• Diffusion of sustainability and CSR discourse in hospitality industry: dynamics of local context

      Ertuna, Bengi; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Yamak, Sibel (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose: Our focus is on the way in which sustainability and CSR discourses and practices emerge in the collaboration of MNCs with the local hotels in developing country contexts. The paper identifies the prevailing institutional orders and logics that bring about CSR and sustainability discourse in tourism industry in Turkey. It also investigates how and to what extent the CSR and sustainability practices align with the local institutional logics and necessities. Design: Empirical evidence is generated through case studies covering Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. (Hilton), its Turkish subsidiary and a local hotel chain to ensure data triangulation. Primary data was collected through interviews with the executives of the selected case hotels, which was supported by extensive secondary data. Findings: Some components of CSR and sustainability logics developed in the headquarters diffuse into local affiliate hotel, not all. Local affiliate hotels seek to acquire local legitimacy in their host environment, despite a standard format imposed by their headquarters. Local necessities and priorities translate themselves into such initiatives in a very limited way in the affiliates of the Hilton where there is mostly a top down approach. Similar approach has also been observed in the case of the local hotel which is part of a family business group. Family’s values and family business headquarter shape the CSR and sustainability strategy and the logics reflecting the local component. Originality/value: Through this study, we are able to add further value to the critical writings about the positive contribution of CSR and sustainability in the context of the MNCs and their subsidiaries, which is not substantiated due to limited empirical evidence.
    • Education policies on access and reduction of poverty: The case of Ghana

      Dzidza, Peter Mawunyo; Jackson, Ian; Normanyo, Amatefee K.; Walsh, Michael; Ikejiaku, Brian-Vincent (Professors World Peace Academy, 2019-12-31)
    • Eine Neubewertung der „Gift Relationship“ in der britischen Geschichte zum Freiwilligensektor

      Gosling, George Campbell (Oldenbourg Verlag, 2019-12-31)
      Es gibt nicht die eine Geschichtsschreibung, die karitative Arbeit, Kampagnen, gemeinnützige Organisationen, Freiwilligenverbände, Zivilgesellschaft, den dritten Sektor und Nichtregierungsorganisationen behandelt. Stattdessen lassen sich vier zentrale Forschungszweige ausmachen, die diesen Bereich neuerer britischer Geschichte abdecken. Sie sind nicht klar voneinander zu trennen, und Historiker wechseln von einem Schwerpunkt zum anderen, aber sie gingen dabei unterschiedlichen Zielsetzungen und Fragestellungen nach. Dazu zählt erstens eine Sozialgeschichte, die sich in erster Linie mit wohltätiger Arbeit und Armutsbekämpfung befasst und diese in den größeren Kontext der Beziehungen zwischen Arm und Reich einordnet. Zweitens ist eine Geschichte der Freiwilligenarbeit zu nennen, die aus dem Wunsch der ehrenamtlich Engagierten heraus entstanden ist, ihre Arbeit historisch zu verorten und aus der eigenen kollektiven Geschichte zu lernen. Drittens gibt es eine politische Geschichte, die sich mit der Beziehung zwischen dem freiwilligen Sektor und dem Staat befasst. Dazu gehören auch Arbeiten, deren besonderes Interesse den Nichtregierungsorganisationen nach 1945 gilt, die sich also einer speziellen Kategorie freiwilliger Organisationen widmen, welche Lobbyarbeit und Interessensvertretung betreiben. Und schließlich haben wir eine Geschichte des Humanitarismus, welche die Begegnungspunkte zwischen Großbritannien und der weiteren Welt untersucht, die von imperialistischen und internationalistischen Impulsen ausgegangen sind, sei es durch Fundraising oder durch die Entsendung freiwilliger Helfer nach Übersee.
    • Creating Shared Value in an industrial conurbation: Evidence from the North Staffordshire Ceramics Cluster

      Jackson, Ian; Limbrick, Lorraine (Wiley, 2019-03-31)
      The claims by Porter and Kramer that the concept of Creating Shared Value is an effective way of reinventing modern capitalism by releasing an upsurge in innovation is misleading because it maintains self-interest principally of large corporations at the centre of the economic system. The long-term development of the North Staffordshire Ceramics cluster suggests that firms such as Wedgwood were developing a primitive form of CSV over 250 years ago at the start of capitalism as opposed to a recent way of reinventing modern capitalism. The evidence of competitive forces remains strong and the resilience of firms in the cluster is much more in line with Schumpeterian “perennial gale of creative destruction” than a “wave of innovation and growth” offered by Porter and Kramer.
    • Courting white southerners: Theodore Roosevelt’s quest for the heart of the South

