• No recourse to social work? statutory neglect, social exclusion and undocumented migrant families in the UK

      Jolly, Andrew (Cogitatio, 2018-08-30)
      Families in the UK with an irregular migration status are excluded from most mainstream welfare provision through the no recourse to public funds rule, and statutory children’s social work services are one of the few welfare services available to undocumented migrant families. This article draws on semi-structured interviews with undocumented migrant families who are accessing children’s services support to illustrate the sometimes uneasy relationship between child welfare law and immigration control. Outlining the legislative and policy context for social work with undocumented migrant families in the UK, the article argues that the exclusion of migrant families from the welfare state by government policy amounts to a form of statutory neglect which is incompatible with the global social work profession’s commitment to social justice and human rights.
    • Having a voice: a collaborative research project exploring the challenges and assets of people experiencing homelessness

      Massie, Rachel; Machin, Richard; McCormack, Fiona; Kurth, Judith (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-08)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the lived experience of people who have experienced homelessness and street activity, and professional stakeholders’ views about the challenges faced by this client group. The study sought to identify measures to improve the current situation for both individuals experiencing homelessness and professionals working with them. Design/methodology/approach: Peer researchers with lived experience of multiple and complex needs conducted semi-structured interviews/surveys with 18 participants (eight individuals experiencing homelessness and street activity and ten professional stakeholders). The authors of the paper conducted a thematic analysis of the data. Findings: This paper offers insights into both the current challenges and assets for people who are or have been homeless in an urban setting. Key findings include the need for a coordinated partnership approach to address pathways to support, and the importance of developing opportunities for meaningful activity and building on local resources including giving homeless people a voice. These findings are discussed within the context of current policy (Housing First) and legislation (Homelessness Reduction Act 2017) and the impact on integrated care for people who have experienced homelessness. Research limitations/implications: The views explored in this study are specific to one city centre in the West Midlands; thus, generalisability may be limited. Originality/value This study presents a participatory research approach with peer researchers exploring the perspective of individuals experiencing homelessness and wider stakeholders. The findings of this research are considered with reference to the provisions of the HRA 2017.
    • The apology in democracies: reflections on the challenge of competing goods, citizenship, nationalism and pluralist politics

      Cunningham, Michael (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)
      Much of the literature related to the issue of the political apology has focused on one of three areas; attempts to provide a definition of what a ‘real’ or genuine apology looks like and what criteria have to be satisfied to provide one, normative defences of the apology as contributing to various desirable outcomes (e.g. recognition, reconciliation, justice) and the grappling with issues such as collective or transgenerational responsibility, which underpin the coherence of the apology.
    • Iura Novit Arbiter in England and Wales; the exercise of arbital discretion

      Mistelis, Loukas; Potocnik, Metka (Juris Legal Information, 2018-03)
      The role and function of the principle iura novit arbiter is contested and controversial in international arbitration. Whereas courts in civil law jurisdictions accept this principle more broadly, courts in common law jurisdictions are less willing to accept its existence in international arbitration. This chapter reviews the existing legal position in the United Kingdom (with focus on England and Wales) and argues that the broad powers of arbitral tribunals as provided for in sections 33(1)(b) and 34(2)(g) of the English Arbitration Act (1996) are better viewed as important efficiency drivers in the case management of arbitral proceedings and are less to be viewed as aspects of a “truth finding” exercise to be performed by arbitrators. Even if arbitrators find an independent line of inquiry in a case they are adjudicating, they must present this thinking to the parties, as failing to do so, would typically result in the setting aside of the award under section 68(2)(a) EAA.
    • Legal skills and the SQE: Confronting the challenge head on

      Jones, Dawn (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
      The approval of the Solicitors Qualifying Examination (SQE)1 in April 2018 by the Legal Services Board2 heralds the demise of the Legal Practice Course (LPC). The new route to qualification announced by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) also removes the requirement for a qualifying law degree3 prior to entering the legal profession as a solicitor, an undergraduate degree is required but the discipline is no longer prescribed. This change in approach creates new challenges for both Universities and students in relation to the acquisition of legal skills and understanding of professional conduct4 and the extent to which these elements should be incorporated into the LLB. Whether or not the LLB provided by an institution aims to include preparation for the SQE, a vocational legal education, or whether the institution offers a liberal law degree without SQE preparation will determine the degree to which practical legal skills and professional conduct will be a requisite. A liberal law degree can be seen as ‘one which does not focus on education for a particular purpose other than education itself. It is not aimed at preparing students for a particular job or profession and is not concerned with notions such as employability.’5 For those institutions offering SQE preparation the challenge may be retaining sufficient opportunities for students to engage with socio-legal writing while also covering the essential practical elements required by the SQE. This is a challenge identified by Rigg as “the dual function of providing a liberal legal education while facilitating student and external expectations of employability”.
    • War-stained: British Combatants and Uniforms, 1914–18

