• The use of Socrative in university social science teaching

      Pryke, Sam (Berghahn Press, 2020-04-01)
      Socrative is an online platform that allows a teacher to put questions to students through an app on their smart phone or tablet. In existence since 2011, its use is now quite common in university teaching. But is Socrative any good? This article reviews the literature on the device and discusses my research on the use of the app, the first carried out with social science students. The secondary research findings are that students find Socrative easy to use, fun, of genuine benefit to their learning and a medium that aids active participation. Further, there is evidence that it benefits attainment as testing helps memory retention. My research findings broadly concur. Also considered is how Socrative use can be extended beyond revision style testing, to introduce students to new information that challenges existing beliefs and to elicit controversial opinions and sensitive information.
    • “Something is happening and you don’t know what it is”: The music and entertainment press

      Glen, Patrick; Conboy, Martin; Finkelstein, David (University of Edinburgh, 2020-01-01)
      Coleman joined the Melody Maker at their Fleet Street office in 1960, and at first found it hard to adjust to a different style of showbiz journalism. He couldn't see what was ‘newsworthy’ about a string of Cliff Richard tour dates and preferred to stir up a row with the BBC or research a heavily angled investigation into the music business. Feeling frustrated, he planned to defect to the Daily Telegraph. Then he encountered a classic put-down from a Telegraph executive at his job interview. Asked where he worked, he replied: ‘The Melody Maker.’ And before that? ‘The Manchester Evening News.’ After a long pause, the executive inquired icily: ‘Tell me, Mr Coleman, why did you leave journalism?’ The anecdote, taken from Roy Coleman’s obituary (Independent 13 September 1996) reveals a common preconception about the entertainment press: it was a journalistic backwater, a place for fanatics and second-rate journalists, where publishers made easy money. The view misses the significance of a medium where the entertainment industry and the public came together to discuss the creative practices, performances and commercial products of artistes. These journalistic and publishing practices were not performed in isolation: the entertainment press, often implicitly but also knowingly, constructed and represented broader understandings of society, politics and culture.
    • Rapport final: Forum sur la gouvernance forestière, Brazzaville 2018

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Nyirenda, Richard; Nkodia, Alfred; Moukouri, Serge; Nzala, Donatien; Baur, Dani (University of Wolverhampton, Centre for International Development and Training, 2019-01-24)
      Les forêts du Bassin du Congo constituent l’un des plus importants réservoirs de biodiversité dans le monde. Elles fournissent des moyens de subsistance à plus de 75 millions de personnes qui comptent sur les ressources naturelles locales. Mais à cause de la mauvaise gouvernance observée, cette richesse tend à disparaître au fil des temps, ce qui représente une menace pour la survie des populations qui y sont installées. De nombreuses initiatives ont vu le jour pour pallier cette situation parmi lesquelles la certification forestière, REDD+ et les APV-FLEGT. Les pays du bassin du Congo ont fait de la gouvernance forestière une priorité au sein de la Commission des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC). Pour y parvenir, il est évident que toutes les parties prenantes à la gestion durable des forêts se sentent concernées et doivent s’impliquer. Dans cette perspective, le projet C4CV, cofinancé par l’Union européenne et le DFID a organisé le Forum régional sur la Gouvernance Forestière (FGF) en République du Congo. Ce projet est mis en œuvre au Cameroun, en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, au Gabon et en République du Congo. Sous la direction du CIDT de l’université de Wolverhampton, les organisations partenaires dudit projet dans les cinq pays sont : le Centre pour l’Information Environnementale et le Développement Durable (CIEDD), le centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) et Forêts et développement Rural (FODER) au Cameroun ; l’Observatoire de la Gouvernance Forestière (OGF) en RDC ; Brainforest au Gabon ; le Cercle d’Appui à la Gestion Durable des Forêts (CAGDF) en République du Congo, y compris le Field Legality Advisory Group (FLAG) en tant que partenaire régional et le World Resources Institute (WRI) en tant que partenaire international. Calqué sur le modèle des réunions semestrielles de mise à jour sur l’exploitation illégale à Chatham House, le FGF vise à contribuer aux buts plus étendus du projet CV4C à travers le partage d’expériences et la sensibilisation, et en promouvant le profil des processus APV-FLEGT et REDD+. La 11ème édition du FGF a été organisée en collaboration avec le Partenariat pour les Forêts du Bassin du Congo (PFBC), en vue de la préparation de la Rencontre des Parties de haut niveau, prévue pour la semaine du 26 novembre 2018 à Bruxelles.
    • Summary report of the Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum: creating space for stakeholder participation in forest governance

