Publications, 2007)
      The disappointing performance of the Eastern Association army in the campaign fought in the Thames valley theatre of war in October and November 1644 compared with its previous history has been attributed to the shortcomings of its commander, Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester. This paper shows that much of the criticism of Manchester's generalship was propaganda of dubious validity produced after the campaign by Oliver Cromwell and his political allies, and that a good case can be made for Manchester's strategic and operational competence. (Sage Publications)
    • A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulant environment

      Mason, Roger B. (SAe Publications, 2007)
      Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with little emphasis on individual tactics and even less on the marketing mix as a whole. Therefore, this paper can be viewed as an important foundation for a new stream of research using chaos and complexity theory to better understand marketing mixes and the choice of marketing tactics for complex and turbulent business environments.
    • 'A Plentiful Crop of Cripples Made by All This Progress': Disability, Artificial Limbs and Working-Class Mutualism in the South Wales Coalfield, 1890-19481

      Curtis, B.; Thompson, S. (2014-04-07)
      Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of workingclass organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted.
    • A review of the insolvency framework: a new moratorium to help business rescue

      Umfreville, Christopher (Sweet & Maxwell, 2016-06-30)
      With a view to making Britain the best place in the world to start and grow a business, on 25 May 2016 the Government launched “A Review of the Corporate Insolvency Framework: A consultation on options for reform” (the “Consultation”). Motivated by a manifesto pledge to put the UK in the top five of the World Bank’s Doing Business ratings, the Consultation puts forward four key proposals to encourage rescues of viable businesses: the introduction of a pre-insolvency restructuring moratorium; the protection of essential supplier contracts during restructuring; the ability to bind and cram-down secured creditors in a restructuring; and exploring options for rescue financing. This article will consider the central plank to the reforms, the introduction of a new restructuring moratorium. Experienced readers will remember similar proposals being made in 2010 (“Proposals for a Restructuring Moratorium” (the “2010 Proposals”)), with questions remaining whether the issues arising then have been addressed.
    • A scalable meta-classifier for combining search and classification techniques for multi-level text categorization

      Oakes, Michael; Wermter, Stefan; Tripathi, Nandita (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2015-12)
    • A three-talk model for shared decision making: multistage consultation process

      Elwyn, Glyn; Durand, Marie Anne; Song, Julia; Aarts, Johanna; Barr, Paul J; Berger, Zackary; Cochran, Nan; Frosch, Dominick; Galasiński, Dariusz; Gulbrandsen, Pål; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-11-06)
      Objectives To revise an existing three-talk model for learning how to achieve shared decision making, and to consult with relevant stakeholders to update and obtain wider engagement. Design Multistage consultation process. Setting Key informant group, communities of interest, and survey of clinical specialties. Participants 19 key informants, 153 member responses from multiple communities of interest, and 316 responses to an online survey from medically qualified clinicians from six specialties. Results After extended consultation over three iterations, we revised the three-talk model by making changes to one talk category, adding the need to elicit patient goals, providing a clear set of tasks for each talk category, and adding suggested scripts to illustrate each step. A new three-talk model of shared decision making is proposed, based on “team talk,” “option talk,” and “decision talk,” to depict a process of collaboration and deliberation. Team talk places emphasis on the need to provide support to patients when they are made aware of choices, and to elicit their goals as a means of guiding decision making processes. Option talk refers to the task of comparing alternatives, using risk communication principles. Decision talk refers to the task of arriving at decisions that reflect the informed preferences of patients, guided by the experience and expertise of health professionals. Conclusions The revised three-talk model of shared decision making depicts conversational steps, initiated by providing support when introducing options, followed by strategies to compare and discuss trade-offs, before deliberation based on informed preferences.
    • A view through a window: Social relations, material objects and locality

      Hirsch, Shirin; Smith, Andrew (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2017-07-28)
      In this article the authors ask what it would mean to think sociologically about the window as a specific material and symbolic object. Drawing on qualitative analysis of a series of comparative interviews with residents in three different streets in a diverse local area of Glasgow, they explore what the use and experience of windows tells us about their respondents’ very different relationships to the places where they live. On the one hand, the window, as a material feature of the home, helps us grasp the lived reality of class inequality and how such inequality shapes people’s day-to-day experience. On the other hand, windows are symbolically charged objects, existing at the border of the domestic and public world. For this reason, they feature in important ways in local debates over the appearance, ownership and conservation of the built environment. The article explores these struggles, and shows what they reveal about the construction of belonging in the neighbourhood, a process which is both classed and racialised at one and the same time.
    • Accountability, governance and performance in UK charities