      Burns, Adam (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-13)
      Most studies of President Theodore Roosevelt address his “southern strategy” to revive the Republican Party’s fortunes in a region where it was effectively shut out by 1900. This essay revisits Roosevelt’s approach to the South between 1901 and 1912 and argues that wooing white southerners away from the Democratic Party, more than any other approach, represented Roosevelt’s overriding strategy for the revitalization of the southern GOP.
    • Environmental and societal attitudes to working hours in gendered perspective: patterns, preferences and policy

      Arntsen, Alexandra; Philp, Bruce; Donegani, Chiara Paola (Taylor and Francis, 2019-01-31)
      This paper begins from the premise that environmental degradation is a profound and present threat and that work time reduction (WTR) ― with an associated reduction in consumption ― is one of a number of strategies which can be adopted to combat it. As a precursor to looking at how such policies can be supported, our research questions whether environmental attitudes are congruent with work time patterns and preferences. Our initial hypothesis was that those who care most for the environment would work less hours than those who exhibit lower levels of environmental concern, and prefer to do so. However, contra our expectations, our empirical analysis of the European Social Survey shows that those who state they care most about the environment are more likely to work longer hours, and prefer to do so. Overall, men tend to be less concerned about the environment, and work longer. Caring responsibilities, in contrast, fall disproportionately on women. We argue that this reflects traditional gender roles which are a residual from the social norm of the male breadwinner model. Given WTR as an environmental policy the task is to influence preferences and “green” human behaviour, especially among men.
    • Innovation and the export performance of firms in transition economies: the relevance of the business environment and the stage of transition

      Recica, Fisnik; Hashi, Iraj; Jackson, Ian; Krasniqi, Besnik (Inderscience, 2019)
      This paper investigates the impact of product and process innovation on firms’ export performance in transition economies (TEs) which embarked on a systemic change from a planned to a market economy in the early 1990s. The research builds on the technology gap theory and the analysis of the self-selection of firms into the export market. Unlike other studies that have focused on the export behaviour of firms in developed economies where business environment is generally stable and favourable, the paper controls for the relevance of business environment and the stage of transition on export performance of firms. The paper uses the firm-level Business Environment and Performance Survey data undertaken by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2002, 2005 and 2008 in 29 TEs. Findings show that the impact of innovation on export performance increases with the transition reforms. Macroeconomic instability acts as a moderating factor of export performance in countries at high transition stage, as it pushes firms to export more, as a risk shifting mechanism. The main implication of the study is that the impact of some explanatory factors on export performance differs through the stages of transition.
    • An examination of the role of service quality and perceived value in visitor attraction experience

      Oriade, Ade; Schofield, Peter (Elsevier, 2018-12-01)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of service quality and perceived value in service experience in UK attraction context. Data was collected in the Midlands Region of the UK from two visitor attractions utilising mixed-mode survey approach. A total of 507 usable questionnaires were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between the constructs. The findings confirm the cognitive-affective-conative order between the service constructs within the context of UK visitor attractions. This study has improved the understanding of the role of value in service experience, particularly attraction context, providing evidence that value exerts relatively more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than service quality. More specifically emotional value exerts more influence on satisfaction and behavioural intention than other forms of value. Managers need to view the visitor experience holistically rather than concentrating on one or two service construct(s).
    • What can screen capture reveal about students’ use of software tools when undertaking a paraphrasing task?