      Ugolini, Laura (Taylor & Francis, 2014)
      Historians have long recognised the role of military uniforms in marking the transformation of civilians into servicemen. However, this was not a simple transition, completed the moment individuals put on service dress shortly after enlistment. Rather, the process of transformation continued throughout servicemen’s life in the military, reflecting changed circumstances that might include a move to a different war theatre, promotion or illness and injury. Focusing on the experiences of British soldiers during the First World War, this article explores the meanings of uniforms as servicemen were transformed from raw recruits into experienced combatants. It questions the extent to which the stained and worn uniforms that seemed the inevitable outcome of front line duty were seen as consistent with the manly heroism expected of soldiers, paying attention not only to the army authorities’ insistence on ‘spit and polish’, but especially to combatants’ perceptions of the effect of dirt on their own identities and sense of self. Thus, this article argues, the transformation into combatants involved potentially dangerous and degrading encounters with dirt and vermin, but also the development of strategies – centred on bodies and on uniforms – that sought to counter the threat of long-term harm and pollution.
    • ‘Get a blue and you will see your money back again’: staffing and marketing the English prep school, 1890–1912

      Benson, John (Cambridge University Press, 2014)
      This article explores the ways in which English prep schools were staffed and marketed in the years before the First World War. Its aim more specifically is to employ a biographical approach to consider the emphasis that the schools placed upon sport, and in particular the extent to which they recruited Oxford and Cambridge Blues as teachers (and/or as coaches). It will be suggested that while prep schools certainly placed enormous emphasis upon sport, few of them employed Blues; and that even the small number which did, generally did so only on a part-time, seasonal or casual basis – and made virtually no mention of them in their marketing.
    • Banking Reform Struggles On

      Haynes, A. (Oxford University Press, 2015)
    • Working Documents: Ballpoint Pen Marginalia, 1930s Police Files and Security Intelligence Practices

      Millar, Grace (Stout Research Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2017)
      On 12 July 1933, John Hayes, an Auckland detective, attended a meeting at the Auckland Town Hall protesting unemployment policy. The next day he typed a report about that meeting and signed his name. Seventy-eight years later that report was released to Archives New Zealand. In that time, 17 additional marks were made on the report: other people signed it, names were ticked, the page was numbered and file markers were added (figure 1).1 Hayes’ report was a working document for decades, the many notations demonstrating how much the document had been used. Careful study of these notations over the life of such documents can shed light on political surveillance practice and policy.
    • Identifying Communists: Continuity in Political Policing, 1931-1951

      Millar, Grace (Stout Research Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2017)
      On 14 April 1931, Constable E.R. Trask wrote a report which began: ‘I respectfully report that acting on instructions received, I attended a Communist Meeting, which was held in the Communist hall.’ 1 He carefully noted the names of all those who attended whom he believed to be communists. This typified police practice at that time. In other words, identification and surveillance of suspected or known communists in meetings, on demonstrations and in other settings, dominated political policing long before the Cold War. For the New Zealand Police Force, anti-communism was an organising worldview with communist influence their general explanation for any radical activity. This article examines how New Zealand police officers understood dissent among unemployed workers in the 1930s and during the 1951 waterfront dispute, and concludes that continuity in political policing prevailed, despite the momentous events of World War Two and the early Cold War years which intervened. It argues that policing methodology is a form of social knowledge, so that the words in the written police archives need to be seen in the broader perspective of surveillance as a knowledge system into which new constables were socialised. For example, each year detectives from other centres were sent to Christchurch during its Show Week in November to keep their ‘own city criminals under observation and to point them out’ to local police.2 This model of policing was already dated by the 1930s, even more so by the 1950s, but it continued to inform and structure political policing.
    • Post-CMEA Economic Relations of Former Soviet Bloc Countries and Russia: Continuity and Change