      Bellante, Giulia; Berardi, Laura; Machold, Silke; Nissi, Eugenia; Rea, Michele A. (Inderscience, 2017-12-12)
      The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between governance characteristics of a sample of 200 UK non-profit organisations (NPOs) and their performance, considered as their ability to collect financial resources. Using a regression analysis, we verify strong positive relationships between the NPOs’ financial performance and CEO duality and board size. Further analyses show that if the charities increase their level of accountability through the use of additional voluntary disclosure mechanisms and tools such as the use of social networks, these relationships are confirmed. The results of our research have implications for policy makers that seek to strengthen governance of NPOs, and for boards and managers of NPOs who wish to develop their organisations’ performance.
    • Acts of faith: instinct, value and IT investment decisions

      Bannister, Frank; Remenyi, Dan (Palgrave Macmillan, 2000)
      Although well over 1000 journal articles, conference papers, books, technical notes and theses have been written on the subject of information technology (IT) evaluation, only a relatively small subset of this literature has been concerned with the core issues of what precisely is meant by the term 'value' and with the process of making (specifically) IT investment decisions. All too often, the problem and highly complex issue of value is either simplified, ignored or assumed away. Instead the focus of much of the research to date has been on evaluation methodologies and, within this literature, there are different strands of thought which can be classified as partisan, composite and meta approaches to evaluation. Research shows that a small number of partisan techniques are used by most decision makers with a minority using a single technique and a majority using a mixture of such techniques of whom a substantial minority use a formal composite approach. It is argued that, in mapping the set of evaluation methodologies on to what is termed the investment opportunity space, that there is a limit to what can be achieved by formal rational evaluation methods. This limit becomes evident when decision makers fall back on 'gut feel' and other non-formal/rigorous ways of making decisions. It is suggested that an understanding of these more complex processes and decision making, in IT as elsewhere, needs tools drawn from philosophy and psychology.
    • Adaptation, evolution and survival? The political economy of Whitleyism and public service industrial relations in the U.K. 1917–present

      Gill-McLure, Whyeda; Department of Human Resources & Leadership, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Routledge, 2017-10-26)
      The Whitley Reports, 1917, were seen by contemporaries as conservative: they reflected pre-existing voluntaristic approaches to the labour problem rather than a radical departure. Largely neglected by the well-established private sector, for whom they were intended, Whitley Councils were taken up by the newly emerging public service unions. The inter-war years demonstrated Whitleyism’s lack of clout. But, endorsed by governments during and after the Second World War, public sector Whitleyism came to embody the tenets of progressive public administration by providing nationally determined pay, career progression and a public service ethos. These hard-won union gains are under attack from neo-liberal reforms that attempt to model public service labour relations on the private sector. The paper examines the major weaknesses and strengths of the Whitley model for managing public service industrial relations through an analysis of a century of Whitleyism.
    • Age is just a number: rave culture and the cognitively young 'thirty something'

      Goulding, Christina; Shankar, Avi (Emerald, 2004)
      This paper looks at “dance” or “rave”, a phenomenon usually associated with youth culture. It suggests that there is a hidden consumer who falls into the 30-40 age group. The paper examines the emergence of dance/rave, and the process of commodification of a sub-cultural movement. It suggests that youth-related activities are migrating up the age scale and draws on the results of a phenomenological study to support this. The findings suggest that the experience is closely related to cognitive age and the dimensions of “felt” age, “look” age, “do” age, and “interest” age.
    • An earnest endeavour for peace? Ulster Unionism and the Craig/Collins Peace Pact of 30th March 1922

      Norton, Christopher (Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: Presses Unversitaires, 2007)
      Article in English, abstract in French. "Cet article considère la tentative, ratée, de réconcilier unionisme et nationalisme en Irlande du Nord en mars 1922. Les forces en présence au sein du camp unioniste sont réévaluées, entre opposants et partisans du pacte Craig-Collins de mars 1922, et il est suggéré que la position belligérante et obstructionniste finalement adoptée n'était au départ ni automatique ni inévitable. Les éléments qui indiquent une plus grande diversité de réactions (bienveillantes ou malveillantes) vis-à-vis du Pacte sont également présentés. La signification et l'influence variables des différents points de vue sont considérées au vu du contexte de violence et d'instabilité politique, et au vu de la stratégie politique de Michael Collins." (Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS))
    • An evaluation of Talent 4 . . . : a programme to identify talent and skills for prisoners, disadvantaged, unemployed, and vulnerable groups

