• A Dynamic Programming Approach to Improving Translation Memory Matching and Retrieval Using Paraphrases

      Gupta, Rohit; Orăsan, Constantin; Liu, Qun; Mitkov, Ruslan (Springer, 2016-09)
      Translation memory tools lack semantic knowledge like paraphrasing when they perform matching and retrieval. As a result, paraphrased segments are often not retrieved. One of the primary reasons for this is the lack of a simple and efficient algorithm to incorporate paraphrasing in the TM matching process. Gupta and Orăsan [1] proposed an algorithm which incorporates paraphrasing based on greedy approximation and dynamic programming. However, because of greedy approximation, their approach does not make full use of the paraphrases available. In this paper we propose an efficient method for incorporating paraphrasing in matching and retrieval based on dynamic programming only. We tested our approach on English-German, English-Spanish and English-French language pairs and retrieved better results for all three language pairs compared to the earlier approach
    • 'A Plentiful Crop of Cripples Made by All This Progress': Disability, Artificial Limbs and Working-Class Mutualism in the South Wales Coalfield, 1890-19481

      Curtis, B.; Thompson, S. (2014-04-07)
      Historians of orthopaedics, artificial limbs and disability have devoted a great deal of attention to children and soldiers but have neglected to give sufficient space in their studies to industrial workers, the other patient group that has been identified as crucial to the development of these areas. Furthermore, this attention has led to an imbalanced focus on charitable and philanthropic activities as the main means of assistance and the neglect of a significant part of the voluntary sphere, the labour movement. This article, focusing on industrial south Wales, examines the efforts of workingclass organisations to provide artificial limbs and a range of other surgical appliances to workers and their family members in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It finds that a distinctive, labourist conception of disability existed which envisaged disabled workers as an important priority and one to which significant time, effort and resources were devoted.
    • A Review of the Insolvency Framework: A new moratorium to help business rescue

      Umfreville, Christopher (Sweet & Maxwell, 2016)
      With a view to making Britain the best place in the world to start and grow a business, on 25 May 2016 the Government launched “A Review of the Corporate Insolvency Framework: A consultation on options for reform” (the “Consultation”). Motivated by a manifesto pledge to put the UK in the top five of the World Bank’s Doing Business ratings, the Consultation puts forward four key proposals to encourage rescues of viable businesses: the introduction of a pre-insolvency restructuring moratorium; the protection of essential supplier contracts during restructuring; the ability to bind and cram-down secured creditors in a restructuring; and exploring options for rescue financing. This article will consider the central plank to the reforms, the introduction of a new restructuring moratorium. Experienced readers will remember similar proposals being made in 2010 (“Proposals for a Restructuring Moratorium” (the “2010 Proposals”)), with questions remaining whether the issues arising then have been addressed.
    • A scalable meta-classifier for combining search and classification techniques for multi-level text categorization.

      Oakes, Michael; Wermter, Stefan; Tripathi, Nandita (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2015-12)
    • A three-talk model for shared decision making: multistage consultation process

      Elwyn, Glyn; Durand, Marie Anne; Song, Julia; Aarts, Johanna; Barr, Paul J; Berger, Zackary; Cochran, Nan; Frosch, Dominick; Galasiński, Dariusz; Gulbrandsen, Pål; Han, Paul K J; Härter, Martin; Kinnersley, Paul; Lloyd, Amy; Mishra, Manish; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; Scholl, Isabelle; Tomori, Kounosuke; Trevena, Lyndal; Witteman, Holly O; Van der Weijden, Trudy (BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-11-06)
      Objectives To revise an existing three-talk model for learning how to achieve shared decision making, and to consult with relevant stakeholders to update and obtain wider engagement. Design Multistage consultation process. Setting Key informant group, communities of interest, and survey of clinical specialties. Participants 19 key informants, 153 member responses from multiple communities of interest, and 316 responses to an online survey from medically qualified clinicians from six specialties. Results After extended consultation over three iterations, we revised the three-talk model by making changes to one talk category, adding the need to elicit patient goals, providing a clear set of tasks for each talk category, and adding suggested scripts to illustrate each step. A new three-talk model of shared decision making is proposed, based on “team talk,” “option talk,” and “decision talk,” to depict a process of collaboration and deliberation. Team talk places emphasis on the need to provide support to patients when they are made aware of choices, and to elicit their goals as a means of guiding decision making processes. Option talk refers to the task of comparing alternatives, using risk communication principles. Decision talk refers to the task of arriving at decisions that reflect the informed preferences of patients, guided by the experience and expertise of health professionals. Conclusions The revised three-talk model of shared decision making depicts conversational steps, initiated by providing support when introducing options, followed by strategies to compare and discuss trade-offs, before deliberation based on informed preferences.
    • A view through a window: Social relations, material objects and locality

      Hirsch, Shirin; Smith, Andrew (SAGE Publications, 2017-07-28)
      In this article the authors ask what it would mean to think sociologically about the window as a specific material and symbolic object. Drawing on qualitative analysis of a series of comparative interviews with residents in three different streets in a diverse local area of Glasgow, they explore what the use and experience of windows tells us about their respondents’ very different relationships to the places where they live. On the one hand, the window, as a material feature of the home, helps us grasp the lived reality of class inequality and how such inequality shapes people’s day-to-day experience. On the other hand, windows are symbolically charged objects, existing at the border of the domestic and public world. For this reason, they feature in important ways in local debates over the appearance, ownership and conservation of the built environment. The article explores these struggles, and shows what they reveal about the construction of belonging in the neighbourhood, a process which is both classed and racialised at one and the same time.
    • Accessible Texts for Autism: An Eye-Tracking Study

      Yaneva, Victoria; Temnikova, Irina; Mitkov, Ruslan Prof. (Association of Computing Machinery, 2016-05-19)
      Images are widely used in automatic text simplification systems, Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) and human-produced easy-read documents, in order to make text more accessible for people with various types of disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). People with ASD are known to experience difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as to have unusual attention patterns, which makes the development of user-centred tools for this population a challenging task. This paper presents the first study to use eye-tracking technology with ASD participants in order to evaluate text documents. Its aim is two-fold. First, it evaluates the use of images in texts and provides evidence of a significant difference in the attention patterns of participants with and without autism, with the autistic participants focusing on images more than the non-autistic ones. Sets of two types of images, photographs and symbols, are compared to establish which ones are more useful to include in simple documents. Second, the study evaluates human-produced easy-read documents, as a gold standard for accessible documents, on 20 adults with autism. The results provide an understanding of the perceived level of difficulty of easy-read documents according to this population, as well as the preferences of autistic individuals in text presentation. The results are synthesized as set of guidelines for creating accessible text for autism.
    • Accountability, governance and performance in UK charities

      Bellante, Giulia; Berardi, Laura; Machold, Silke; Nissi, Eugenia; Rea, Michele A. (Inderscience, 2017-12)
      The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between governance characteristics of a sample of 200 UK non-profit organisations (NPOs) and their performance, considered as their ability to collect financial resources. Using a regression analysis, we verify strong positive relationships between the NPOs’ financial performance and CEO duality and board size. Further analyses show that if the charities increase their level of accountability through the use of additional voluntary disclosure mechanisms and tools such as the use of social networks, these relationships are confirmed. The results of our research have implications for policy makers that seek to strengthen governance of NPOs, and for boards and managers of NPOs who wish to develop their organisations’ performance.
    • Adaptation, evolution and survival? The political economy of Whitleyism and public service industrial relations in the U.K. 1917–present

      Gill-McLure, Whyeda; Department of Human Resources & Leadership, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (Routledge, 2017-10-26)
      The Whitley Reports, 1917, were seen by contemporaries as conservative: they reflected pre-existing voluntaristic approaches to the labour problem rather than a radical departure. Largely neglected by the well-established private sector, for whom they were intended, Whitley Councils were taken up by the newly emerging public service unions. The inter-war years demonstrated Whitleyism’s lack of clout. But, endorsed by governments during and after the Second World War, public sector Whitleyism came to embody the tenets of progressive public administration by providing nationally determined pay, career progression and a public service ethos. These hard-won union gains are under attack from neo-liberal reforms that attempt to model public service labour relations on the private sector. The paper examines the major weaknesses and strengths of the Whitley model for managing public service industrial relations through an analysis of a century of Whitleyism.
    • An Evaluation of Talent 4 . . . : A Programme to Identify Talent and Skills for Prisoners, Disadvantaged, Unemployed, and Vulnerable Groups

