Now showing items 1-20 of 864

    • Effects of acute exercise on liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers

      Georgakouli, K.; Manthou, E.; Fatouros, I.G.; Deli, C.K; Spandidos, D.A; Tsatsakis, A.M; Kouretas, D.; Koutedakis, Y.; Theodorakis, Y.; Jamurtas, A.Z (Spandidos, 2015-10-13)
      Excessive alcohol consumption can induce oxidative stress, resulting in the development of several diseases. Exercise has been reported to prevent and/or improve a number of health issues through several mechanisms, including an improvement in redox status. It has also been previously suggested that exercise can help individuals with alcohol use disorders reduce their alcohol intake; however, research in this field is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigage the effects of acute exercise of moderate intensity on the liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers. For this purpose, a total of 17 heavy drinkers [age, 31.6±3.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 27.4±0.8 kg/m2; experimental group (EG)] and 17 controls [age, 33.5±1.3 years; BMI, 26.1±1.4 kg/m2; control group (CG), who did not exceed moderate alcohol consumption], underwent one trial of acute exercise of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 min on a cycle ergometer, following an overnight fast, and abstaining from smoking and alcohol consumption. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise for later determination of the indices of liver function and blood redox status. The subjects in the EG had significantly higher (p<0.05) baseline γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels compared to the subjects in the CG. Exercise thus resulted in significantly higher γ-GT levels (p<0.005) only in the EG. No significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) baseline levels were observed between the 2 groups. Following exercise, the AST levels increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups, whereas the ALT levels increased significantly (p<0.01) only in the EG. The baseline glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) and remained low following exercise in the EG. In addition, we observed a trend for higher (p=0.07) baseline levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which remained elevated post-exercise in the EG compared to the CG. Significantly increased post-exercise total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p<0.01) and uric acid (UA; p<0.05) levels were noted in the CG, whereas the TAC (p=0.06) and UA (p=0.08) levels increased and approached significance post-exercise in the EG. No significant differences in the baseline levels of total bilirubin and protein carbonyl were observed between the 2 groups, even post-exercise. Thus, the findings of the present study indicate that even though heavy drinkers may be prone to oxidative stress, their exercise-induced antioxidant response is similar to that of individuals who do not drink heavily.
    • Multiple sclerosis: Intrathecal inflammation mediates mood in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-15)
      A new study has revealed that subclinical intrathecal inflammation influences anxiety and depression in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and has prognostic relevance in patients with this condition
    • Alzheimer disease: Revising the risk of Alzheimer disease in women

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-08)
      Among individuals who carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE*ε4) allele, women are more susceptible to Alzheimer disease (AD) than men only between the ages of 65 and 75 years, according to a new study published in JAMA Neurology.
    • Multiple sclerosis: Microstructural pathology imaged in MS

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-09-01)
      The variability of axon and dendrite orientations — termed neurite orientation dispersion — is reduced in the spinal cords of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to new research. This finding could provide a new biomarker for MS prognosis and therapeutic efficacy.
    • Stroke: Twist in artery linked to stroke in young adults

      Patel, Mitesh (Springer, 2017-08-17)
      Dolichoectasia, a condition of unknown cause characterized by elongation, twisting and dilation of the basilar artery in old age, is common among young patients admitted for acute stroke, a new study shows. This finding highlights the need to consider vascular abnormalities as a risk factor for stroke in young adults.
    • Elevated visual dependency in young adults after chemotherapy in childhood