      McGuire-Snieckus, Rebecca; Caulfield, Laura; Bath Spa University, UK; Bath Spa University, UK (Sage, 2017-11-21)
      Previous research suggests that the relationship between employment and recidivism is complex, with more support needed to facilitate employability motivation for sustained change (Tripodi et al., 2010). An arts-based programme designed to facilitate vocational self-determinism among prisoners with evidence of impact across three prisons in the United Kingdom was replicated and delivered to 234 prisoners and long-term unemployed participants from six European countries, to explore whether the findings from the previous evaluation would be replicated on a much larger scale. The research presented in this article found that supporting prisoners and the long-term unemployed to articulate employability goals had a positive effect on personal growth as well as understanding of individual strengths and weaknesses with respect to work, employment, problem solving, and thinking styles. Future research might explore the longer term impact on employment and recidivism.
    • An examination of the role of service quality and perceived value in visitor attraction experience

      Oriade, Ade; Schofield, Peter (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of service quality and perceived value in service experience in UK attraction context. Data was collected in the Midlands Region of the UK from two visitor attractions utilising mixed-mode survey approach. A total of 507 usable questionnaires were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between the constructs. The findings confirm the cognitive-affective-conative order between the service constructs within the context of UK visitor attractions. This study has improved the understanding of the role of value in service experience, particularly attraction context, providing evidence that value exerts relatively more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than service quality. More specifically emotional value exerts more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than other forms of value. Managers need to view the visitor experience holistically rather than concentrating on one or two service construct(s).
    • An exploration of marketing tactics for turbulent environments

      Mason, Roger B.; Staude, Gavin (2009-07-21)
      This paper proposes that the choice of marketing tactics is influenced by the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the marketing tactics suggested for a complex, turbulent environment, when marketing and the environment are viewed through a complexity lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: A marketing mix model, derived from complexity literature, was assessed via a multiple case study to identify the type of marketing mix suggested for a complex, turbulent environment. The study was exploratory, using depth interviews with two companies in the IT industry. Findings: The results tentatively confirmed that the more successful company used a destabilizing marketing mix, and suggest that using complexity theory to develop marketing tactics could be helpful in turbulent environments. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited by the study’s exploratory, qualitative nature and the small sample. Generalizing should be done with care and therefore further research with larger samples and in different environments is recommended. Practical Implications: This paper will benefit marketers by emphasizing a new way to consider future marketing activities of their companies. The model can assist marketers to identify the tactics to use, dependent on the nature of their environment. Originality/Value: Most work on complexity in marketing has concentrated on strategy, with little emphasis on tactics and the marketing mix. Therefore, this paper is an important contribution to the understanding of marketing mix choices, of interest to both practicing marketers and marketing academics.
    • An extended model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Satisfaction for Hospitality Services

      Ekinci, Yuksel; Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2008)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of self-congruence on consumer satisfaction with services and to develop and test a conceptual model of the antecedents and consequences of consumer satisfaction in the hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework consists of the following constructs: actual self-congruence, ideal self-congruence, desires congruence, service quality, consumers' overall attitude to a service firm, and intention to return. Moreover, 12 hypotheses were developed and tested. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the validity of the measures, while PLS was used in hypotheses testing. Data were collected from 185 consumers who had recently visited a restaurant or hotel. Findings – Strong support was found for 11 of the 12 hypotheses. Findings reveal that ideal self-congruence and desires congruence have positive effects on consumer satisfaction. In contrast, it is shown that actual self-congruence is not related to consumer satisfaction. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the two dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – have a positive impact on both desires congruence and consumer satisfaction. Importantly, consumer satisfaction is found to be a better indicator of the consumers' overall attitude to the service firm than service quality. The study confirms that consumer satisfaction mediates the relationship between the two service quality dimensions, ideal self-congruence, and intention to return. Originality/value – This study makes four important contributions. First, satisfaction research is advanced by integrating self-concept theory into the postpurchase evaluation of services. Second, the relationship between the multidimensional nature of service quality and consumer satisfaction is examined by testing paths from two posited dimensions of service quality – physical quality and staff behaviour – to satisfaction. Third, the consumers' overall attitude to a service firm is integrated into existing models of satisfaction and its impact on behavioural loyalty (intention to return) is tested. Finally, a contribution is made to the satisfaction research literature by testing the effect of service quality on desires congruence, and the effect of desires congruence on consumer satisfaction.
    • An investigation into the different styles of the lawyer and construction specialist when mediating construction disputes