      Bailey, Carol; Withers, Jodi (European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, 2018-11-30)
    • The effects of remittances on education in a post-conflict society: evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina

      Oruc, Nermin; Jackson, Ian; Pugh, Geoffrey (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-20)
      This paper analyses the effects of remittances on the educational enrolment of children in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where a process of forced migration made the relocation decision exogenous. Accordingly, this study has no need of methods to address the endogeneity of remittances. Hence, the approach taken means that the measure of educational enrolment is regressed on a set of individual- and household-level variables. In addition, a new approach to estimation is introduced, whereby the effect of remittances is calculated for each income quintile. It is found that the relationship between remittances and educational enrolment is strong among households from the fourth quintile, which includes households just outside the risk of poverty, while for those in poorer quintiles the effect is not significant.
    • Entrepreneurship education as human capital: implications for youth self-employment and conflict mitigation in sub-Saharan Africa

      Anosike, Paschal (Sage, 2018-11-15)
      Previous research has focused on stable developed economies to predict that human capital and entrepreneurship education (EE) provision at the higher education (HE) level will positively affect entrepreneurial success. This article draws on the outcome of recent EE projects in two HE institutions in a conflict-torn northern Nigeria as a proxy to advocate the introduction of entrepreneurship as a compulsory component into the secondary school curriculum in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using semi-structured interview data, it is found that the provision of EE at secondary education level could help to facilitate human capital development and assist efforts to curb youth unemployment. Specifically, the study suggests that EE comprises both generic and specific human capital that increases an individual’s ability to identify and exploit opportunities, particularly for young people, and in doing so helps to reduce their vulnerability to poverty and involvement in armed conflict. Suggestions for future research and policy considerations are provided.
    • First year law students: the impact of assessment type on attainment

      Jones, Dawn; Ellison, Lynn (Taylor and Francis, 2018-11-02)
      This article describes an action research project that was undertaken to address a poor progression rate at the end of the first year of a single honours law degree. An attainment gap due to gender, age and ethnicity was also noted. The students were predominantly assessed by examinations; therefore a change of assessment to coursework and portfolio in some areas was proposed and actioned as a potential way to increase attainment and consequently progression. Data on pass rates for two years prior to the change of assessment and two years after the change were analysed. The impact of a change of assessment from examination to coursework raised attainment levels overall, but the gender, age and ethnicity gap remained.
    • Assignments of Book Debts – outright transfers of rights or unregistered securities?

      Walton, Peter (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-11-01)
      Businesses are increasingly being financed by receivables financiers who take assignments of a company’s book debts. The receivables finance industry is estimated to be worth over €1.6 trillion across Europe with the U.K. market leading the way. In the event that the company goes bust, the assigned book debts are swept away by the financier, as legal owner, and consequently what is often the only significant asset of a company is not available to the general body of creditors. The financier will either give notice to the debtor at the time of taking the assignment (“debt factoring”) or delay such notice until sometime later (“invoice discounting”). The accepted wisdom is that such agreements are absolute assignments and not security interests and therefore do not require registration under the Companies Act 2006. This article considers the history of assignments of book debts and suggests that an equitable assignment of a debt is not an out-and-out transfer of the debt but operates by way of charge. Such an agreement is therefore a security interest which is void against other creditors without registration. Although the invoice discounter may convert the equitable assignment into a legal assignment by giving notice to the debtor, if that notice is subsequent to the commencement of a formal insolvency process, that notice will be of no effect.
    • Prosuming tourist information: asking questions on TripAdvisor

      Oriade, Ade; Robinson, Peter (Wiley, 2018-10-21)
      This paper aims to improve our knowledge regarding types of queries raised by travellers on digital platforms by developing a model that helps in identifying and classifying such queries. Qualitative data collection and analysis of questions and answer postings of visitors on TripAdvisor forum of 10 U.K. destinations were used. Extracted data were analysed using NVivo11. Preliminary analysis identified basic themes in tourist information search. Further analysis indicated that two principal factors help in classifying online travel queries facilitating the development of the WOLF model. Findings in this study also indicate some practical implications and areas of further study.
    • Cooperation for innovation and its impact on technological and non-technological innovations: empirical evidence for European SMEs in traditional manufacturing industries

      Radicic, Dragana; Douglas, David; Pugh, Geoffrey; Jackson, Ian (World Scientific, 2018-10-18)
      Drawing on a sample of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in traditional manufacturing industries from seven EU regions, this study investigates how cooperation with external organisations affects technological (product and process) innovations and non-technological (organisational and marketing) innovations as well as the commercial success of product and process innovations (i.e., innovative sales). Our empirical strategy takes into account that all four types of innovation are potentially complementary. Empirical results suggest that cooperation increases firms’ innovativeness and yields substantial commercial benefits. In particular, increasing the number of cooperation partnerships has a positive impact on all measures of innovation performance. We conclude that a portfolio approach to cooperation enhances innovation performance and that innovation support programs should be demand-led.
    • The prevalence and overlap of technology-assisted and offline adolescent dating violence