      Begum, Rufsana; Mei, Giorgia; Nyirenda, Richard; Kouetcha, Christelle; Mbzibain, Aurelian (Centre for International Development and Training, University of Wolverhampton, 2016-09-02)
      The Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum held 16th-18th March 2016 at Hotel La Falaise, Yaoundé was the first to be held under the auspices of the Congo Basin VPA Implementation - Championing Forest Peoples’ Rights and Participation Project (EU-CFPR) project. It is the tenth under a series of similar international conferences implemented under the Centre for International Development and Training (CIDT)’s previous project ‘Strengthening African Forest Governance’ (SAFG). The EU-CFPR project is supported by the European Union and DFID and is implemented in the Central African Republic (CAR) and Cameroon. The project is led by the Centre for International Development and Training (CIDT), University of Wolverhampton, working in partnership with Centre pour l’Information Environnementale et le Développement Durable (CIEDD), Maison de l’Enfant et de la Femme Pygmées (MEFP) in CAR, Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) and Forêts et Développement Rural (FODER) in Cameroon, FERN and Forest Peoples Programme (FPP) in Europe. The Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum was also delivered with the generous support of a number of organisations and initiatives. These included the EU FAO FLEGT Programme, the DFID funded FLEGT-VPA support programme, the Forest Stewardship Council, the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR Regional Office, Cameroon) and the Cameroon Ministry of Forests and Wildlife. The Cameroon Regional FGF was the first in which the FSC was officially involved. The aim of the Cameroon Regional FGF was to contribute to the wider aims of the EU-CFPR project through experience sharing and raising awareness, and the profile of FLEGT-VPA process. The specific objective of the Cameroon Regional FGF was to provide a free, deliberative and open space for the exchange of information, experiences, lessons, ideas and up to date research around Forest Governance, FLEGT-VPAs and other initiatives seeking to improve forest governance and combat illegal logging. This objective was met in full as will be highlighted in this report.
    • Améliorer la gouvernance forestière en Afrique Centrale: Bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises de la collaboration entre parlementaires, société civile et médias

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Amine, Khadidja (University of Wolverhampton, 2016-01-01)
      Le Bassin du Congo comprend environ 70 % de la couverture forestière de l’Afrique: sur les 530 millions d’hectares du bassin du Congo, 300 millions sont couverts par la forêt. Ces forêts hébergent quelques 30 millions de personnes et fournissent des moyens de subsistance à plus de 75 millions de personnes qui comptent sur les ressources naturelles locales. Bien que la déforestation et la dégradation des forêts soient restées à un niveau faible dans le bassin du Congo, elles ont toutes deux nettement accéléré au cours des dernières années.
    • Exploring the impact of the Improving forest governance (IFG) course: a study on 4 years (2010-2013) of IFG course delivery

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Pavey, Marc; Nyirenda, Richard; Haruna, Ella; Thomas, Sarah; Mahony, Desmond; Dearden, Philip; Begum, Rufsana (University of Wolverhampton, Centre for International Development and training, 2015-07-01)
      This study explores the impact of the Improving Forest Governance course, a UK-based training programme aimed at frontline players in timber producing and processing countries. The course aims to build capacity of participants to engage in and lead on activities promoting better forest governance. This report looks at the extent to which course alumni have been able to improve forest governance, and illustrates the specific outcomes which demonstrate that.
    • Developing capacity, confidence and voice: experiences from a five-year capacity building for improving forest governance model

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Begum, Rufsana; Haruna, Ella; Nyirenda, Richard; Pavey, Marc (World Forestry Congress 2015, 2015-09-07)
      The objective of this paper is to share lessons learnt from the Centre for International Development and Training’s (CIDT) five-year capacity building (CB) model for improving forest governance (FG). The model develops individual, organisational, and institutional capacities and creates “venues of accountability” that facilitate cross-country learning. The model operates at three levels: international, regional and national. The first component is a UK-based programme of training and mentoring that targets mid-level FG champions from government, private sector and civil society in 20+ countries/3 continents. This is complemented by a series of high-level regional Forest Governance Forums (FGFs) facilitated in selected countries (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Liberia) and tailored national CB events co-delivered with local partners. Data is drawn from online surveys of international alumni, regional FGF participants and 80 face-to-face interviews with various stakeholders from 15 countries. Results show significant improvements in knowledge, skills, attitudes and confidence of course participants, with evidence of effective application of learning and multiplier effects on the ground. Additionally, the value of north-south and south-south exchanges is evidenced by the creation of networks and alliances of FG champions. The findings also demonstrate the innovativeness of FGFs as spaces of accountability and cross-country learning, notably because they ensure momentum on FG reforms is maintained at national, regional and international levels. The implications of this work to policy and practice are discussed.
    • Pointing, telling and showing: multimodal deitic enrichment during in-vision news sign language translation

