• Book review: Gender and social hierarchies

      Jones, Jenni (SAGE Publications, 2016-10-13)
      ‘Gender and Social Hierarchies’ is a collection of peer reviewed research articles examining the impact of gender-based social hierarchies within education, the workplace and beyond. It is written in three parts. Part I explores the consequences of gender stereotypes, Part II discusses women’s struggles in the workplace and Part III uncovers gender-related prejudice.
    • Empowering Disadvantaged Communities in the UK: Missing the Potential of Co-production

      Booth, Jane (SAGE Publications, 2019-06-01)
      Co-production is a model of service delivery aimed at engaging disadvantaged communities to generate a more responsive approach to the design of local services. Such a shift implies the empowerment of disadvantaged communities, transforming them from ‘passive’ recipients of services to more active citizens. However, its potential to enhance citizenship in the UK is becoming lost in the political landscape of austerity and neoliberalism, with behaviour change being imposed on disadvantaged communities rather than enabled through a genuine sharing of power. If co-production is to fulfil its potential, it requires not only disadvantaged communities to engage but also a transformation of the paternalistic professional practices and institutional cultures that reproduce the power relationship between service users and service providers. Furthermore, without engaging citizens in ideological debate, making visible the systemic nature of inequalities, it is hard to see how co-production can bring about the social change it implies. </jats:p>
    • European integration or democracy disintegration in measures concerning police and judicial cooperation?

      Ventrella, Matilde (SAGE Publications, 2013-09-01)
      In recent cases on the European Arrest Warrant, the Court of Justice of the European Union has made decisions which are incompatible with the requirements of national Constitutions on the protection of fundamental rights such as the right to freedom from imprisonment. National Constitutions are acts of national Parliaments which often require the completion of a very difficult procedure in order to be amended. Unfortunately, the Court of Justice has not taken these procedures into consideration when it has ruled that, in order to enhance mutual trust between national judicial authorities, the European Arrest Warrant can be issued even at the sacrifice of freedoms of individuals protected by national Constitutions. Similar judgements are incompatible with decisions made by Constitutional Courts such as the Italian Constitutional Court which states that the Union’s supremacy and the application of the European Arrest Warrant cannot encroach upon the fundamental principles of Constitutions. Elected bodies such as the European Parliament and national Parliaments should decide whether fundamental principles protected by national Constitutions should be set aside. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty could have made the difference as it increased the respective powers of national Parliaments and the European Parliament in the EU decision making procedure. Unfortunately, these changes have not led to more democracy in the criminal area. The result is that the Court of Justice case-law on the European Arrest Warrant is incompatible with the judgments of national Constitutional Courts. This article will show how incompatibility between the different courts and lack of democracy in the criminal area could lead to the failure of police and judicial cooperation between Member States. In order to avoid this failure, it is imperative that measures in the criminal area are adopted by the democratic institutions: the European Parliament and national Parliaments in cooperation with each other. Indeed, these institutions alone, not unelected bodies such as the Court of Justice, should evaluate whether national Constitutions should be set aside in order to fight against criminal organisations.
    • Heading for disaster: Extreme work and skill mix changes in the emergency services of England

      Mather, Kim; Seifert, Roger (SAGE Publications, 2017-02-01)
      This article examines the impact on staff of state-imposed public sector reforms alongside austerity cuts since 2010 in the emergency services of England. We discuss the contextual imperatives for change in the police, fire and ambulance services while exploring their unique labour management and industrial relations’ structures and systems. As elsewhere, the burden of cuts and reforms has fallen on the workforce managed through skill mix changes. Such site-level management responses to austerity are being implemented despite staff concerns, increased dangers to the public, and their non-sustainable nature.
    • The origins of chemical warfare in the French Army

      Krause, Jonathan (SAGE Publications, 2013-11-01)
      Following the Germans’ first use of chlorine gas during the second battle of Ypres, the Entente had to develop means of protection from future poison gas attacks as well as systems for retaliation. This article, through the analysis of heretofore unexamined archival sources, considers early French attempts at engaging in chemical warfare. Contrary to the existing historiography, the French army aggressively adapted to, and engaged in, chemical warfare. Indeed, the French army would be the first to fire asphyxiating gas shells from field guns and, by June 1915, would pioneer the use of gas as a neutralization weapon to be used in counter-battery fire, as opposed to unleashing gas via canisters to engage enemy infantry. Such innovation invites a rethinking not only of French gas efforts but also of the role and evolution of the French army as a whole on the Western Front, a topic which the Anglophone world is in great need of examining further.
    • Reconciling mental health, public policing and police accountability

      McDaniel, John L M (SAGE Publications, 2018-03-26)
      The paper evaluates a range of policy documents, parliamentary debates, academic reports and statutes in an attempt to contextualise the condition of mental health policing in England and Wales. It establishes that mental health care plays an important role in public policing and argues that police organisations need to institute urgent reforms to correct a prevailing culture of complacency. An unethical cultural attitude towards mental health care has caused decision-making and the exercise of police discretion to be neither well informed nor protective in many cases, resulting in the substandard treatment of people with mental health problems. The paper argues that changes introduced by the Policing and Crime Act 2017 and the revised College of Policing mental health guidelines do not go far enough and that more extensive root-and-branch reforms are needed.