      Dangerfield, Martin (Leipziger Universitatsverlag, 2018-03-20)
      This article relects on how the economic and trade relations of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia with Russia have developed in the twenty years since the abolition of the CMEA. The article’s main indings are as follows. First, there have been two distinct phases in postCMEA trade patterns. After a long period of stagnation prior to EU accession, Russia has since become a signiicant export market for all three states. For the three, the build-up of export capacity during EU pre-accession was arguably more important than EU entry per se. Second, energy dependency, a key CMEA-era interconnection, has remained a signiicant feature of economic relations between Russia and the three throughout the post-CMEA era. Third, the growing importance of bilateral intergovernmental instruments charged with promoting trade and economic cooperation between Russia and the three has been a notable feature of the post-004 period. Fourth, the main political parties in each of the three tended to take diferent positions on economic relations with Russia. Yet changes of government seem to have been rather marginal in terms of both the conduct of economic relations with Russia and levels of trade and economic cooperation, especially in the post-004 period.
    • Dilemmas of post-enlargement Europe: Building and 'Insecurity Zone'

      Dangerfield, Martin (Kaunas University of Technology, 2016-10-01)
      This article reflects on the development and operation of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) from the perspective of the post-1989 attempt to extend the West European ‘Security Community’ into the wider Europe via processes of both EU enlargement and attempts to foster deep integration with former Soviet states. Whilst the EU’s strategy towards eastern neighbours should certainly not be taken as the sole or even key cause of the ‘insecurity zone’ in and around the EU’s eastern frontier, it seems hard to avoid the conclusion that actions such as the ENP and EaP have played an important part in these developments. This is an analytical contribution rather than a study based on primary research. As well as extending existing discussions about the expansion of the European Security Community and the application of the ‘Optimum Integration Area’ concept to the EaP countries, the article includes a focus on EU states’ economic relations with Russia which is a critical albeit underexplored constraint upon EU ‘eastern’ policy.
    • The Role of 'Letters to the Editor' in Shaping Mass Media Representations of Brexit

      Dangerfield, Martin (St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria, 2018)
      Brexit has commanded an enormous amount of attention in the UK media, both before and since the In-Out referendum on June 23 2016. Though various studies have already considered the overall role of newspapers in affecting attitudes towards the EU in the UK, this paper will focus on an area in which there has so far been no research: the role of ‘Letters to the Editor’ in newspaper contributions to the Brexit debate and their parts in equipping voters to make an informed choice. It looks at six UK national newspapers, all with varied stances on the EU and with different tones and styles of getting messages across to readers. All letters published in each paper during the month leading up to the referendum will be scrutinised with a view to throwing some light on the following initial questions. To what extent did readers’ letters tend to support and reinforce each newspaper’s stance on ‘Leave’ or ‘Remain’? To what extent did readers’ letters contribute to a real debate in each newspaper, i.e. disputing the content of articles or editorials published by the newspapers or disputing other readers’ letters? How, if at all, did the role of readers’ letters vary between the six newspapers? Finally, were there any differences of note in the style and format of the different newspapers’ letters pages?
    • Race discrimination at work: the moderating role of trade unionism in English Local government

      Seifert, Roger; Wang, Wen (Wiley, 2018-06-21)
      Workplace racism remains a serious issue despite over forty years of legislation alongside a raft of HRM policies. There remains limited research on the differences in employment experiences of British Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff and their white colleagues. There is a power imbalance at work as between individual employees and management, and this lack of equity has been traditionally counterbalanced by strong workplace trade unionism. In particular, we know little about the role of trade unionism on the perception of workplace equality among BAME employees. Using more than 2,580 valid responses from full‐time employees in highly unionised local councils, this study shows that BAME employees have a significantly lower evaluation than their white colleague of fair pay and equal work environment. The latter fully mediates the negative perception between BAME staff and fair pay; and furthermore, the perception of union commitment to equality strengthened their views of a management‐supported equal work environment.
    • Is knowledge that powerful? Financial literacy and access to finance: An analysis of enterprises in the UK

      Hussain, Javed; Salia, Samuel; Karim, Amin (Emerald, 2018-08)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the Midlands region of the UK. It assesses whether financial literacy assists SMEs to overcome information asymmetry, mitigates the need for collateral, optimizes capital structure and improves access to finance. Design/methodology/approach To gain a deeper insight into the complex relationship between financial literacy, access to finance and growth, a qualitative research is carried out among SMEs that have operated for over five years or longer. Using the purposive sampling technique, 37 firms were selected based on size, location and characteristics, mainly from the city of Birmingham and the joining conurbations. Open-ended and a combination of dichotomous questions were used for the survey. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Findings Financial literacy is an interconnecting resource that mitigates information asymmetry and collateral deficit when evaluating loan applications, therefore financial literacy should be part of school curriculum. The analysis suggests enhanced financial literacy, reduces monitoring cost and serves to optimize firms’ capital structure that positively impacts on SMEs growth. Financial management knowledge is recognized as the core resource that aids an effective decision making by owners of SMEs. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this research is the small sample that limits its generalization. Its findings could be enhanced by a larger sample and by conducting comparative studies in other regions or economies. SMEs growth is seen as a strategic policy to stimulate enterprise but the finance gap tends to constrain that objective. The UK Government’s effort to improve access to finance and to mitigate excessive collateral demands by lenders has proved elusive. This empirical research provides evidence that financial literacy enhances access to finance and, in turn, promotes growth potentials. Practical implications The results of this study advocate the provision of financial literacy at schools and target support for SMEs to acquire financial management skills in order to mitigate information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers. Social implications Findings suggest that financial literacy mediates access to finance, enables enterprises to use optimal financial structure to mitigate business failure, creates employment and reduces public sector support for social benefits. Originality/value This study is novel in that it examines financial literacy and its implications for access to finance and firm growth in the UK. The study is an effort to highlight the role of financial information in mitigating barriers to finance for SMEs.
    • BAME staff and public service motivation: the mediating role of perceived fairness in English local government

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, R (Springer, 2018-07-16)
      This study aims to examine the perceptions of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff in English local government on the ethical nature of their treatment at work, and its mediating effect on their Public Service Motivation (PSM). This is a particular imperative in a sector which itself delivers social justice within a strong regulatory system designed to ensure workplace equality and therefore is expected to be a model employer for other organisations. Employees place great importance on their fair treatment by their employers and, in particular, the endeavour of managerial authority to implement equality at work based on their discretionary powers. 2580 valid responses were collected from 15,000 questionnaires sent to staff in five local councils in England. Our analyses show that BAME employees have a significantly stronger PSM than their white colleagues; however, this has been eroded by their perception of unfair treatment: being underpaid allied with a lack of effort from management to ensure an equal work environment, to be specific, to prevent discrimination, bullying, and racism at workplace. Most importantly, the perceived exertion made by management to ensure an equal work environment has a significantly strong mediating effect on PSM and a compensational effect on perceived lower pay. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Brexit and the fight against human trafficking: Actual situation and future uncertainty

      Ventrella, Matilde (University of Marmara, 2018)
      By leaving the EU, the UK will also leave EU agencies such as Europol and Eurojust. Brexit, therefore, may create a gap in cooperation between law enforcement authorities of different Member States in their ability to detect human trafficking. Legal instruments such as the European Arrest Warrant may be repealed and the UK may reduce their cooperation in EU criminal matters. While the UK was part (and is still part) of the EU, it could choose to join EU legal measures in the criminal area. After Brexit, this possibility will no longer be available anywhere is the risk they will decide not to be bound by the Human Trafficking Directive. This article seeks to explore where the UK stands in the fight against human trafficking and what position it may adopt after Brexit. Subsequently, the article explicates the claim that a larger number of vulnerable people may be targeted by criminal organisations and recruited for the purpose of human trafficking and forced labour because EU citizens may no longer be entitled to live in the UK with the same rights and entitlements. This analysis will be conducted by examining EU legislation in the criminal area, UK legislation on human trafficking and the proposals presented by the UK government.
    • CSR and leadership approaches and practices: a comparative inquiry of owners and professional executives

      Yamak, Sibel; Ergur, Ali; Karatas-Ozkan, Mine; Tatli, Ahu (Wiley, 2018)
      This study generates comparative insights into CSR approaches of owners and non-kin professional executives in an emerging country context, Turkey. Drawing on 61 interviews, we found that ownership status of the executive is crucial in shaping their CSR perceptions and practices. Owner-executives are empowered in pursuing CSR approaches based on their personal preferences and values; they have mostly societal aims. Professionals display tendency for company-related CSR practice; they exhibit greater knowledge of CSR, and their CSR initiatives are the results of strategic choices to enhance their power within the corporation. Our paper contributes to the debate on the drivers for CSR by accounting for both societal and individual influences on the CSR agency of these two key groups of executives. First, we develop a typology of CSR approaches of owners and professionals. Second, we provide insights from an emerging country context. Third, we present empirically grounded practice implications for CSR.