      Einarsson, Einar-Jon; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Frannson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Mans; Moell, Christian (Public Library Science, 2018-02-21)
      Chemotherapy in childhood can result in long-term neurophysiological side-effects, which could extend to visual processing, specifically the degree to which a person relies on vision to determine vertical and horizontal (visual dependency). We investigated whether adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood experience elevated visual dependency compared to controls and whether any difference is associated with the age at which subjects were treated. Visual dependency was measured in 23 subjects (mean age 25.3 years) treated in childhood with chemotherapy (CTS) for malignant, solid, non-CNS tumors. We also stratified CTS into two groups: those treated before 12 years of age and those treated from 12 years of age and older. Results were compared to 25 healthy, age-matched controls. The subjective visual horizontal (SVH) and vertical (SVV) orientations was recorded by having subjects position an illuminated rod to their perceived horizontal and vertical with and without a surrounding frame tilted clockwise and counter-clockwise 20° from vertical. There was no significant difference in rod accuracy between any CTS groups and controls without a frame. However, when assessing visual dependency using a frame, CTS in general (p = 0.006) and especially CTS treated before 12 years of age (p = 0.001) tilted the rod significantly further in the direction of the frame compared to controls. Our findings suggest that chemotherapy treatment before 12 years of age is associated with elevated visual dependency compared to controls, implying a visual bias during spatial activities. Clinicians should be aware of symptoms such as visual vertigo in adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood.
    • Reply to Adrion et al. On Patel et al. Letter to the Editor, British Medical Journal

      Patel, Mitesh; Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M.; Harcourt, Jonny P.; Golding, John F.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (British Medical Journal, 2018-02-28)
      We apologise for not having noticed earlier Adrion and colleagues’ comments on our study comparing the effectiveness of intratympanic Methylprednisolone to Gentamicin in refractory Ménière’s disease [1], covered by the BMJ [2]. Contrary to our expectations, both drugs were equally effective in controlling vertigo (primary outcome).
    • Action observation in the modification of postural sway and gait: Theory and use in rehabilitation

      Patel, Mitesh (Elsevier, 2017-07-24)
      The discovery of cortical neurons responsive to both the observation of another individual’s movement and one’s own physical movement has spurred scientists into utilising this interplay for rehabilitation. The idea that humans can quickly transfer motor programmes or refine existing motor strategies through observation has only recently gained interest in the context of gait rehabilitation but may offer significant promise as an adjunctive therapy to routine balance training. This review is the first dedicated to action observation in postural control or gait in healthy individuals and patients. The traditional use of action observation in rehabilitation is that the observer has to carefully watch pre-recorded or physically performed actions and thereafter imitate them. Using this approach, previous studies have shown improved gait after action observation in stroke, Parkinson’s disease and knee or hip replacement patients. In healthy subjects, action observation reduced postural sway from externally induced balance perturbations. Despite this initial evidence, future studies should establish whether patients are instructed to observe the same movement to be trained (i.e., replicate the observed action(s)) or observe a motor error in order to produce postural countermeasures. The best mode of motor transfer from action observation is yet to be fully explored, and may involve observing live motor acts rather than viewing video clips. Given the ease with which action observation training can be applied in the home, it offers a promising, safe and economical approach as an adjunctive therapy to routine balance training.
    • Intratympanic corticosteroids in Ménière's disease: A mini-review

      Patel, Mitesh (Elsevier, 2017-09-01)
      This article reviews the effectiveness of intratympanic corticosteroids for vertigo control in Ménière's disease at 2-years follow-up according to the guidelines expressed by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery. Despite the increased use of intratympanic corticosteroids for vertigo control in Ménière's disease there is debate as to their effectiveness, particularly compared to gentamicin. Even so, after just a single course of injections, corticosteroids can reliably provide complete vertigo control (Class A) at 2-years in about 50% of cases as indicated in a recent double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial (Patel et al., 2016). But the effectiveness of intratympanic corticosteroids truly increases when treatment is provided ‘as-needed’, whereby complete vertigo control is established in up to 91% of cases. On the basis of available literature, there is good evidence to recommend the use of intratympanic steroid treatment for vertigo control in Ménière's disease, but patients must be monitored for non-response. The rationale for treating patients as-needed and the possible reasons for corticosteroid non-response are discussed.
    • Relationships between affiliative social behavior and hair cortisol concentrations in semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys

      Woodell, Lauren J.; Hamel, Amanda F.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Byers, Kristen L.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M. (Elsevier, 2017-06-29)
      Sociality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and health. One benefit of affiliative social relationships is reduced short-term levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which are indicative of physiological stress. Less is known, however, about chronic GC production in relation to affiliative social behavior. To address this issue, we studied a semi-free ranging troop of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and collected hair samples to measure hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), as a measure of chronic GC production, during routine biannual exams. We collected social behavior (both aggressive and affiliative) and hair samples for 32 adult female rhesus macaques over one year (Experiment 1). Our results indicated that adult females who initiated higher levels of social affiliation had significantly lower levels of HCCs. Neither the initiation nor the receipt of aggression were significantly related to HCCs in this study. In a second experiment we studied 28 mother-infant dyads for the first 90 days postpartum to examine mother-infant facial interactions (i.e. mutual gazing). We analyzed HCCs during weaning approximately one year later, which is a major transitional period. We found that infants that engaged in higher levels of mutual gazing in the first 90 days postpartum had significantly lower levels of HCCs during weaning. Finally, we studied 17 infant rhesus macaques (13 males) to examine whether social behavior (such as play) in the first five months of life correlated with infant HCCs over those months (Experiment 3). We found that infant males that engaged in more social play had significantly lower levels of HCCs. By relying on an animal model, our study shows that affiliative social traits are associated with lower long-term GC production. Future research should address the complex interactions between social behavior, chronic GC production, and mental and physical health.
    • Bionic cartilage acellular matrix microspheres as scaffold for engineering cartilage

      Liu, Jun; Yu, Cheng; Lu, Gonggong; Tang, James Zhenggui; Wang, Yonghui; Zhang, Boqing; Sun, Yong; Lin, Hai; Wang, Qiguang; Liang, Jie; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2018-12-12)
      Extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds made from decellularized natural cartilage have been successfully used in cartilage lesion repair, but allogeneic cartilage donors are always in shortage and xenogeneic cartilage tissues may have the risk of unknown disease transfer. In this study, we constructed artificial bionic cartilage microspheres by encapsulating MSCs in collagen microspheres and cultured in a chondrogenic-inducing medium. Then, acellular matrix microsphere (BCAMM) scaffolds were fabricated from the cultured microspheres at three different developmental stages. A novel technique was introduced to fabricate BCAMM scaffolds, which enabled the production and utilization of the scaffolds in a short time. Due to the differences in surface morphologies and biological compositions, the three BCAMM scaffolds showed different chondrogenic effects. The 10-day BCAMM (10-BCAMM) scaffold showed the best overall results, successfully inducing MSC chondrogenesis without any additional fetal bovine serum or induction components (TGF-β or dexamethasone). In comparison, the 5-day BCAMM (5-BCAMM) scaffold showed potential osteogenic effects. The advantages of micron-sized BCAMMs are outlined, specifically in the easier decellularization process without grinding, homogeneous cell seeding and infiltration, chondrogenic induction and better fitting to the irregular lesion shape.
    • Long-term follow-up of intratympanic methylprednisolone versus gentamicin in patients with unilateral Menière’s disease

      Harcourt, Jonny P.; Lambert, Aileen; Wong, Phui Yee; Patel, Mitesh; Agarwal, Kiran; Golding, John F.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019-12-31)
      Objectives: To determine whether long term (>48 months) symptomatic vertigo control is sustained in patients with Menière’s disease from a previous comparative trial of intratympanic methylprednisolone versus gentamicin, and if the two treatments remain nonsignificantly different at longterm follow-up. Study Design: Mail survey recording vertigo frequency in the previous one and six months, further intratympanic treatment received, and validated symptom questionnaires. Setting: Outpatient hospital clinic setting. Patients: Adult patients with definite unilateral refractory Menie`re’s disease, who previously received in tratympanic treatment in a comparative trial. Intervention: A survey of trial participants who received intratympanic gentamicin (40 mg/mL) or methylprednisolone (62.5 mg/mL). Outcome measures: Primary: number of vertigo attacks in the 6 months prior to receiving this survey compared with the 6 months before the first trial injection. Secondary: : Number of vertigo attacks over the previous 1 month; validated symptom questionnaire scores of tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo, aural fullness, and functional disability. Results: Average follow-up was 70.8 months (standard deviation 17.0) from the first treatment injection. Vertigo attacks in the 6 months prior to receiving the current survey reduced by 95% compared to baseline in both drug groups (intention-to-treat analysis, both p<0.001). No significant difference between drugs was found for the primary and secondary outcomes. Eight participants (methylprednisolone ¼ 5 and gentamicin ¼ 3) required further injections for relapse after completing the original trial. Conclusion: Intratympanic methylprednisolone treatment provides effective long-lasting relief of vertigo, without the known inner-ear toxicity associated with gentamicin. There are no significant differences between the two treatments at long term follow-up.
    • An fMRI study of visuo-vestibular interaction in vestibular neuritis