      McGuire-Snieckus, Rebecca; Caulfield, Laura; Bath Spa University, UK; Bath Spa University, UK (Sage, 2017-11-21)
      Previous research suggests that the relationship between employment and recidivism is complex, with more support needed to facilitate employability motivation for sustained change (Tripodi et al., 2010). An arts-based programme designed to facilitate vocational self-determinism among prisoners with evidence of impact across three prisons in the United Kingdom was replicated and delivered to 234 prisoners and long-term unemployed participants from six European countries, to explore whether the findings from the previous evaluation would be replicated on a much larger scale. The research presented in this article found that supporting prisoners and the long-term unemployed to articulate employability goals had a positive effect on personal growth as well as understanding of individual strengths and weaknesses with respect to work, employment, problem solving, and thinking styles. Future research might explore the longer term impact on employment and recidivism.
    • An examination of the role of service quality and perceived value in visitor attraction experience

      Oriade, Ade; Schofield, Peter (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of service quality and perceived value in service experience in UK attraction context. Data was collected in the Midlands Region of the UK from two visitor attractions utilising mixed-mode survey approach. A total of 507 usable questionnaires were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between the constructs. The findings confirm the cognitive-affective-conative order between the service constructs within the context of UK visitor attractions. This study has improved the understanding of the role of value in service experience, particularly attraction context, providing evidence that value exerts relatively more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than service quality. More specifically emotional value exerts more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than other forms of value. Managers need to view the visitor experience holistically rather than concentrating on one or two service construct(s).
    • Articulating the Service Concept in Professional Service Firms

      Beltagui, Ahmad; Sigurdsson, Kjartan; Candi, Marina; Riedel, Johann (Emerald, 2017-01)
      Purpose: This study proposes a solution to the challenges of Professional Service Firms (PSF), which are referred to as cat herding, opaque quality and lack of process standardization. These result from misalignment in the mental pictures that managers, employees and customers have of the service. The study demonstrates how the process of articulating a shared service concept reduces these challenges. Methodology: A narrative methodology is used to analyze the perspectives of old management, new management and employees during organizational change in a PSF–a website design company growing to offer full-service branding. Group narratives are constructed using longitudinal data gathered through interviews and fieldwork, in order to compare the misaligned mental pictures and show the benefits of articulating the service concept. Findings: Professional employees view growth and change as threats to their culture and practice, particularly when new management seeks to standardize processes. These threats are revealed to stem from misinterpretations caused by miscommunication of intentions and lack of participation in decision making. Articulating a shared service concept helps to align understanding and return the firm to equilibrium. Research Limitations: The narrative methodology helps unpack conflicting perspectives, but is open to claims of subjectivity and misrepresentation. To ensure fairness and trustworthiness, informants were invited to review and approve the narratives. Originality: The study contributes propositions related to the value of articulating a shared service.
    • Assessing Festival Attendees’ Behavioural Intentions through Perceived Service Quality and Visitor Satisfaction

      Oriade, Ade; Hall, Sophie; Robinson, Peter (Cognizant Communication Corporation, 2016)
      This study examines the festival attributes with the most significant impact on attendee quality perception, and subsequently the relationship between quality, satisfaction, and the likelihood that attendees would revisit and recommend the festival to others. Data were collected via self-completed questionnaires at Worcester city with particular focus on Worcester festival which is an annual community festival staged for two weeks in the summer. Perceptions of attendees were analysed and the findings support the view that festival attributes determine perceived quality and that quality has effect on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. This study contributes towards the understanding of festival attendee service quality perception, satisfaction and subsequent behavioural intentions. The research implications were discussed and recommendations for future research and industry managers were made.
    • Assessing the economic performance of an environmental sustainable supply chain in reducing environmental externalities

      Ding, Huiping; Liu, Qian; Zheng, Lucy (Elsevier, 2016-05-09)
      This study investigates the mechanism that motivates supply chain firms to reduce environmental externalities while balancing the economic feasibility of the supply chain system under environmentally constrained circumstances in a competitive market. Taking government policy incentives into account, a quantitative model of an integrated supply chain that incorporates sustainable constraints is formulated to optimize supply chain firms’ operational strategies of producing environmental friendly products (EFPs). This study contributes to the literature with a better understanding the interplay and interrelation of multiple sustainable constraints and their impact on supply chain firms’ collaborative decisions. Our findings suggest that the decisions of operating EFPs are subject to sustainable constraints and that the government policy incentives play a dominant role overseeing supply chain firms’ environmental behaviors toward sustainability.
    • BAME staff and public service motivation: the mediating role of perceived fairness in English local government

