• Lost therapeutic potential of monocyte-derived dendritic cells through lost tissue homing: Stable restoration of gut specificity with retinoic acid

      Bernardo, D; Mann, ER; Al-Hassi, HO; English, NR; Man, R; Lee, GH; Ronde, E; Landy, J; Peake, STC; Hart, AL; et al. (Wiley, 2013-09-08)
      Summary: Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) (MoDC) are utilized for immunotherapy. However, in-vitro immunological effects are often not mirrored in vivo. We studied the tissue-homing potential of MoDC. Circulating monocytes and DC expressed different tissue-homing markers and, during in-vitro development of MoDC, homing marker expression was lost resulting in a 'homeless' phenotype. Retinoic acid (RA) induced gut-homing markers (β7 and CCR9) and a regulatory phenotype and function [decreased human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) and increased ILT3 and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran uptake) in MoDC]. RA-MoDC were less stimulatory and primed conditioned T cells with a gut-homing profile (β7+CLA-). Unlike the normal intestinal microenvironment, that from inflamed colon of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients did not induce regulatory properties in MoDC. However, RA-MoDC maintained their regulatory gut-specific properties even in the presence of UC microenvironment. Therefore, MoDC may be ineffectual for immunotherapy because they lack tissue-homing and tissue-imprinting specificity. However, MoDC rehabilitation with gut-homing potential by RA could be useful in promoting immunotherapy in pathologies such as UC. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British. Society for Immunology.
    • A low computational approach for assistive esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer detection

      Yu, Z; Yang, S; Zhou, K; Aggoun, A; Lotfi, Ahmad; Bouchachia, Hamid; Gegov, Alexander E; Langensiepen, Caroline S; McGinnity, T Martin (Springer International Publishing, 2018-08-11)
      © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. In this paper, we aim to develop a low-computational system for real-time image processing and analysis in endoscopy images for the early detection of the human esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. Rich statistical features are used to train an improved machine-learning algorithm. Our algorithm can achieve a real-time classification of malign and benign cancer tumours with a significantly improved detection precision compared to the classical HOG method as a reference when it is implemented on real time embedded system NVIDIA TX2 platform. Our approach can help to avoid unnecessary biopsies for patients and reduce the over diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancers in the future.
    • Low dose triptolide reverses chemoresistance in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells via reactive oxygen species generation and DNA damage response disruption

      Zhao, Haijun; Shi, Pengcheng; Deng, Manman; Jiang, Zhiwu; Li, Yin; Kannappan, Vinodh; Wang, Weiguang; Li, Peng; Xu, Bing (Elsevier, 2016-11-19)
      Chemoresistance represents a major challenge for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Thus, new drugs to overcome chemoresistance in ALL are urgently needed. To this end, we established a cytarabine (araC)-resistant ALL cell line (NALM-6/R), which interestingly displayed cross-resistance towards doxorubicin (ADM). Here we report that low dose of triptolide (TPL), a natural product used for treating inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, could reverse araC and ADM resistance and in NALM-6/R cells as well as primary cells from patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) ALL, reflected by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in vitro, and repression of tumor growth in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, these events were associated with impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Co-treatment with TPL and araC or ADM upregulated pro-apoptotic caspase-9 protein, inhibited checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and 2 (Chk2) phosphorylation, and induced γH2A.X (a DNA damage marker). Notably, the combination regimen of TPL and conventional chemotherapeutics also rapidly diminished tumor burden in a patient with R/R ALL. Together, these findings provide preclinical evidence for repurposing use of TPL in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to treat R/R ALL as an alternative salvage regimen.
    • Low-cost housing: A cost management model for process integration and evaluation

      Obi, Lovelin; Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack (Taylor & Francis, 2020-03-12)
      Effective cost management is a vital requisite for successful Low-cost housing projects (LHPs) management and delivery. Whilst several attempts have been made to develop appropriate structured models for cost management practice, many of these models are fragmented and do not capture a holistic representation of the system components or their interrelationships in LHP settings. Moreover, these models are predominantly descriptive by nature – only identifying the components of cost management and not how they can be implemented within LHP settings. This research adopts an explicit sequential mixed research design to develop a bespoke LHP cost management model for process integration and evaluation in Nigeria. This identifies the structures and interrelationships needed to conceptualise and implement cost management practice effectively. Research findings highlight eight important techniques. These include target costing, approximate estimating, site meetings, Earned Value Analysis, on-site resource control, cash flow analysis, cost reporting and cost aggregation. However, it also needs to be acknowledged that it is important also to have: a well-developed client brief; detailed project designs and accompanying specifications; effective project planning and supervision; and competent teams (client and contractor) to discharge responsibilities. The importance of early contractor involvement was also seen as a core lever for success throughout the pre-design, design, and construction stages of LHP. The resulting model standardises cost management practice to provide a systematic ‘blueprint’ beneficial to project managers, cost managers and project management teams in evaluating and managing CMS processes more effectively in LHP settings. It is expected that the project department in Housing agencies adopts this model as a requirement for cost management practice in LHPs in Nigeria.
    • Luminescent and proton conducting lanthanide coordination networks based on a zwitterionic tripodal triphosphonate

      Bazaga-García, Montse; Angeli, Giasemi K.; Papathanasiou, Konstantinos E.; Salcedo, Inés R.; Olivera-Pastor, Pascual; Losilla, Enrique R.; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Hix, Gary B.; Cabeza, Aurelio; Demadis, Konstantinos D.; et al. (American Chemical Society, 2016-07-14)
      The synthesis, structural characterization, luminescence properties, and proton conduction performance of a new family of isostructural cationic 2D layered compounds are reported. These have the general formula [Ln(H4NMP)(H2O)2]Cl·2H2O [Ln = La3+, Pr3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, H6NMP = nitrilotris(methylphosphonic acid)], and contain Cl– as the counterion. In the case of Ce3+, a 1D derivative, [Ce2(H3NMP)2(H2O)4]·4.5H2O, isostructural with the known lanthanum compound has been isolated by simply crystallization at room temperature. The octa-coordinated environment of Ln3+ in 2D compounds is composed by six oxygen atoms from three different ligands and two oxygens from each bound water. Two of the three phosphonate groups act as both chelating and bridging linkers, while the third phosphonate group acts solely as a bridging moiety. The materials are stable at low relative humidity at less at 170 °C. However, at high relative humidity transform to other chloride-free phases, including the 1D structure. The proton conductivity of the 1D materials varies in a wide range, the highest values corresponding to the La derivative (σ ≈ 2 × 10–3 S·cm–1 at RH 95% and 80 °C). A lower proton conductivity, 3 × 10–4 S·cm–1, was measured for [Gd(H4NMP)(H2O)2]Cl·2H2O at 80 °C, which remains stable under the work conditions used. Absorption and luminescence spectra were recorded for selected [Ln(H4NMP)(H2O)2]Cl·2H2O compounds. In all of them, the observed transitions are attributed solely to f–f transitions of the lanthanide ions present, as the H4NMP2– organic group has no measurable absorption or luminescence properties.
    • Macroscopic two-dimensional polariton condensates

      Ballarini, Dario; Caputo, Davide; Muñoz, Carlos Sánchez; De Giorgi, Milena; Dominici, Lorenzo; Szymańska, Marzena H.; West, Kenneth; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; Gigli, Giuseppe; Laussy, Fabrice; et al. (American Physical Society, 2017-05-26)
      We report a record-size, two-dimensional polariton condensate of a fraction of a millimeter radius free from the presence of an exciton reservoir. This macroscopically occupied state is formed by the ballistically expanding polariton flow that relaxes and condenses over a large area outside of the excitation spot. The density of this trap-free condensate is <1 polariton /μm2, reducing the phase noise induced by the interaction energy. Moreover, the backflow effect, recently predicted for the nonparabolic polariton dispersion, is observed here for the first time in the fast-expanding wave packet.
    • Magnetic properties of agricultural topsoils of the Isle of Man: their characterization and classification by factor analysis

      Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Walden, John; Smith, John P.; Hallett, Michael D.; Harris, John; Holland, Kim (Taylor & Francis, 2005)
      A classification system for land potential in agricultural use has identified five soil categories on the Isle of Man (British Isles), based on the nature and properties of parent materials. Each soil category has been sampled and analyzed in terms of mineral magnetic characteristics. This article describes these compositional data and uses multivariate statistics to determine whether Manx soil types can be classified on the basis of their mineral magnetic characteristics. Magnetic data indicate the soils contain low to moderate quantities of magnetic minerals, are dominated by low-coercivity (e.g., ferrimagnetic) mineral types, and contain a range of magnetic domain sizes. Soil parent material is identified as the primary source of magnetic minerals, but parent material texture does not influence magnetic domain size. Multivariate data analysis suggests that mineral magnetic characteristics are appropriate for distinguishing between Manx soil categories and, thus, indicates the generic potential of mineral magnetic methodologies in such studies.
    • Magnetic properties of urban street dust and their relationship with organic matter content in the West Midlands, UK