      Wall, Ray; Ankrah, Nii; Charlson, Jennifer (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016-07-11)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the views and experiences of mediators from different professional backgrounds practising in the construction industry. Previous research shows that the legal profession dominates construction mediation in both England and Wales. Design/methodology/approach The phenomenological approach was used to capture the lived experiences of the interviewees and gain insight into their views and practices. The data collection was by semi-structured interviews. The data was then analysed using software to establish themes. Findings The major difference in mediator practice discovered between the two groups is the use of the evaluative style by lawyer and facilitative style by non-lawyer mediators. Non-lawyer mediators strongly reported their criticisms of the evaluative style in mediation suggesting that it undermines the parties’ ability to self-determine their own dispute and reduces the level of satisfaction experienced by the parties in the process of mediation. Lawyer mediators supported the use of the evaluative style as an acceptable compromise on the parties’ self-determination and feelings of satisfaction in pursuit of achieving the goal of a settlement in mediation, which was significantly better than the escalation of stress and costs to the parties in the event that the dispute escalates to litigation. In addition, mandatory mediation, the role of advisors/advocates, governance and the future of mediation were explored. Originality/value The research is anticipated to be of particular benefit to parties considering referring a construction dispute to mediation.
    • Antecedents of conflict in marketing's cross-functional relationship with sales

      Dawes, Philip L.; Massey, Graham R. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2005)
      The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a model of the factors that explain the level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers. The paper aims to establish the overall level of interpersonal conflict in the full sample and in the two sampled countries (UK and Australia). Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on two theoretical frameworks to develop the model, namely structural contingency theory and the interaction approach. More specifically, the conceptual framework uses three groups of variables to explain interpersonal conflict: structural, individual, and communication. Importantly, the study developed and tested nine hypotheses. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the validity of the measures while OLS regression was used in testing the hypotheses. The data were collected from 200 sales managers in the UK and Australia. Findings – Overall, the study finds that there was a surprisingly low level of interpersonal conflict between marketing managers and sales managers and that there were no differences across the two countries. Of the three groups of variables, the two communication variables – frequency and bidirectionality – had the strongest effects on interpersonal conflict. The next strongest effects were from the individual-level variables – psychological distance and the sales manager's formal education. The findings also reveal that the level of the sales manager's marketing training and the marketing manager's sales experience had no influence on interpersonal conflict. Two of the three structural variables – use of lateral linkages and being part of a corporation – had the hypothesized negative impact on interpersonal conflict. Originality/value – This is the first study to use a large empirical survey to examine the marketing and sales dyad. Also, it is one of the few studies to test the effects of communication behviours on peer manager conflict.
    • Are disaggregate industrial returns sensitive to economic policy uncertainty

      Rehman, MU; Asghar, N; Hussain, J (Elsevier BV, 2019-08-01)
      © 2019 Elsevier B.V. This study investigates the impact of economic policy uncertainty on disaggregate US sector based returns. Our work is motivated by the presence of non-linear relationship between US economic policy uncertainty and equity returns of sampled US sectors. The paper uses weekly data from January 1995 to December 2015 for all the return indices and economic policy uncertainty data mainly based on policy issues, provision set for the US federal tax code and disagreement among economic forecasters. Our results indicate that information technology, utilities, industrial and telecommunication sectors remain insensitive to changes in the US economic policy uncertainty. However, financial and the consumer discretionary sectors show significant long run asymmetric relationship with the EPU.
    • Articulating the service concept in professional service firms

      Beltagui, Ahmad; Sigurdsson, Kjartan; Candi, Marina; Riedel, Johann (Emerald, 2017-01-01)
      Purpose: This study proposes a solution to the challenges of Professional Service Firms (PSF), which are referred to as cat herding, opaque quality and lack of process standardization. These result from misalignment in the mental pictures that managers, employees and customers have of the service. The study demonstrates how the process of articulating a shared service concept reduces these challenges. Methodology: A narrative methodology is used to analyze the perspectives of old management, new management and employees during organizational change in a PSF–a website design company growing to offer full-service branding. Group narratives are constructed using longitudinal data gathered through interviews and fieldwork, in order to compare the misaligned mental pictures and show the benefits of articulating the service concept. Findings: Professional employees view growth and change as threats to their culture and practice, particularly when new management seeks to standardize processes. These threats are revealed to stem from misinterpretations caused by miscommunication of intentions and lack of participation in decision making. Articulating a shared service concept helps to align understanding and return the firm to equilibrium. Research Limitations: The narrative methodology helps unpack conflicting perspectives, but is open to claims of subjectivity and misrepresentation. To ensure fairness and trustworthiness, informants were invited to review and approve the narratives. Originality: The study contributes propositions related to the value of articulating a shared service.