• A century of state murder?: death and policy in twentieth century Russia

      Haynes, Michael J.; Hasan, Rumy (London: Pluto Press, 2003)
      Russia has one of the lowest rates of adult life expectancy in the world. Average life expectancy for a man in America is 74; in Russia, it is just 59. Birth rates and population levels have also plummeted. These excess levels of mortality affect all countries that formed the former Soviet bloc. Running into many millions, they raise obvious comparisons with the earlier period of forced transition under Stalin. This book seeks to put the recent history of the transition into a longer term perspective by identifying, explaining and comparing the pattern of change in Russia in the last century. It offers a sharp challenge to the conventional wisdom and benign interpretations offered in the west of what has happened since 1991. Through a careful survey of the available primary and secondary sources, Mike Haynes and Rumy Husan have produced the first and most complete and accurate account of Russian demographic crisis from the Revolution to the present. (Pluto Press)
    • A Military History of the English Civil War: 1642-1649

      Wanklyn, Malcolm; Jones, Frank (London: Longman/Pearson Books, 2004)
      A Military History of the English Civil War examines how the civil war was won, who fought for whom, and why it ended. With a straightforward style and clear chronology that enables readers to make their own judgements and pursue their own interests further, this original history provides a thorough critique of the reasons that have been cited for Parliament's victory and the King's defeat in 1645/46. It discusses the strategic options of the Parliamentary and Royalist commanders and councils of war and analyses the decisions they made, arguing that the King’s faulty command structure was more responsible for his defeat than Sir Thomas Fairfax's strategic flair. It also argues that the way that resources were used, rather than the resources themselves, explain why the war ended when it did. (Longman/Pearson)
    • A Nation of Shopkeepers: Retailing in Britain 1550-2000

      Benson, John; Ugolini, Laura (London: I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., 2002)
      "A Nation of Shopkeepers" reflects research on retail history and cultures of consumption. The contributors challenge existing ideas about retail development, showing how, for example, large-scale retailers played a far lesser role in the development of the modern city that is generally thought, and how the success of department stores was determined less by "entrepreneurial" spirit and more by the unforseen consequences of legislation. With the growing interest in cultures of consumption, this book should be useful to specialists and students in retail history, human geography and social and cultural history. (I.B. Taurus publishers)
    • Affluence and Authority: A Social History of Twentieth-Century Britain

      Benson, John (Hodder Arnold, 2005)
      The turn of the millennium generated a spate of reflections on the state of the nation and the ways in which life in Britain had changed during the course of the twentieth century. Affluence and Authority contributes to this debate by providing a wide-ranging, well-informed and accessible interpretation of British social history during a hundred years of profound, and almost certainly unprecedented, economic, political, cultural, demographic and ideological change. This book lays particular emphasis upon material conditions in accounting for the underlying stability of society during the course of this turbulent and troubled century. It argues that despite the fact that many groups shared only haltingly and uncertainly in the benefits of economic growth, it is the long-term improvement in the standard of living that provides the single most important key to understanding the social history of twentieth-century Britain. The balance between economic and social developments is analysed thoroughly. Indeed, one of this book's central purposes is to challenge the view that economic gains were undermined by social losses, that the British people failed to respond as constructively as they should to the economic improvements they enjoyed. John Benson's thought provoking study also suggests that social class should be set alongside categories such as age, gender and ethnicity when attempting to analyse the ways in which British social history developed during the course of the twentieth century.
    • Arnhem 1944: Operation 'Market Garden'

      Badsey, Stephen (Osprey Publishing, 1993)
      'Market Garden' was one of the most audacious, and ultimately controversial, operations of the Second World War - a joint penetration, by an armoured column and a large-scale airborne drop, to punch a decisive hole in the German defences. If it had succeeeded, the war could have ended in 1944. Yet the two-pronged attack failed in its objectives. This book details how, instead of being relieved after 48 hours as expected, British paratroopers were cut off for nine days. Facing two unexpected SS Panzer divisions the Allies were eventually evacuated across the Rhine after putting up an incredible fight: of the 10,000 men involved less than 2,000 survived. Campaigns 5, 24, 74 and 75 are also available in a single volume special edition as ‘Into the Reich’.
    • Battle Zone Normandy : Battle for Caen

      Trew, Simon; Badsey, Stephen (The History Press, 2004)
      This key title in the acclaimed Battle Zone Normandy series explores the Allies' struggle to take Caen and its significance for the campaign. The city of Caen was perhaps the greatest major obstacle in the path of the Allied advance inland after their landings in Normandy, 6 June 1944. Consequently it was a key objective for 3rd British Division, landing on Sword Beach. The Allies were unable to capture the strategically important city on D-Day, however, in the teeth of armoured counter-attacks from 21st Panzer Division. Renewed attempts by 3rd Canadian Division on 7-8 June were foiled by 12th SS Panzer Division 'Hitlerjugend', as were 7th British Armoured Division's thrusts towards the city on 11-14 June. On 25 June Operation 'Epsom' was launched to take Caen. Preceded by RAF Bomber Command attacks, further British and Canadian assaults on 4 July stalled before the whole of the city could be taken. On 7 July Operation 'Charnwood' forced the Germans to withdraw from northern Caen. A much heavier bombardment opened Operation 'Goodwood' on 18 July, in the course of which the Canadians finally managed to liberate the rest of Caen, by now largely demolished after five weeks of intensive fighting.
    • Battle Zone Normandy : Omaha Beach

      Badsey, Stephen (The History Press, 2004)
      This key title in the acclaimed Battle Zone Normandy series explores the US attack on Omaha Beach at dawn on D-Day 1944 and its aftermath. At dawn on D-Day the US Army's most experienced, battle-tested infantry formation, 1st Division or 'The Big Red One' launched its attack on Omaha Beach. The assault wave was launched too far out to sea and the men suffered terribly from seasickness. All the amphibious tanks sank except two, depriving the infantry of armoured support against minefields, bunkers and other defences. Moreover, the Allied aircraft tasked with destroying the fortifications had dropped their loads on open country too far inland and the offshore bombardment was hampered by poor visibility. Of the first six landing craft, two sank while the remainder ran aground on a sandbank. The assaulting infantry were compelled to wade in shoulder-high water, many drowning or being shot as they struggled ashore. All cohesion was lost and following waves of infantry simply stumbled into the carnage on the beach, the piles of wreckage restricting movement. In these first harrowing hours of the invasion, Lieutenant-General Omar Bradley considered aborting the Omaha effort altogether. Despite these appalling difficulties, a vulnerable bridgehead some 1.5 km inland had been established by the evening of 6 June 1944.
    • Britain, Ireland and Northern Ireland Since 1980: The Totality of Relationships

      O'Kane, Eammon (London: Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006)
      This new study reveals how British and Irish governments not only had different reasons for co-operating, but also had different prescriptions for ending the conflict in Northern Ireland. Eamonn O'Kane shows how and why the two states were subject to demands and expectations from their 'client' communities in the North had conflicting historical explanations for the problem and different domestic considerations to take into account. He argues that all of these factors must be examined in context and in doing so makes a significant contribution to our understanding of the Northern Ireland conflict and offers a new explanation for the emergence and development of the peace process. Based on extensive new interview data, this volume is an invaluable resource for students and researchers of British politics, Irish studies and conflict studies.
    • Britain, NATO and the Lessons of the Balkan Conflicts 1991-1999 (Sandhurst Conference)

      Badsey, Stephen; Latowski, Paul (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      This publication considers the lessons to be gained for Britain, the British armed forces, and for NATO as a whole, from the Yugoslav wars of dissolution (1991-1999), with particular emphasis on the Kosovo crisis. The papers come from a diverse and high quality mixture of analysts, practitioners and policy-makers. The issues developed here represent a significant advance in the emerging debate on the lessons to be learnt from the Balkan experience, which will shape thinking on defence and international security far into the new millennium.
    • British Armour in the Normandy Campaign

      Buckley, John (Frank Cass Publishers (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      The popular perception of the performance of British armour in the Normandy campaign of 1944 is one of failure and frustration. Despite overwhelming superiority in numbers, Montgomery''s repeated efforts to employ his armour in an offensive manner ended in disappointing stalemate. Indeed, just a week after the D-Day landings, the Germans claimed to have halted an entire British armoured division with one Tiger tank. Most famously of all, in July, despite a heavy preparatory bombardment, three British armoured divisions were repulsed by much weaker German forces to the east of Caen, suffering the loss of over 400 tanks in the process. Explanation of these and other humiliating failures has centred predominantly on the shortcomings of the tanks employed by British formations. Essentially, an orthodoxy has emerged that the roots of failure lay in the comparative weakness of Allied equipment and to a lesser extent in training and doctrine. This new study challenges this view by analysing the reality and level of the supposed failure and the causes behind it. By studying the role of the armoured brigades as well as the divisions, a more complete and balanced analysis is offered in which it is clear that while some technologically based difficulties were encountered, British armoured forces achieved a good deal when employed appropriately. Such difficulties as did occur resulted from British operational techniques, methods of command and leadership and the operating environment in which armour was employed. In addition, the tactics and doctrine employed by both British and German armoured forces resulted in heavy casualties when on the offensive. Ultimately, the experience of the crews and the effects of fighting on their morale is studied to provide a complete picture of the campaign. (Taylor & Francis)
    • British Government Policy in Northern Ireland, 1969-2000

      Cunningham, Mike (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001)
      This completely revised and updated second edition provides a comprehensive introduction to British government policy in Northern Ireland. It is a detailed study and looks at policy in four related areas - constitutional, security, economic and social - offering an overview of the questions of continuity and bipartisanship in British policy. For ease of reference, the book deals with these four policy areas chronologically by administration. The text is completely revised to cover the Major administration and the Labour administration up to 2000, including recent periods of intense legislative activity, such as the Good Friday Agreement, the reform of the Ulster Defence Regiment, and the reform of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. It will prove invaluable as an undergraduate textbook for modules on Northern Ireland, and as a reference source on government policy for students of British politics at undergraduate and postgraduate level. (Manchester University Press)
    • Clad in Iron: The American Civil War and the Challenge of British Naval Power

      Fuller, Howard (Praeger Publishers Inc., 2007)
      This work addresses many persistent misconceptions of what the monitors were for, and why they failed in other roles associated with naval operations of the Civil War (such as the repulse at Charleston, April 7, 1863). Monitors were 'ironclads'- not fort-killers. Their ultimate success is to be measured not in terms of spearheading attacks on fortified Southern ports but in the quieter, much more profound, strategic deterrence of Lord Palmerston's ministry in London, and the British Royal Navy's potential intervention. During the American Civil War, one of the greatest fears of the Union government was that the United Kingdom might intervene on the side of the Confederacy. This book is a unique study that combines a lively and colourful narrative with a fresh interpretation of the American effort to avoid a naval war with Great Britain. The author chronicles the growth and development of the Union "Ironclads," beginning with U.S.S. Monitor, during the American Civil War.Unlike other similar histories, however, the author does not simply recount the battle actions of these metal monsters. Instead, he crafts a fast-paced narrative that focuses on the military men and government officials who drove the decision-making processes, and outlines the international ramifications of the revolution in naval affairs that took place in the 1860s. He demonstrates that Federal ironclads were not constructed solely in response to their Confederate counterparts, but, even more importantly, to counter the ocean-going iron ships of the Royal Navy. The author places the naval developments of the Civil War within the broader context of Anglo-American relations and the rapidly developing international rivalry between the United States and Britain. The wide reaching implications of the technological advances, and the unprecedented expansion of the U.S. Navy are usually depicted as a sidebar to the main events of the Civil War. This work, however, brings a new perspective to this important yet overlooked aspect of diplomacy during this time.
    • Crime Reduction

      Moss, Kate (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2008)
      Across the globe, challenging and contentious issues about community safety and security increasingly exercise governments and police forces—as well as, for example, town planners and car-park designers. Consequently, as a specialist area within the wider discipline of criminology, crime reduction has never before enjoyed such prominence in public and scholarly discourse. With research on and around the subject flourishing as never before, this new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Criminology, meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the subdiscipline’s colossal literature and the continuing explosion in research output and practice. Edited by Kate Moss, a prominent academic in the field, Crime Reduction is a four-volume collection of foundational and cutting-edge scholarship. The first volume in the collection (‘Approaches to Reduction’) brings together the best research on the different approaches to crime reduction, including its classification and theory, and ideas of what is preventable. The work gathered here also includes criticisms of crime reduction, not least research around the phenomena of displacement and sustainability. Volume II (‘Motivation of the Criminal Inclination’) collects the most important work on issues of crime reduction, particularly those concerned with what one thinker has described as ‘structure and psyche’. The scholarship in this volume draws both on the structural perspective (which emphasizes the view that reduction is achievable only through economic and social change, especially by ameliorating inequality or levels of social exclusion), and the ‘psyche’ approach (which regards crime principally as a product of the human spirit and seeks to change criminal inclination and activity by policies of, for example, deterrence, incapacitation, and reform). The notion of situational crime reduction has been a particularly active area of research in recent years. But the idea that changes to the social and physical settings in which crime may occur can reduce its frequency or impact is far from uncontroversial. Volume III (‘Situational Crime Reduction’) assembles the best thinking in this area tackling, for example, ethical dilemmas about the impact of some reduction strategies on our freedom and privacy rights, as well as the difficult and profound implications that arise from the increasing extent to which crime reduction has become the de facto responsibility of private rather than state organizations. The final volume in the collection (‘Crime Prevention in Action’) gathers together the best cutting-edge work to highlight key examples of empirical crime reduction research in action. It includes research focusing on: the need to incentivize crime reduction to persuade more people to take responsibility for reducing a greater variety of crime; the effects of apparently subtle strategies (such as changes to street lighting); and anticipatory changes (whereby crime seems to reduce in advance of reduction initiatives). Volume IV also includes assessments of the future developments in the field. Crime Reduction is fully indexed and includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. An essential reference collection, it is destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
    • Crime reduction and the law

      Moss, Kate; Stephens, Mike (London: Routledge, 2005)
      This innovative and pioneering new book establishes links between crime reduction and the law, uniquely offering a detailed examination of how specific legislation and performance targets aid or undermine attempts at crime reduction. Providing a sustained analysis, this ground-breaking book considers the social policy, politics and legislation that surround and drive the crime reduction agenda. It analyzes: the creation of 'safe environments' through Town and Country Planning legislation, the role of local authorities in crime reduction initiatives, the nature of drug policy, paedophilia legislation and programs to control mental disorder crime. Bringing together the work of internationally renowned experts in this field, this book will prove very useful to students of criminology and sociology, as well as crime prevention and reduction practitioners, police officers and community safety partnership professionals.(Routledge)
    • Criminal and Social Justice

      Cook, Dee (London: Sage Publications, 2006)
      Criminal and Social Justice provides an important insight into the relationship between social inequality, crime and criminalisation. In this accessible and innovative account, Dee Cook examines the nature of the relationship between criminal and social justice - both in theory and in practice. Current social, economic, political and cultural considerations are brought to bear, and contemporary examples are used throughout to help the student to consider this relationship. The book is essential reading for students and researchers in criminology, social policy, social work and sociology. It is also relevant to practitioners in statutory, voluntary and community sector organisations. (Sage Publications)
    • Criminal Justice in Hong Kong

      Jones, Carol; Vagg, John (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2007)
      Containing a wealth of archival material and statistical data on crime and criminal justice, Criminal Justice in Hong Kong presents a detailed evaluation of Hong Kong’s criminal justice system, both past and present. Exploring the justice system and the perceptions of popular culture, this book demonstrates how the current criminal justice system has been influenced and shaped over time by Hong Kong’s historical position between ‘East’ and ‘West’. Jones and Vagg’s examination of the justice system not only takes into account geographical changes, like the erection of the border with communist China in 1950 but also insists that any deep understanding of the current system requires a dialogue with the rich and complex narratives of Hong Kong’s history. It explores a range of questions, including: * How were Hong Kong's criminal justice institutions and practices formed? * What has been its experience of law and order? * How has Hong Kong's status as between 'East' and 'West' affected its social, political and legal institutions? Careful and detailed, this analysis of one of the most economically successful, politically stable and safe yet frequently misrepresented cities, is a valuable addition to the bookshelves of all undergraduate and postgraduate students studying Asian law. (Routledge)
    • Critical Marketing: Defining the Field

      Saren, Michael; MacLaran, Pauline; Goulding, Christina; Elliott, Richard; Shankar, Avi; Catterall, Miriam (Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007)
      Marketing is still widely perceived as simply the creator of wants and needs through selling and advertising and marketing theory has been criticized for not taking a more critical approach to the subject. This is because most conventional marketing thinking takes a broadly managerial perspective without reflecting on the wider societal implications of the effects of marketing activities. In response this important new book is the first text designed to raise awareness of the critical, ethical, social and methodological issues facing contemporary marketing. Uniquely it provides: • The latest knowledge based on a series of major seminars in the field • The insights of a leading team of international contributors with an interdisciplinary perspective . A clear map of the domain of critical marketing • A rigorous analysis of the implications for future thinking and research. For faculty and upper level students and practitioners in Marketing, and those in the related areas of cultural studies and media, Critical Marketing will be a major addition to the literature and the development of the subject. * The only critical marketing text by marketing academics * Features leading international contributors * Maps out the domain of critical marketing using inter-disciplinary perspectives.
    • Decisive Battles of the English Civil War

      Wanklyn, Malcolm (Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books, 2006)
      An investigation of the decisive battles of the English Civil War, this work reassesses what actually happened on the battlefield and sheds fresh light on the causes of the eventual defeat of Charles I. It takes each major battle in turn - Edgehill, Newbury I, Cheriton, Marston Moor, Newbury II, Naseby, and Preston.
    • Doctrine and Reform in the British Cavalry 1880-1918

      Badsey, Stephen (Ashgate Publishing, 2008)
      A prevalent view among historians is that both horsed cavalry and the cavalry charge became obviously obsolete in the second half of the nineteenth century in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower, and that officers of the cavalry clung to both for reasons of prestige and stupidity. It is this view, commonly held but rarely supported by sustained research, that this book challenges. It shows that the achievements of British and Empire cavalry in the First World War, although controversial, are sufficient to contradict the argument that belief in the cavalry was evidence of military incompetence. It offers a case study of how in reality a practical military doctrine for the cavalry was developed and modified over several decades, influenced by wider defence plans and spending, by the experience of combat, by Army politics, and by the rivalries of senior officers. Debate as to how the cavalry was to adjust its tactics in the face of increased infantry and artillery firepower began in the mid nineteenth century, when the increasing size of armies meant a greater need for mobile troops. The cavalry problem was how to deal with a gap in the evolution of warfare between the mass armies of the later nineteenth century and the motorised firepower of the mid twentieth century, an issue that is closely connected with the origins of the deadlock on the Western Front. Tracing this debate, this book shows how, despite serious attempts to ‘learn from history’, both European-style wars and colonial wars produced ambiguous or disputed evidence as to the future of cavalry, and doctrine was largely a matter of what appeared practical at the time. Contents: Preface; Doctrine and the cavalry 1880–1918; The Wolseley era 1880–1899; The Boer War 1899–1902; The Roberts era 1902–1905; The Haldane era 1905–1914; The First World War 1914–1918; Conclusion; Appendix; Bibliography; Index.
    • Erfolg in der Nische? Die Vietnamesen in der DDR und in Ostdeutschland

      Weiss, Karin; Dennis, Mike (London: Lit Verlag, 2005)
      Traces the social development of the Vietnamese contract workers since the collapse of SED rule to the present day and also provides an overview of the most important aspects of their life in Germany. An examination is undertaken of the decline in the numbers of former Vietnamese contract workers in East Germany, from about 59,000 at the end of 1989 to 21,000 one year later, and the dramatic changes to their work contracts and their economic, occupational and social situation. Special attention is paid to the question of solidarity within the group of Vietnamese and problems in interaction with the German population and their surroundings. The Vietnamese experience of the massive increase in xenophobia soon after the Wende played a crucial role in the growing cohesiveness of the ethnic group. Finally, an assessment is made of the situation of the second generation of Vietnamese living in Germany, in particular problems such as relations between family members.