      Shilton, Vaughan F.; Booth, Colin A.; Smith, Jacqueline P.; Giess, Paul; Mitchell, David J.; Williams, Craig D. (Elsevier, 2005)
      This study demonstrates significant correlations between the organic matter content of urban street dust and certain mineral magnetic properties, which accords with previous work that indicates magnetic parameters offer potential as a proxy for organic content. However, site-specific data demonstrate the relationship can be different for particular roads, even within the same area. This indicates the association may be more complex than previous work proposes and a cautionary note is required. It is recommended that the nature of the relationship between magnetic and organic properties should be fully explored for particular urban environments and individual field settings, before using magnetic measurements as a proxy for organic matter content. Furthermore, whilst soil is believed to significantly contribute to urban street dust, magnetic values in this study are much higher than those previously reported for top-soils and indicate the influence of other sources, such as anthropogenic pollutants. This suggests that using magnetic measurements to discriminate sources of urban particulates has considerable potential for development.
    • Making assessment transparent:the use of grade criteria combined with peer marking for assessment tasks in practical exercises in biochemistry

      Bartlett, Terry; Sutton, Raul; Bellamy, Matthew; Fincham, Daron A.; Perry, Christopher (University of Wolverhampton, 2003)
    • Male, female, and nonbinary differences in UK Twitter self-descriptions: A fine-grained systematic exploration

      Thelwall, Saheeda; Fairclough, Ruth; Thelwall, Michael (De Gruyter Open, 2021-03-08)
      Purpose: Although gender identities influence how people present themselves on social media, previous studies have tested pre-specified dimensions of difference, potentially overlooking other differences and ignoring nonbinary users. Design/methodology/approach: Word association thematic analysis was used to systematically check for fine-grained statistically significant gender differences in Twitter profile descriptions between 409,487 UK-based female, male, and nonbinary users in 2020. A series of statistical tests systematically identified 1474 differences at the individual word level, and a follow up thematic analysis grouped these words into themes. Findings: The results reflect offline variations in interests and in jobs. They also show differences personal disclosures, as reflected by words, with females mentioning qualifications, relationships, pets, and illnesses much more, nonbinaries discussing sexuality more, and males declaring political and sports affiliations more. Other themes were internally imbalanced, including personal appearance (e.g., male: beardy; female: redhead), self-evaluations (e.g., male: legend; nonbinary: witch; female: feisty), and gender identity (e.g., male: dude; nonbinary: enby; female: queen). Research limitations: The methods are affected by linguistic styles and probably under-report nonbinary differences. Practical implications: The gender differences found may inform gender theory, and aid social web communicators and marketers. Originality/value: The results show a much wider range of gender expression differences than previously acknowledged for any social media site.
    • Management of Hyponatraemia in patients with heart failure, a retrospective study

      Saepudin, S; Ball, P A; Morrissey, Hana; Zairina, Elida; Khotib, Junaidi; Ardianto, Chrismawan; Sulaiman, Syed; Sands III, Charles; Welty, Timothy (Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy, 2017-07)
      : Hyponatremia is a common problem in heart failure (HF) patients but, unfortunately, studies reported that it is still rarely recognised or treated adequately. This research was aimed to investigate current management of hy-ponatremia in patients hospitalised from HF at the study site. This research was conducted at Fatmawati Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, by including patients hospitalised from HF during 2011 – 2013. Specific information on patients’ information and the administered treatments was only retrieved from medical records. Among 464 patients included in this study, hyponatremia was found in 19% on admission and 22% during hospitalization but 58.8% of 102 hyponatremic patients during hospitalization did not receive specific treatment. Sodium chloride-based treatments were the only administered treatment options in which normal saline was commonly (20.6%) administered to patients with mild hyponatremia. Hyponatremia has been addressed and treatments have been administered but more than half of the hyponatremic patients still did not receive any active treatment.
    • Managing information flow and design processes to reduce design risks in offsite construction projects

