• Accessible Texts for Autism: An Eye-Tracking Study

      Yaneva, Victoria; Temnikova, Irina; Mitkov, Ruslan Prof. (Association of Computing Machinery, 2016-05-19)
      Images are widely used in automatic text simplification systems, Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) and human-produced easy-read documents, in order to make text more accessible for people with various types of disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). People with ASD are known to experience difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as to have unusual attention patterns, which makes the development of user-centred tools for this population a challenging task. This paper presents the first study to use eye-tracking technology with ASD participants in order to evaluate text documents. Its aim is two-fold. First, it evaluates the use of images in texts and provides evidence of a significant difference in the attention patterns of participants with and without autism, with the autistic participants focusing on images more than the non-autistic ones. Sets of two types of images, photographs and symbols, are compared to establish which ones are more useful to include in simple documents. Second, the study evaluates human-produced easy-read documents, as a gold standard for accessible documents, on 20 adults with autism. The results provide an understanding of the perceived level of difficulty of easy-read documents according to this population, as well as the preferences of autistic individuals in text presentation. The results are synthesized as set of guidelines for creating accessible text for autism.
    • An innovative delivery of foundation degrees; but not without its problems!

      Robinson, Peter; Wiscombe, Caroline (2008)
      After three years of development in partnership with two other HEI's, employers and related organisations the University of Wolverhampton launched its Foundation Degree in Travel Operations Management in September 2008. The course was designed to be a pilot for a national programme and the institution is now leading the Curriculum Development element of the national product, in partnership with FDF. This workshop explores the journey so far and the trials and tribulations of developing a work based Foundation Degree in association with two other HEI’s, employers and related organisations. It is delivered on-line using Pebble Pad technology and supported by a face to face induction with ongoing email and telephone tutorials. The first cohort of 60 students is nearing the end of the first year of the programme, and the process has highlighted a number of difficulties including resources in planning and developing on line learning materials (both the materials themselves, the costs of technical expertise and ongoing Technology Supported Learning (TSL) training). In addition agreeing the programme regulations (including the size of modules); agreements in financial arrangements between employers and the HEI partners (each of which have different rates of pricing for FD); preparing industry personnel for their mentoring and coaching roles and changing personnel in supporting organisations contributed to the issues. Finally ensuring compliance with sector skills organisations who have not yet written their FD frameworks; industry partners frustration in timely decision making processes through the complicated list of personnel involved in agreeing decisions at different strategic levels of the university structures contribute to periods of frustration. By sharing these experiences and the current experience of being involved in the development of a wider partnership the authors hope to prevent future problems that may arise in innovative developments and to share the good practice that the programme has so far established, and which will from September 2008, be delivered using a broader national model.
    • Behavioural indicators of effective and ineffective mentoring: An empirical study of mentor and protégé behaviour within a UK public sector organisation.