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, R (Springer, 2018-07-16)
      This study aims to examine the perceptions of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff in English local government on the ethical nature of their treatment at work, and its mediating effect on their Public Service Motivation (PSM). This is a particular imperative in a sector which itself delivers social justice within a strong regulatory system designed to ensure workplace equality and therefore is expected to be a model employer for other organisations. Employees place great importance on their fair treatment by their employers and, in particular, the endeavour of managerial authority to implement equality at work based on their discretionary powers. 2580 valid responses were collected from 15,000 questionnaires sent to staff in five local councils in England. Our analyses show that BAME employees have a significantly stronger PSM than their white colleagues; however, this has been eroded by their perception of unfair treatment: being underpaid allied with a lack of effort from management to ensure an equal work environment, to be specific, to prevent discrimination, bullying, and racism at workplace. Most importantly, the perceived exertion made by management to ensure an equal work environment has a significantly strong mediating effect on PSM and a compensational effect on perceived lower pay. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Banking Reform Struggles On

      Haynes, A. (Oxford University Press, 2015)
    • Behavioural determinants of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Argentina

      Hamlin, Robert G.; Ruiz, Carols E; Carioni, Angeles (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2016-04)
      The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the perceptions of Argentinean employees about managerial and leadership effectiveness, and was guided by the following research question: How do people employed in Argentinean companies behaviorally differentiate effective managers from ineffective managers? A total of 42 employees from private and public sector organizations in Cordoba, Argentina, were interviewed using Flanagan’s (1954) critical incident technique. The interviews generated 302 critical incidents of which 155 were examples of positive (effective) managerial behavior, and 147 of negative (least effective/ineffective) managerial behavior. The findings suggest that Argentineans perceive as effective those managers who are supportive, considerate, motivating, caring, good decision makers, approachable, participative, fair-minded, communicative, actively involved, and who act as role models; and this challenges the widely held belief that Argentineans prefer authoritarian managers over democratic ones.
    • Between a rock and a hard place: corporate elites in the context of religion and secularism in Turkey

      Yamak, Sibel; Ergur, Ali; Ünsal, Artun; Uygur, Selcuk; Özbilgin, Mustafa (Routledge, 2014-07-24)
      Drawing on discourse analyses of 36 in-depth interviews with elite business people from Turkey, the study identifies the networking patterns of new and established business elites in the context of economic liberalization and socio-religious transformation of the country. Through a comparative analysis of the so-called secular and religious elite networks, we demonstrate the role of institutional actors such as the government, and identity networks, based on religion and place of birth in shaping the form and content of social networks among business elites in Turkey. In order to achieve this, we operationalise Bourdieu’s notion of theory of practice and Granovetter’s theory of social networks, illustrating the utility of combing these approaches in explicating the form and content of social networks in their situated contexts, in which power and divergent interests are negotiated.
    • Big bangs and cold wars

      Seifert, Roger (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015-10-05)
      Purpose: The purpose of this essay is to provide a brief and partial overview of some of the issues and authors that have dominated British industrial relations research since 1965. It is cast in terms of that year being the astronomical Big Bang from which all else was created. It traces a spectacular growth in academic interest and departments throughout the 1970s and 1980s, and then comments on the petering out of the tradition and its very existence (Darlington 2009; Smith 2011). Design/methodology/approach: There are no methods other than a biased look through the literature. Findings: These show a liberal oppression of the Marxist interpretation of class struggle through trade unions, collective bargaining, strikes, and public policy. At first through the Cold War and later, less well because many Marxists survived and thrived in industrial relations departments until after 2000, through closing courses and choking off demand. This essay exposes the hypocrisy surrounding notions of academic freedom, and throws light on the determination of those in the labour movement and their academic allies to push forward wage controls and stunted bargaining regimes, alongside restrictions on strikes, in the name of moderation and the middle ground. Originality/value: an attempt to correct the history as written by the pro tem victors
    • Blasphemy, religious rights and harassment: A workplace study

      Hambler, Andrew (Cambridge University Press, 2017)