      Stone, Christopher; Tipton, Rebecca; Desilla, Louisa (Routledge, 2019-06-07)
      The Broadcasting Act 1996, chapter 55, section 20, placed a legal obliged on broadcaster in the UK to include British Sign Language (BSL) in their programmes either have, presentation in, or translation into, sign language. This has included the translation into BSL of current affairs programmes, popular programmes and soaps with a variety of Deaf and hearing T/Is being employed to undertake this work. This in-vision translation is not new, and has preceded 1996 (Ladd, 200?), but little attention has been paid to the multimodal nature of the translation and the pragmatics of delivering a seen translation, with the translator viewed by the audience, presenting a translation that interacts with other elements on the television screen. This involves the representation of the news and other current affairs to ensure that sign language using deaf people have access to the news in their first or preferred language.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; McDaniel, John LM; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken G (Routledge, 2020-01-10)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and wellbeing of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • Enhancing the accountability and transparency of transnational police cooperation within the European Union

      McDaniel, John; Lavorgna, Anita; McDaniel, John LM; Stonard, Karlie; Cox, David J (Routledge, 2019-10-29)
      The EU’s development of advanced instruments and processes of police cooperation on both policy and operational fronts presents new challenges and opportunities for conventional approaches to police accountability and transparency. Although no substantive mention is made of police accountability under Title V of the Lisbon Treaty 2009, it can be expected that the EU’s common transnational measures draw upon, reconcile and enhance Member State approaches to police accountability which are rooted in long-standing constitutional, legal and administrative traditions and values. This chapter will consider whether and to what extent various Member State norms on police accountability and transparency are informing the concept, design and operation of the EU policing regime and vice versa. More particularly, it will recommend the development of a new ethos of ‘transnational police accountability’ which should guide and shape EU policy-making in this area.
    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Nearly every major French colony experienced some form of organized anticolonial resistance during, and as a direct result of, the First World War. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, New Caledonia, and Indochina all experienced rebellion of some notable scope. Similar patterns of unrest also developed in the British, Russian, Italian and Ottoman empires during the First World War, suggesting a global moment for anticolonialism. These rebellions took place for many different reasons, in a wide range of historical, cultural, political and economic contexts. For all their contextual diversity, however, the anticolonial rebellions that erupted from 1914 through to the 1920s could not help but be influenced by the realities presented by the First World War. The two principal realities that influenced and helped spark anticolonial rebellions in the First World War were the reduction of colonial occupation forces across Africa and Asia and the recruitment of Afro-Asians for military and industrial service in Europe, often through coercive means. The direct influence of aspects of the First World War in sparking anticolonial rebellions across large swathes of Africa and Asia demand that we discuss these rebellions as part of both the global experience and legacy of the First World War.
    • From balletics to ballistics: French artillery, 1897-1916

      Krause, Jonathan (BJMH, 2019-12-31)
      The fighting on the Western Front during the First World War was characterized by the mass use of artillery and, thanks to scholarship from recent decades, is now understood as a crucible for learning and innovation. This article follows the trajectory of French artillery capabilities, mental and mechanical, from the late 19th century through to 1916.
    • Black Britain in the weekly music press during the late-1960s and 1970s

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Music is a means of communicating and sharing. Sounds and lyrics, even the most abstract or oblique, can document memories, impressions of the present and articulate desires for the future that listeners unpack and reinterpret imposing their own contexts, experiences and prior understandings. Recorded music provided a memory technology that allowed these ideas, sounds and cultures to be articulated, transmitted and interpreted more quickly and further than oral cultures previously allowed. A culture industry and mass media (newspapers, magazines, books television and radio) gave certain—profoundly shaped by capitalism, creating and perpetuating structures of power in society—recorded songs and musics the chance to be shared across and between countries and continents. Within the colonial and post-colonial context Britain after 1945, music made and performed by people who had arrived in Britain from colonies, created in dialogue with those who remained, and the reaction to it by their ‘hosts’, provided an impression of both new arrivals and British society. As Jon Stratton argues regarding Caribbean migration to Britain, ‘[music] offered sites for memory and identity, a refuge from the present and a source of opposition and to and commentary on the migrants’ circumstances. In the new situation cultural exchange with the dominant culture was inevitable.’
    • “Who is Mr. Karlheinz Stockhausen? Introduce Me”: Responses to Krautrock/Kosmische in 1970s Britain

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      During the 1970s, British music fans came to know several West German avant-garde rock or ‘Krautrock’ bands through the music press, radio, television, tours and record releases. This occurred as Britain’s relationship with Europe and West Germany shifted through membership of the Common Market from 1973 and as Cold War allies. This article explores how musical encounters and the broader historical and socio-political context affected British representations of Germany and Germans. It argues that in spite of a changing historical context and space for meaningful, nuanced representations, the myths and memory of the Second World War and general clichés about Germans remained highly resilient. Representations of Germans and Germany in popular music culture, authored by the post-War generation, suggest the importance of Germany as a counterpoint to understandings British national identity and characteristics, and the ways in which ideas of British cultural superiority circulated in popular culture.
    • Iron lion or paper tiger? The myth of British naval intervention in the American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard (Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, 2015-01-15)
      When it comes to the thought-provoking subject of foreign intervention in the Civil War, especially by Great Britain, much of the history has been more propaganda than proper research; fiction over fact. In 1961, Kenneth Bourne offered up a fascinating article on “British Preparations for War with the North, 1861–1862” for the English Historical Review. While focusing largely on the military defense of Canada during the Trent Affair, Bourne also stressed that Britain’s “position at sea was by no means so bad,” though he potentially confused the twentieth-century reader by referring to “battleships” rather than (steam-powered, sail, and screw-propelled) wooden ships-of-the-line, for example. This blurred the important technological changes that were certainly in play by 1861—and not necessarily in Britain’s favor. The Great Lakes the British considered to be largely a write-off as there were no facilities in place for building ironclads, much less floating wooden gunboats up frozen rivers and canals during the long winter season. American commerce and industrialization in the Midwest, on the other hand, had led to booming local ports like Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland—all facilitated by new railroads. Of course, Parliament had not seen to maximizing the defense of the British Empire’s many frontiers and outposts over the years. If anything, the legendary reputation of the Royal Navy continually undermined that imperative. That left the onus of any real war against the United States to Britain’s ability to lay down a naval offensive. And while Bourne was content to trust the judgment of an anonymous British officer in Colburn’s United Service Magazine that “1273 guns” were available to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Milne’s North American and West Indies naval forces during the Trent crisis, the same publication also went on to warn its contemporary British readers that “in calculating the power of the Northern States at sea, we must not be deluded by the ships actually in existence, but must reckon on those that may be built.” The author might have added that of the 86 guns of Milne’s flagship, HMS Nile, for example, or the 91 guns of the newer Agamemnon (launched in 1852 and reinforcing the British naval base at Bermuda from Gibraltar), no more than a third were 8-inch (65 cwt. ) shell-firing guns, the rest being 32-pounders in use since the Napoleonic era. In fact, the more deep-draft, screw-propelled ships-of-the-line the Admiralty dispatched to Milne, the more nervous he became. The 101-gun Conqueror ran aground in the Bahamas on December 13, 1861, a total loss. The British admiral pleaded for more shallow-draft paddle steamers, like those in use by the Union navy. Indeed, it was the lighter craft of the Yankees which proved better adapted for warfare in American waters.
    • ‘Had we used the Navy’s bare fist instead of its gloved hand’: The absence of coastal assault vessels in the Royal Navy by 1914

      Fuller, Howard (British Commission for Military History, 2017-06-02)
      This paper will briefly chart how and why the Royal Navy chose not to develop coastal assault vessels—namely heavy-gunned, light-draught monitors specially designed to absorb damage from modern mines or torpedoes—until well after the First World War began. Churchill and Fisher envisaged these particular men-of-war as the floating equivalent of tanks, both ‘intended to restore to the stronger power an effective means of the offensive’. Only when they were finally launched and deployed in sufficient numbers could serious plans for projecting power directly against the German coastline be safely considered. So where were the monitors before the war?
    • Determinants of environmental sustainable behaviour amongst logging companies in Cameroon

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN (Academic Star Publishing Company, 2019-12-31)
      This paper presents the findings of an indepth qualitative study of the most important forest logging companies and syndicates to explore the factors which influence forest exploitation and related businesses in the Congo Basin of Africa to act or not in environmentally sustainable ways. More specifically, the study explored the motivations, the benefits and the factors which facilitate or constrain sustainable behaviour amongst forest exploitation companies in Cameroon. Data analysis was undertaken using a holistic model consisting of institutional, economic and resource based factors. Economic motivations were the most cited factors driven by increased awareness and demands from clients. Interestingly, the most cited benefit from adopting environmentally sustainable behaviour related to gains in internal organisation, transparency and productivity within the company. The regulatory institutional environment was the most cited constraint because of illegality, weak law enforcement and corruption in the country’s forest sector followed by high costs of investment and unclear financial premiums from environmentally sourced timber. The policy implications are discussed.
    • Die sorgsame ondernemingsreddingspraktisyn: ‘n ondersoek na die gepaste maatstaf

      Jacobs, Lezelle; Neethling, Johann (Litnet - Online, 2016-09-26)
      When the Companies Act 71 of 2008 came into effect on 1 May 2011 it brought about a new era of corporate rescue for South African companies. Chapter 6 of the act provides for a new corporate rescue scheme known as business rescue. Business rescue replaces the previous South African rescue model, judicial management, contained in the Companies Act 61 of 1973. The key role player in the rescue scheme is the business rescue practitioner. The practitioner is afforded extensive powers and rights. He takes control of the management of the company and the duty to rescue the company rests on his shoulders. It is, however, possible for the purposes of chapter 6 to protect the interests of all stakeholders to be frustrated through the incompetence and carelessness of the practitioner. Section 140(3)(b) of the act states that the practitioner has the responsibilities, duties and liabilities of a director of the company for the duration of the rescue proceedings. The responsibilities, duties and liabilities of directors are set out in sections 75, 76 and 77. These sections contain the quasi-codified fiduciary duties of directors as well as the duty of care, skill and diligence and therefore make them applicable to the practitioner. The purpose of this article is to investigate the principles that underpin the test for negligence and the applicability thereof to the practitioner. The conclusion is that the practitioner’s conduct should be measured against that of a reasonable practitioner. This implies that it should be established whether he acted with the same degree of care, skill and diligence that may reasonably be expected of a reasonable practitioner in the same circumstances, having regard also to his personal attributes and qualifications and considering whether this necessitates an even higher standard to be met. At common law it is accepted that a director of a company needs no specific qualifications or even special business acumen to be appointed as such. The degree of care, skill and diligence expected of a director has therefore been determined by applying the notional reasonable person test. The director of a company is, however, held to a somewhat higher standard than the average person due to the fact that he is a fiduciary of the company and is responsible for another’s interests and property. Contrary to this, a business rescue practitioner will be appointed because of his knowledge and experience in the field of business and turnaround management. The notional reasonable person test can therefore not be utilised to evaluate negligent conduct by the practitioner. An argument can, however, be made for the application of the reasonable expert test, and even for the development of a new reasonable practitioner yardstick. The article focuses on an in-depth exploration of the objective and subjective elements of such a reasonable practitioner test and considers all the relevant facts and circumstances that will be of importance during business rescue proceedings. The influence of the business judgment rule as a means to review the fulfilment of the duty of care and the application thereof to the practitioner in the financial distress circumstances will also be investigated. Since the practitioner’s training will influence the consideration of whether he acted with the necessary degree of care, his qualifications, skills and experience will be considered and analysed. The Companies Act of 2008 and the regulations pursuant thereto provide for extensive qualification requirements to be met by a prospective practitioner. Furthermore, practitioners will be appointed as either junior, experienced or senior practitioners, depending on their levels of experience. This article also addresses the disparity between the liability provisions contained in sections 76 and 77 and those contained in chapter 6 of the act – the first requiring ordinary negligence and the latter gross negligence. This is of extreme importance since both provisions apply to the practitioner, but the standard thereof differs. The conclusion is that the yardstick for the practitioner’s liability should be ordinary negligence, that is what could be expected of a reasonable practitioner with the same qualifications and experience.
    • National and European identity

      Pryke, S (Informa UK Limited, 2019-05-23)
      © 2019, © 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This article is one in a number of attempts by students of nations and nationalism to understand national and European identity. Its point of departure are the arguments of Guibernau (2011) that the EU has created only a non-emotional identity based on the pursuit of prosperity; and, conversely, the claim of Wellings and Power (2015) that the EU has now its own nationalism with an emotional dimension. My initial observation is that an explicit evocation of European nationalism only surfaced in the immediate post war period within the remnants of fascist parties. So the issue is the attempt by the actors within the EU to create a European identity as an accompaniment to federal integration. This was not an initial quest but something that arose within attempts to breathe life into the EU in the 1970s. The endeavour was controversial from the outset and had effectively been curtailed by the mid 1990s as the intergovernmental character of the organisation imposed a primary commitment to preserving national diversity. Subsequent economic and monetary union has relied on the rationale of efficient governance. However, the evidence suggests that identification with Europe and the EU is surprisingly high. To understand it, I finally consider the gestation of Europeanism.