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Sage, Lesley (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      Most mentoring research has investigated the antecedents, outcomes and benefits of mentoring and also the characteristics of mentors and mentees, but little attention has been given to the quality of the mentoring process or the effectiveness of mentoring relationships (Fagenon-Eland et al, 1997; Young and Perrewé, 2007). Yet for formal work-based mentoring programmes it is important to identify what differentiates ‘more effective’ from ‘less effective’ mentoring relationships (Ragins et al, 2000, Wanberg et al, 2007), particularly the behaviours of mentors and mentees that contribute to both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ mentoring experiences (Eby et al, 2000; Bozeman and Feeney, 2007). This study investigated the mentoring component of a leadership development programme within a major UK public sector organization in order to identify the behavioural criteria of mentoring effectiveness from both the mentor and mentee perspective. Concrete examples of ‘effective’ and ‘ineffective’ mentor and mentee behaviours as observed respectively by mentees and external mentors were collected using the Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan (1954). These were analysed, reduced and classified using content and thematic analytic methods. From 167 usable critical incidents so obtained 187 discrete items of behaviour were identified. Of these 81 related to positive (effective) and 22 to negative (ineffective) mentor behaviour and 68 to positive (effective) and 16 to negative (ineffective) mentee behaviour. These were then grouped and classified into analytic categories which resulted in 11 positive and 4 negative mentor behavioural categories (criteria) and 9 positive and 3 negative mentee behavioural categories (criteria) being identified. The results lend support to Kram’s (1985) ‘two-function’ model of mentoring and to the recent emergent concepts of ‘negative’ and ‘marginal’ mentoring (Eby, et al, 2000; Eby and McManus, 2004). They also provide further empirical insights for HRD practitioners concerned with developing guidelines and interventions to enhance the effectiveness of formal mentoring programmes. This study is an inquiry into organizationally based formal mentoring relationships in which the mentors have been drawn from other organizations (Young and Perrewé, 2000). It has been located in both the ‘mentoring’, ‘coaching’ and ‘human resource development (HRD)’literatures for two main reasons. Firstly, although various writers claim ‘mentoring’ is different from ‘coaching’ (Cranwell-Ward, Bossons and Gover, 2004; Grant, 2001), the terms ‘mentoring’ and ‘coaching’ are often used interchangeably in many organizations with many people unable to make a clear distinction between them (D’Abate, Eddy and Tannenbaum, 2003; Klasen and Clutterbuck, 2002). The second reason is that for several decades coaching, mentoring and other forms of workplace learning have been core roles of HRD professionals (See Davis, Naughton and Rothwell, 2004; Hezlett and Gibson, 2005; Plunkett and Egan, 2004). Furthermore, increasingly, mentoring has been recognized as a powerful HRD intervention that assists employers in career advancement, serves as a form of on-the-job-training, and helps create learning organizations (Hegstad and Wentling , 2005).
    • Collocational Constructions in Translated Spanish: What Corpora Reveal

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Springer, 2017-11)
      In recent years, Construction Grammar has emerged as an enhanced theoretical framework for studies on phraseology in general, and particularly for collocational analysis. This paper aims at contributing to the study of collocational constructions in translated Spanish. To this end, the construction [V PP_ de miedo ] is analysed in detail. Our methodology is corpus-based and compares subtitled translations with general Spanish, American Spanish and Peninsular Spanish. The findings suggest that collocational constructions in translated Spanish have a clear preference for the Peninsular standard. They reflect features of translationese, as well as universal traits such as simplification, normalisation, and convergence. Another interesting finding refers to corpus selection, as giga-token corpora appear to provide more fine-grained analysis that conventional, balanced corpora.
    • Comparing the experience of Chinese and West African students at a British university: findings from a survey.

      Bailey, Carol (Southampton Solent University, 2006)
      This report presents some of the findings from a survey undertaken over the academic year 2005/6 at the University of Wolverhampton, with the aim of discovering as much as possible, from a range of perspectives, about the experience of international students at the University. To limit the scope of the investigation, the survey focussed on three nationalities/regions: a mature and well-researched market (mainland China), and two emerging and little-researched markets (India and West Africa, i.e. Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon). Because no Indian students were available for interview, this paper gives the findings for Chinese and West African students only.
    • Conference Proceedings of the 3rd European First Year Experience (EFYE) Conference

      Pieterick, Jackie; Ralph, Richard; Lawton, Megan (2009-09)
    • Ethical aspects of aesthetic labour, and links to an earlier concept: sprezzatura. Where next?

      Scarff, William (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      The term aesthetic labour is considered with reference to earlier literature on the influence of attractiveness on recruitment, selection and retention issues for employees, for Human Resource managers and the processes of selecting candidates for training opportunities. The subjectivity and emotional nature of beauty are both noted. A link for future research is suggested to the term sprezzatura from the Italian Renaissance. An unsettling presence of power is considered as a link between aesthetic labour and sprezzatura. Both terms are considered from an employee choosing to use these methods for self advancement and in the case of aesthetic labour when role requires certain behaviour and image. A research question is posed around the tensions between creating the best image for an organisation and adhering to ‘correct’ Human Resource professional practice, with identification of conflict of personal and organisational ethics. A less well known framework for ethics is introduced. The paper is brought to a close by asking conference members about realistic linkages between aesthetic labour, sprezzatura ethics professionalism the role of the Human Resource manager and power.
    • Finding a new voice: challenges facing international (and home!) students writing university assignments in the UK.