      Roberts, Ed; Ahmad, Hena; Patel, Mitesh; Dima, Dina; Ibitoye, Richard; Sharif, Mishaal; Leech, Rob; Arshad, Qadeer; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (Elsevier, 2018-10-09)
      Vestibular neuritis (VN) is characterised by acute vertigo due to a sudden loss of unilateral vestibular function. A considerable proportion of VN patients proceed to develop chronic symptoms of dizziness, including visually induced dizziness, specifically during head turns. Here we investigated whether the development of such poor clinical outcomes following VN, is associated with abnormal visuo-vestibular cortical processing. Accordingly, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain responses of chronic VN patients and compared these to controls during both congruent (co-directional) and incongruent (opposite directions) visuo-vestibular stimulation (i.e. emulating situations that provoke symptoms in patients). We observed a focal significant difference in BOLD signal in the primary visual cortex V1 between patients and controls in the congruent condition (small volume corrected level of p < .05 FWE). Importantly, this reduced BOLD signal in V1 was negatively correlated with functional status measured with validated clinical questionnaires. Our findings suggest that central compensation and in turn clinical outcomes in VN are partly mediated by adaptive mechanisms associated with the early visual cortex.
    • Cardiomyocyte calcineurin is required for the onset and progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in adult mice.

      Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Lozano-Vidal, Noelia; López-Maderuelo, María Dolores; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Armesilla, Ángel Luis; Redondo, Juan Miguel (Wiley, 2018-12-07)
      Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of calcineurin induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In these studies, loss-of-function was mostly achieved by systemic administration of the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A. The lack of conditional knockout models for calcineurin function has impeded progress toward defining the role of this protein during the onset and the development of cardiac hypertrophy in adults. Here, we exploited a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy based on the infusion of a hypertensive dose of angiotensin II (AngII) to model the role of calcineurin in cardiac hypertrophy in adulthood. AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice was reduced by treatment with cyclosporin A, without affecting the associated increase in blood pressure, and also by induction of calcineurin deletion in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, indicating that cardiomyocyte calcineurin is required for AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Surprisingly, cardiac-specific delection of calcineurin, but not treatment of mice with cyclosporin A, significantly reduced AngII-induced cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Analysis of pro-fibrotic genes revealed that AngII-induced expression of Tgfβ-family members and Lox was not inhibited by cyclosporin A but was markedly reduced by cardiac-specific calcineurin deletion. These results show that AngII induces a direct, calcineurin-dependent pro-hypertrophic effect in cardiomyocytes, as well as a systemic hypertensive effect that is independent of calcineurin activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Exploring the effect of exercise training on testicular function

      Matos, Barbara; Howl, John; Fardilha, Margarida (Springer, 2018-09-08)
      Purpose The impact of exercise training on testicular function is relatively ill-defined. To gain new insights into this important topic, published data, deriving from both humans and animal studies, were critically analyzed. Results and conclusions The effects of exercise on the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis, influenced by the type, intensity and duration of the exercise program, can be evaluated in terms of total and free testosterone and/or luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone serum levels and sperm parameters. High-intensity exercise promotes a common decrease in these parameters, and therefore, negatively impacts upon testicular function. However, published data for moderate-intensity exercise training are inconsistent. Conversely, there is consistent evidence to support the benefits of exercise training to prevent and/or counteract the impairment of testis function caused by aging, obesity and doxorubicin treatment. This positive effect is likely the consequence of decreased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. In the future, it will be important to clarify the molecular mechanisms which explain these reported discrepancies and to establish guidelines for an active lifestyle to promote healthy testicular function.
    • Species

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K (Springer, 2019-02-08)
    • Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment

      Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Murphy, Ashley M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M. (Wiley, 2017-08-18)
      Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer‐only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers.
    • Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social behaviors

      Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F (Elsevier, 2017-08-18)
      Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills—particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty—in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders.