Recent Submissions

  • Using consumer advertising and promotional marketing materials for historical research: 1960s Heinz baked beans

    Hawkins, Richard (Adam Matthew Digital, 2021-11-30)
    This case study will equip you with the intellectual and practical toolkit necessary to investigate and derive worthwhile information from historical advertising and promotional marketing materials, using the example of a scrapbook of baked beans advertisements from the 1960s. Most of the print advertising from this period has survived in archives around the world in various formats, including the original publications, microfilmed copies, and more recently digitised scans. Not all the reproductions are high quality. Furthermore, while some of the original advertisements were published in colour, many have been reproduced in black and white. Advertising can reveal a lot more than just the product being advertised. The text and images used can reveal information about the advertising agency, the agency’s client, the product being advertised, the consumers being targeted, and how the agency and its client view the society in which they are working. In this case study, you will learn what analytical questions you can ask of such sources and sample the kinds of answers you might expect to find in them. Analysis of the Heinz Baked Beans scrapbook also reveals information about how advertising campaigns, promotions, and competitions evolved during the period 1961–1968.
  • Institutions and instruments for tackling chronic poverty: the case of social protection and HIV/Aids

    Slater, Rachel (Chronic Poverty Research Centre, 2008-01-01)
    HIV/AIDS is both a cause and a symptom of chronic poverty and requires new and innovative policy instruments and institutional structures to address its impacts. Focusing specifically on orphans, vulnerable children and the elderly, this paper explores the appropriateness of different social protection mechanisms for supporting households living with HIV/AIDS and suggests what roles are appropriate for different institutions – from households and communities to governments and donors – for tackling chronic poverty among people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • Comparative study of the perceptions of Mexican and Colombian employees about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness

    Ruiz, Carlos E.; Hamlin, Robert G.; Torres, Luis (Emerald, 2022-06-30)
    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the perceptions of employed people in Mexico and Colombia about managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness. Research Design A qualitative multiple cross-case and cross-nation comparative analysis of findings obtained from the two past emic replication (Mexico and Colombia) studies was conducted. Findings Our study suggests that people within Mexican and Colombian organizations perceive ‘managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness’ in very similar ways. Our findings support those researchers whose studies indicate that culture may not, as previously thought, play a significant role in the way managers should manage and lead their subordinates. Originality Our comparative study attempts to generate new insights and better understanding within the context of ‘managerial and leadership behavioural effectiveness’ research, which we hope will make a useful contribution to the existing small body of knowledge regarding similarities and differences in managerial practices across culturally diverse Latin American countries. Practical implications The findings of our comparative study are relevant to those HRD professionals in international companies with operations in Mexico and/or Colombia when preparing their executives for international assignments in these Latin American countries.
  • Harmonization of similar instruments

    Slater, Rachel; Loewe, Markus; Schuring, Esther (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021-08-10)
  • Editorial

    Prior, Ross (Intellect, 2021-12-23)
  • Detoxing university through creative engagement

    Prior, Ross; Francis, Abraham P.; Carter, Margaret Anne (Springer, 2022-06-30)
    This chapter outlines a philosophy of higher education practice that includes emphasis on using creativity to engage students, both in and outside of formal classes, to improve wellbeing. In an age of increasing discourse preoccupied with division and difference, individuals’ feelings of isolation and loneliness, increased student debt, lack of job opportunities and societal destabilisation, there is urgent need for a philosophy of ‘togetherness’. In developing this ideal of coming together, the benefits to mental health and wellbeing are many. Further, the way we conduct research in the academy is something to consider more carefully too. The choice of our research methodologies may not be as benign as we might think and can shift perceptions and distort values over time. The past decade has revealed an unhealthy preoccupation with measurement and performance rankings which has been pervasive amongst the neoliberalist higher education sector. However, lived experience, feelings and creative endeavour resist numerical reduction. Running alongside this issue has been growing calls across those working in wellbeing and education to increase usage of art-based approaches in understanding and evidencing the benefits of expressive art practice. To these ends, this chapter offers hope in how creative activity might bring about essential change to combat a corporate hardening that has in recent times ruthlessly hijacked the love of learning and indeed the love of enabling others. Reporting on an initiative where artistic processes have been used as an antidote to the ‘toxic university’, the chapter explores what we can do to bring about positive change for both students and staff.
  • The psychological drivers of entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector

    Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Al-Azab, Mahmoud Ramadan; Elbaz, Ahmed Mohamed (Elsevier, 2021-12-03)
    Although resilience is assumed to play a crucial role in entrepreneurship, the factors leading to entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector remain relatively unknown. To address this issue, this study adopts a novel configuration approach to assess psychological traits that are likely to result in resilient entrepreneurial behaviour in the tourism sector. It approaches this by conceptualising personality traits through the big five model which is widely espoused in the psychology discipline. Then, using fuzzy-set analysis, a sample of 180 bazaar owner/managers in Egypt is investigated from which three distinct profiles likely to exhibit high levels of entrepreneurial resilience are determined. The findings of this paper advance scholars’ theoretical understanding and offer intelligence to policymakers and training institutions in the Egyptian tourism sector. Particularly, they help bazaar owner/managers reflect on their predispositions as a means for increasing resilience.
  • The correlates of energy management practices and sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey

    Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Puntaier, Elmar; Hussain, Sundas (Emerald, 2021-12-22)
    Purpose While pursuing energy management, firms simultaneously strive to boost sales as a path towards economic performance. Also, the literature suggests that family firms exhibit greater environmental commitment than their non-family counterparts. To examine these contentions, this review espouses contingency theory to interrogate the correlations of (1) energy consumption targets, (2) energy efficiency enhancing measures, (3) energy consumption monitoring and (4) the domestic sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey’s food sector. Methodology Data were sourced from the World Bank Enterprise Survey. A sample of 137 family firms in food production, processing and retail was analysed using non-linear structural equation modelling. The net effects of path coefficients were estimated to determine the extent to which energy management practices predict domestic sales. Findings The path analysis revealed that although energy consumption targets do not directly increase sales performance, they stimulate firms’ energy efficiency enhancement measures and energy consumption monitoring to produce this effect by 21%. Practical/Managerial Implications The definitive results will reassure small family food firms of the financial and ecological benefits of setting energy targets in the first instance. This should be seen as a path towards putting in place energy efficiency enhancing measures and monitoring energy consumption. Insights for policy development are also offered to public stakeholders in the energy sector. Originality This inquiry is one of the first to examine energy management in the food sector at the family firm level through the contingency lens. Theoretically, the results draw attention and shed new light on disparate energy management practices and their discrete yet substantial contribution to sales performance. Practically, the fresh insights offer intelligence for the development of a national energy management policy in Turkey.
  • ‘A new and disturbing form of subversion’: Militant tendency, MI5 and the threat of Trotskyism in Britain, 1937-1987

    Kassimeris, George; Price, Oliver (Routledge, 2021-10-27)
    This article examines how the rise of Militant Tendency transformed MI5’s perception of Trotskyism’s ability to pose a threat to the British state. Militant’s emergence in the 1970s as an entryist organisation within the Labour Party and its subsequent influence on Liverpool City Council in the early 1980s led security officials to consider it as an equal if not greater subversive threat than the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB). Drawing on newly released files, the article adds to the understanding of counter-subversive investigations in Cold War Britain and assesses how, between the late 1970s and early 1980s, Militant became the first and, so far, only Trotskyist group to be considered by MI5 a significant subversive threat to British internal security.
  • Women in social housing and the pursuit of entrepreneurship

    Hussain, Sundas; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Carey, Charlotte; Jafari-Sadeghi, Vahid (Inderscience, 2022-12-31)
    Women’s engagement in entrepreneurship from a social housing perspective has scarcely been explored in the literature. Thus, insights into how the social housing system may condition participation in entrepreneurship have been excluded from empirical understanding. In order to address this gap, we assess the entrepreneurial intention of women in a deprived area of one of the UK’s largest cities. Through an inductive analysis, we develop a conceptual model in which attitude towards entrepreneurship, self-efficacy and subjective norms emerge as mediators of entrepreneurial intention. Our findings pose theoretical implications for future variance-based analyses, as well as practical implications for social housing providers and the role of public institutions in fostering entrepreneurial outcomes.
  • Legal issues arising for the utilisation of blockchain based products in the 4th industrial revolution

    Haynes, Andrew; Yeoh, Peter (Juta & Co., 2020-12-01)
    This contribution considers the nature of distributed ledger technology, or blockchain as it is otherwise known, analysing its key elements, the reasons for its emergence and development and its potential importance. The method by which it functions is analysed together with a discussion of the facilities that are being developed on it. There is also a consideration of the legal issues arising from its operation and of the facilities that utilise it. Further, there is also a consideration of the cost issues involved in using blockchain and the particular factors arising when shares and bonds are issued on a blockchain system. Criminal factors inevitably arise with the development of any new regime and key elements of this are considered. Finally, there is also an analysis of the inherent problems arising with such a system and the current situation in which the world now finds itself with blockchain, and the future issues that seem to be emerging.
  • A personal values view of international entrepreneurial intention

    Ammeer, Mohammad Akhtar; Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Open University of Mauritius, Liverpool John Moores University, University of Wolverhampton (Emerald Publishing, 2021-09-21)
    Purpose Recognising the shortage of research investigating the effect of individual characteristics in cross-border entrepreneurship, this study models the dimensions of personal values as predictors of international entrepreneurship. Also, noting the paucity of evidence on the influence of ethnicity and gender in the personal values and international entrepreneurship nexus, the study undertakes a multi-group analysis to clarify the moderating effects of these social antecedents in the context of Mauritius. Design/methodology/approach Cross-sectional data from Mauritius is examined using a sample of 504 students spread across six universities. The analysis takes a structural equation modelling approach. Findings The results show that, comparing the distinct personal values dimensions, international entrepreneurship has a positive association with self-enhancement and openness to change. Furthermore, it has a non-significant relationship with self-transcendence and a negative connection with conservation. Also, the multi-group analyses revealed significant differences in the individual correlations across gender and ethnic categories. Originality/value Building on emerging empirical interest in the literature, this study presents novel evidence of the link between personal values and international entrepreneurial intention in the context of Mauritius. Additionally, examining the moderating influence of ethnicity and gender in the personal values, international entrepreneurship nexus advances current literature. On a practical level, the study offers insights to universities and other stakeholders tasked with nurturing international entrepreneurial behaviour among students to contemplate personal and social antecedents and, accordingly, adapt their entrepreneurship pedagogy.
  • Revisiting innovation practices in subsistence farming: The net effects of land management, pesticide, herbicide and fungicide practices on expected crop harvest in Ethiopia

    Onjewu, Adah-Kole; Jafari-Sadeghi, Vahid; Hussain, Sundas (Inderscience Publishers, 2022-12-31)
    To settle inconsistent findings in the farming innovation and productivity nexus, this inquiry examines the land management practices of 7,625 households in rural Ethiopia. Specifically, the net effects of (1) improved seeds, (2) mixed cropping and (3) row planting on the use of (4) pesticides, (5) herbicides and (6) fungicides are assessed. Using a structural equation technique, the study probes how these six practices predict households’ expected harvest. It is found that while improved seeds increase pesticide, herbicide and fungicide use, mixed cropping and row planting generally reduce these practices. Moreover, mixed cropping moderately increases expected harvest while improved seeds and row planting have the reverse effect. The interrelations of these factors increase knowledge in contingency-driven agronomics, and provoke reflection on the sustainability of land management practices. Particularly, opposed to prevailing views, it is demonstrated that sowing traditional seeds will reduce households’ reliance on pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. The inherent findings speak to policy-makers tasked with supporting peasant life in rural Ethiopia and similar contexts.
  • Educating well: A keynote on a future paradigm for applied arts and health in education

    Prior, Ross; Fenton, Louise (Universitetsforlaget, 2021-11-19)
  • NGO-state relations in the monitoring of illegal forest logging and wildlife trafficking in Central Africa

    Mbzibain, Aurelian; Tchoudjen, Teodyl Nkuintchua (Elsevier, 2021-08-28)
    Independent forest monitoring (IFM) by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) emerged in the late 1990s as a forest governance mechanism in response to rising forest crime in Asia and Central Africa. IFM is the use of an independent third party that, by agreement or not with state authorities, provides an assessment of legal compliance, and observation of and guidance on official forest law enforcement systems. The success of IFM by NGOs is therefore, inextricably linked to the nature of the relationship with state authorities yet this relationship has neither been explored nor understood. There is scant empirical research on this mechanism globally. This paper addresses these gaps through participatory observation, documentary analysis and interviews with leaders of five NGOs at the forefront of forest and wildlife monitoring in Central Africa. Using Najam (2000) 4-C framework, we find complex and fluid relationships ranging from cooperation, complementarity, confrontation and instrumentalization. Complementarity and confrontation emerge as the most important relationship types while cooperation is the least prevalent relationship. In response to challenges in the relationships, NGOs use a repertoire of strategies and tactics to influence the state in pursuit of their goals. Unfortunately, significant dependence on a limited stream of intermittent external donor funding and lack of clearly articulated influence and advocacy strategies, limit the potential contribution of IFM to the fight against forest and wildlife crime in Central Africa. The implications for IFM organisations, national governments and donor agencies are discussed.
  • Environmental commitment and innovation as catalysts for export performance in family firms

    Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Nowiński, Witold (Elsevier, 2021-08-31)
    Recognizing the extent of inconclusive findings in the environmental commitment – export performance nexus, this study examines this link in order to reduce theoretical ambiguity. The paper focuses on family firms in Poland and assesses the distinct rate of export intensity resulting from strategic commitment to environmental issues, through product innovation and process innovation. Analyzing a sample of 409 firms sourced from the World Bank Enterprise Survey database, the results indicate that strategic commitment to environmental issues encourages process innovation but not product innovation. In turn, process innovation increases export intensity while product innovation does not. It is also found that quality certifications interact with the relationship between strategic commitment to environmental issues and product innovation. These findings pose important theoretical implications and offer insights to stakeholders particularly interested in the sustainable practices of family firms.
  • Central bank digital currency: What is it and why now?

    Barnes, Matthew (Thomson Reuters, 2021-09-01)
    A central bank digital currency ( CBDC) is electronic in nature and one which amounts to the currency of the country implementing it. The value of a CBDC is the same as the physical form, i.e. a £10 CBDC would equate to a £10 bank note. It is not classed as a cryptocurrency, which is a form of digital currency, however, the Bank of England has said that it may use the distributed ledger technology ( DLT) which is utilised for cryptocurrency. Central banks are researching into the benefits and implications of a CBDC, such as making payments more resilient and faster, and adapting to the digital economy. Cynically, it appears that central banks are concerned by the potential of cryptocurrencies becoming mainstream and making central banks redundant. This article will explore the following: what is a CBDC, why is it being explored now and the future of money and payment services.
  • Weaving through the web: How students navigate information online in the twenty-first century

    Bailey, C; Bowley, H; Withers, J; Bartram, Brendan (Routledge, 2020-10-30)
    This chapter investigates the processes students employ when searching online for information to include in an academic essay. Against a backdrop of literature from the past three decades, we present findings from a recent observational study (employing screen-recording software and stimulated recall) of how students approach a writing-from-sources task, supplemented by interviews with librarians at a post-1992 UK university. We discuss three aspects of our participants’ search for sources: where they searched, how they searched and which sources they selected. Our participants displayed a wide range of skill levels and approaches to searching, and in some cases a high degree of persistence. We highlight the information literacy challenges they faced, and suggest how some of these could be addressed.
  • Participatory co-design and normalisation process theory with staff and patients to implement digital ways of working into routine care: the example of electronic patient-reported outcomes in UK renal services

    Knowles, SE; Ercia, A; Caskey, F; Rees, M; Farrington, K; van der Veer, SN (BMC, 2021-07-18)
    Background: Successful implementation of digital health systems requires contextually sensitive solutions. Working directly with system users and drawing on implementation science frameworks are both recommended. We sought to combine Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) with participatory co-design methods, to work with healthcare stakeholders to generate implementation support recommendations for a new electronic patient reported outcome measure (ePRO) in renal services. ePROs collect data on patient-reported symptom burden and illness experience overtime, requiring sustained engagement and integration into existing systems. Methods: We identified co-design methods that could be mapped to NPT constructs to generate relevant qualitative data. Patients and staff from three renal units in England participated in empathy and process mapping activities to understand ‘coherence’ (why the ePRO should be completed) and ‘cognitive participation’ (who would be involved in collecting the ePRO). Observation of routine unit activity was completed to understand ‘collective action’ (how the collection of ePRO could integrate with service routines). Results: The mapping activities and observation enabled the research team to become more aware of the key needs of both staff and patients. Working within sites enabled us to consider local resources and barriers. This produced ‘core and custom’ recommendations specifying core needs that could be met with customised local solutions. We identified two over-arching themes which need to be considered when introducing new digital systems (1) That data collection is physical (electronic systems need to fit into physical spaces and routines), and (2) That data collection is intentional (system users must be convinced of the value of collecting the data). Conclusions: We demonstrate that NPT constructs can be operationalised through participatory co-design to work with stakeholders and within settings to collaboratively produce implementation support recommendations. This enables production of contextually sensitive implementation recommendations, informed by qualitative evidence, theory, and stakeholder input. Further longitudinal evaluation is necessary to determine how successful the recommendations are in practice.
  • Shadow banking: The next financial crisis?

    Barnes, Matthew (Thomson Reuters - Sweet & Maxwell, 2021-03-31)
    Shadow banking plays an integral part in modern day banking and finance. However, shadow banking is not a modern concept, in fact, it has existed for many years when considering credit outside of banking institutions. Shadow banking was coined around the time of the global financial crisis 2007-2009, but the roots of such run far deeper than this time period. This paper will discuss credit outside of the traditional banking system, shadow banking and the global financial crisis focusing on securitisation, and prominently how shadow banking may be the catalyst for the next financial crisis with a focus on China where it appears rife.

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