      Bailey, Carol; Pieterick, Jackie (University of Wolverhampton, 2008)
      With the globalisation of education, European universities are accepting increasing numbers of students from outside the EU. Some of these have experienced very different academic cultures from that of their host university, and may face difficulties in adapting to the requirements of their new institution. Even within Europe, academic cultures may vary enormously. One challenge which faces all those studying outside their home country is the task of writing academic essays: often in a foreign language and according to unfamiliar criteria. This paper draws on students’ reflections about the academic writing process in their first year at a UK university, exploring areas where the transition from their previous learning environment presents a challenge. It compares the previous experience of home and international students with respect to length and frequency of written assignments, research and organisation of ideas, language and referencing of sources. What is the best way to support them through the transition, and are we doing enough?
    • Mentoring: the knowledge transfer partnership experience in the University of Wolverhampton Business School.

      Scarff, William; Harris, Robert (University Forum for Human Resource Development (UFHRD), 2008)
      Knowledge transfer partnerships (ktps), numbering over 100 in the UK, form the background to this paper. Benefits of the partnerships are noted as follows: to the British economy, to the participating company, to the associate or trainee employee and to the University that manages the programmes. Mentoring theory and continuing professional development (cpd) are mentioned, though not extensively. The lead author has developed the unique role of the ktp mentor. The focus is on the mentor’s assistance made available to the associate. Two key strengths, checked with present associates, are identified. The first strength is the utterly confidential nature of the process of mentoring. The second strength is the absence of involvement in the day to day running of any partnership. The mentor is outside the formal management structure, not even taking part in selecting suitable associates. The mentor assists in cpd, in identifying skills, personal strengths and weaknesses, and towards the end of the contract in exploring career options with the associate. At all times the autonomy of the associate is respected. The authors conclude that the mentoring role is valuable well received and that it will continue, building on the key strengths noted above.
    • Performance Monitoring and Accountability through Technology: E-government in Greece.

      Petrakaki, Dimitra J.; Hayes, Niall; Introna, Lucas D. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2008)
      The paper provides an account of the likely consequences that performance monitoring systems have on public service accountability. The research draws upon an in-depth empirical study on Citizens Service Centres, one of the biggest projects of the Greek e-government strategy. Specifically, we outline the rationale for introducing performance monitoring technology in Citizens Service Centres, the use the central government ministry made of the system and the ways in which Citizens Service Centre staff responded to such performance monitoring. Drawing upon studies on e-government and the critical literature on performance monitoring systems, we argue that performance monitoring technology is a limited tool for ensuring accountability. This is due to the effects of the monitoring and performance standards, which increase staffs concerns and are likely to encourage irresponsible and unaccountable practices.
    • Power, Interdependence and Influence in Marketing Manager/Sales Manager Working Relationships

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Academy of Marketing, 2008)
      Relationships between Marketing Managers and Sales Managers are amongst the most important working relationships within modern firms, though to date, these have received little attention in the literature. Our study adds to knowledge of this working relationship by examining the effects of Sales unit power, total interdependence between Marketing and Sales, and the type and effects of the influence tactics employed by Sales Managers in this important CFR. Our results suggest that not all influence tactics are effective in increasing a Sales Manager’s influence within the firm. Also, our findings provide support for the notion that managers of powerful departments are less likely to spend time and effort using influence tactics to secure peer managers’ cooperation and compliance. Conversely, where peer managers are highly interdependent, they will increase their use of a wide array of influence tactics to secure desired outcomes.
    • The Case for community-led tourism development: engaging & supporting entrepreneurial communities

      Robinson, Peter (2008)
      This paper critically assesses a case study approach to community-led tourism development based upon reflective observational research carried out by the author between 2004-2006. The paper establishes the ad-hoc nature of stakeholder and volunteer led development projects and identifies a lack of available resources in either academic or practical fields to support individuals and groups involved in these projects. Often these are good examples of community entrepreneurship or are a reaction to the often-missed opportunity to encourage tourist spend. Projects discussed in the paper include interpretation, product development and community enterprise initiatives. The research is underpinned by observational and experiential reviews of work delivered through innovative methodologies to inform community consultation and subsequently supported by the development of strategies that lend a clear vision to the community aim. These developments often have considerable potential to make a significant impact on local economies and community socio-economics and strengthen public sector relationships through strategic clarity. Often they only come about through professional input at a regional level and are still delivered through a top-down approach, even though their altruistic vision and successful community engagement is bottom-up in ideology. Further research identifies a similar trend in Asia and Africa where community led tourism projects are considered a key catalyst for economic regeneration. In all the cases discussed there is a clear lack of accessible information and it is the overall aim of this paper to highlight a greater need to reflect upon existing case studies, to address the theoretical perspectives of sustainable development in this context, and to create a toolkit for potential sustainable communities.
    • The Effects of Power and Dependence Asymmetry on Marketing/Sales.