      Stonard, Karlie E. (Springer, 2018-10-17)
      Research has established the nature and prevalence of offline Adolescent Dating Violence (ADV) and the role of Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence (TAADV) has been recently but slowly acknowledged, albeit primarily in the United States. Less research however, has examined such types of violence among British adolescences and the extent of overlap between the two forms of abuse. This paper examines the nature, prevalence and overlap of TAADV and offline ADV victimisation/instigation among a sample of adolescents in England. Four-hundred-and-sixty-nine adolescents (aged 12–18) completed questionnaires regarding their experience of TAADV and ADV. Findings revealed that TAADV involvement was prevalent and was generally characterised by both victimisation and instigation, except for sexual TAADV in which females were more likely to be identified as victims only. Technology appears to have provided new opportunities for victimisation and/or instigation of TAADV exclusively that may not have been possible before the development of such communication tools; however, some adolescents reported experiencing both TAADV and ADV. Implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations are made for future policy, practice and research.
    • Having a voice: a collaborative research project exploring the challenges and assets of people experiencing homelessness

      Massie, Rachel; Machin, Richard; McCormack, Fiona; Kurth, Judith (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-10-15)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the lived experience of people who have experienced homelessness and street activity, and professional stakeholders’ views about the challenges faced by this client group. The study sought to identify measures to improve the current situation for both individuals experiencing homelessness and professionals working with them. Design/methodology/approach: Peer researchers with lived experience of multiple and complex needs conducted semi-structured interviews/surveys with 18 participants (eight individuals experiencing homelessness and street activity and ten professional stakeholders). The authors of the paper conducted a thematic analysis of the data. Findings: This paper offers insights into both the current challenges and assets for people who are or have been homeless in an urban setting. Key findings include the need for a coordinated partnership approach to address pathways to support, and the importance of developing opportunities for meaningful activity and building on local resources including giving homeless people a voice. These findings are discussed within the context of current policy (Housing First) and legislation (Homelessness Reduction Act 2017) and the impact on integrated care for people who have experienced homelessness. Research limitations/implications: The views explored in this study are specific to one city centre in the West Midlands; thus, generalisability may be limited. Originality/value This study presents a participatory research approach with peer researchers exploring the perspective of individuals experiencing homelessness and wider stakeholders. The findings of this research are considered with reference to the provisions of the HRA 2017.
    • From weregild to a way forward? English restorative justice in its historical context

      Cox, David J.; Devi-McGleish, Yasmin (University of Wolverhampton, 2018-10-11)
      This article challenges the prevalent view of restorative justice as a new ‘technique’ within the English criminal justice system. By discussing a number of historical examples of non-traditional forms of justice, which the article argues can be seen as largely restorative in nature, it suggests that the use of restorative justice in the present day has a long tradition, albeit one whose historic practices and processes remain relatively unexplored by many criminologists. It does not presume to offer easy answers to the effectiveness or otherwise of restorative justice, but rather aims to present the ideas and theories behind the concept in an historical context in such a way as to illuminate possible avenues forward in its modern applications.
    • Legal skills and the SQE: Confronting the challenge head on

      Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-09)
      The approval of the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE)1 in April 2018 by the Legal Services Board2 heralds the demise of the Legal Practice Course (LPC). The new route to qualification announced by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) also removes the requirement for a qualifying law degree3 prior to entering the legal profession as a solicitor, an undergraduate degree is required but the discipline is no longer prescribed. This change in approach creates new challenges for both Universities and students in relation to the acquisition of legal skills and understanding of professional conduct4 and the extent to which these elements should be incorporated into the LLB. Whether or not the LLB provided by an institution aims to include preparation for the SQE, a vocational legal education, or whether the institution offers a liberal law degree without SQE preparation will determine the degree to which practical legal skills and professional conduct will be a requisite. A liberal law degree can be seen as ‘one which does not focus on education for a particular purpose other than education itself. It is not aimed at preparing students for a particular job or profession and is not concerned with notions such as employability.’5 For those institutions offering SQE preparation the challenge may be retaining sufficient opportunities for students to engage with socio-legal writing while also covering the essential practical elements required by the SQE. This is a challenge identified by Rigg as “the dual function of providing a liberal legal education while facilitating student and external expectations of employability”.