      Massey, Graham R.; Dawes, Philip L. (Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference (ANZMAC), 2007)
      This paper examines how the power of the Sales unit (department), and the dependence of Marketing Managers on Sales Managers (and vice versa) affect trust in working relationships between those Marketing Managers and Sales Managers. Our results show that the greater the power of the Sales department, the lower the propensity of Marketing Managers to trust the Sales Manager. In addition, our results suggest that the effects of cross-functional dependence on interpersonal trust are not symmetric. Specifically, when Marketing Managers are highly dependent on Sales Managers, they will be more likely to trust the Sales Manager. However, when the Sales Manager is highly dependent on the Marketing Manager, this is not associated with the Marketing Manager having increased interpersonal trust in that Sales Manager.
    • The foundation degree in travel operations management – a reflective perspective

      Robinson, Peter (2008)
      In September 2007 60 students from TUI, the UKs largest tour operator, enrolled on an innovative new Foundation Degree in Travel Operations Management, delivered online by University of Wolverhampton, University College Birmingham and Coventry University. The FD was developed as part of University of Wolverhampton’s response to the Governments drive for ‘new, innovative awards at sub‐degree level’ launched in 2000. It is managed through the Department for Leisure and Lifestyle Industries Management (LALIM) as the lead partner in the group of HEIs, working under the umbrella of UKTEP, the UK Travel Education Partnership. A project steering group involving staff from each HEI, the employer and Foundation Degree Forward, monitors the programme. The long‐term aim is for the programme to become the National Standard for the Travel Industry and the first 60 students are the pilot for this programme. Eight months on this article reflects on the progress of the students and considers some of the challenges for the future.
    • Towards automatic generation of relevance judgments for a test collection

      Makary, Mireille; Oakes, Michael; Yamout, Fadi (IEEE, 2016-09)
      This paper represents a new technique for building a relevance judgment list for information retrieval test collections without any human intervention. It is based on the number of occurrences of the documents in runs retrieved from several information retrieval systems and a distance based measure between the documents. The effectiveness of the technique is evaluated by computing the correlation between the ranking of the TREC systems using the original relevance judgment list (qrels) built by human assessors and the ranking obtained by using the newly generated qrels.
    • Using key phrases as new queries in building relevance judgements

      Makary, Mireille; Oakes, Michael; Yamout, Fadi (CEUR - workshop proceedings, 2017-09)
      We describe a new technique for building a relevance judgment list (qrels) for TREC test collections with no human intervention. For each TREC topic, a set of new queries is automatically generated from key phrases extract-ed from the top k documents retrieved from 12 different Terrier weighting models when the initial TREC topic is submitted. We assign a score to each key phrase based on its similarity to the original TREC topic. The key phrases with the highest scores become the new queries for a second search, this time using the Terrier BM25 weighting model. The union of the documents retrieved forms the automatically-build set of qrels.
    • VIP: Voice-Text Integrated System for Interpreters

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Tradulex, 2017-11)
      This paper introduces VIP, an R&D project that explores the impact and feasibility of using Human Language Technology (HLT) and Natural Language Processing (NLP) for interpreting training, practice and research. This project aims at filling the gap in and addressing the pressing need for technology in general for interpreters, which is reported to be scarce. Although most interpreters are unaware of interpreting technologies or are reluctant to use them, there are some tools and resources already available, mainly computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools. VIP is working on the development of technology and cutting-edge research with the potential to revolutionise the interpreting industry by lowering costs for interpreter training, fostering an online community which shares, generates and cultivates interpreting resources; and providing an efficient interpreter workbench tool (computerassisted interpreting software).