      Sutrisna, M; Goulding, J (Emerald, 2019-03-18)
      © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Following the increasing need for faster construction, improved quality and evidence value propositions, offsite construction is increasingly being proffered as a viable contender to “traditional” construction approaches. However, whilst evidence supports the move towards offsite, its uptake has been lower than expected. Whilst the precise reasons for this seem to be influenced by a number of issues, including contextual drivers and market maturity; some project stakeholders also view offsite as carrying greater risks. The purpose of this paper is to report on the quality of information flow, in particular, the impact and influence of this on design risks in offsite construction projects. Design/methodology/approach: An existing design risk framework is used as the point of departure for this research. This is further expanded into a specific model for evaluating offsite construction projects design risks, the rubrics of which were informed by two case studies of offsite construction projects in Australia and the UK analysed with a process-tracing technique. Whilst these cases were geographically separated, the constructs were aligned to uncover fundamental design information requirements and concomitant risks associated with offsite. Findings: The findings of the research reported in this paper include the crucial information feeding into the design process emanating from the lifecycle of offsite construction projects, namely, design, offsite (manufacturing), handling and transporting, site works and installation and also occupancy. These are contextualised within the four categories, namely, client requirements, project requirements, regulation aspects and social aspects and the final outcomes were summarised into a holistic diagram. Originality/value: Given that the offsite construction has shifted the working paradigm into assigning a significant level of efforts and emphasis at the front end of the construction projects, the importance of its design process and hence design risks management has gone up significantly in construction projects delivered using this technique. This research and paper contributes significantly to the built environment domain by identifying the crucial aspects along the project lifecycle to be considered to minimise the potential occurrence of design risks and hence increasing the confidence of project stakeholders in adopting offsite construction techniques in their projects.
    • Managing knowledge associated with carbon reduction initiatives

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Egbu, Charles. (Construction Leadership Council, 2014)
    • Managing knowledge in the context of smart cities: a systematic review

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdalla, Wala (Academic Conferences and Publishing International, 2020-12-03)
      The most recent view on smart city development has recognized that the level of technology adoption in urban contexts is no more able to reflect the real smartness of cities. Smart cities is seen as a centre of knowledge, education, and creativity. The development of smart cities is becoming more and more knowledge based. As a result, knowledge has been perceived as the core component that makes cities smart. Hence, to take advantage of the opportunities that knowledge-based economy and society can bring to the city, leaders and decision makers need to develop cities that take advantage of local knowledge and intellectual capital of the population. Therefore, they need to take initiative to adapt Knowledge Management (KM) in smart cities development. Smart cities KM offers the means to create valuable knowledge that brings consistent and sustainable added value that can therefore be useful in avoiding strategic risk, better-informed decision, and finding smart and effective business solutions. However, smart cities is a relatively new concept that still raises many questions related to its relevance in knowledge management studies. This often calls for the creation, use, capture and exploitation of new knowledge. Therefore, managing this knowledge is considered an important source of sustainable competitive advantage. However, only a few studies in the academic literature on smart city initiatives address issues related to managerial and knowledge management perspectives. This paper investigates the underlying dynamics behind KM and the need for successful implementation of KM strategies within the context of smart cities. The findings are in the main, based on thorough review of literature. It reviews the concept of smart cities and KM. The paper concludes that effectiveness of smart cities knowledge creation, exploitation and management significantly influences on effectiveness of smart city development. Therefore, smart cities governance must be able to exploit and manage knowledge that results from smart cities development.
    • Managing knowledge in the context of smart cities: An organizational cultural perspective

      Abdalla, Wala; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh ('Cognitione' Foundation for the Dissemination of Knowledge and Science, 2020)
      Smart cities need to take advantage of the opportunities that the knowledge-based economy and society can bring to the city. Therefore, cities planners and decision makers need to develop cities that take advantage of local knowledge and the intellectual capital of the population. Organizational culture is widely held to be a major barrier to creating and leveraging knowledge. Successful implementation of knowledge management (KM) almost always requires a culture change in order to promote a culture of knowledge sharing and collaboration. Hence, organizations implementing smart cities need to place great emphasis on the need to change organizational culture to pursue effective KM and its successful implementation. However, the management of culture change is a complicated task; its precise nature in smart-city development and the strategies required to be adopted remains underspecified. This study aimed to explore organizational cultural transformation needed for managing knowledge in the context of smart cities. The methodological approach for this study is a systematic review, covering publications on smart cities, KM, and organizational culture. The method used in this study involved three stages: planning the review, conducting the review, and reporting and disseminating the results. The findings revealed three key themes which are: organizational perspectives of smart cities; organizational change, innovation, and digital transformation; and the relationship between organizational culture and KM. The paper concludes that the cultural transformation required for the development of smart cities needs to facilitate the ability to integrate, create and reconfigure both internal and external competences to manage knowledge that originates from within and beyond projects boundaries. This study provides an insight into urban policymakers, planners, and scholars to prepare for the challenges that organizations face in their efforts to manage and implement smart cities successfully.
    • Managing the Commissioning of Building Services

      Potts, Keith F.; Wall, Mike (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2002)
      The commissioning of building services is very much the ‘Cinderella’ activity in the construction cycle, many complaints are heard but few praises sung. This paper examines the current process of commissioning building services within the traditional procurement route. A literature review is presented followed by the results of a two-stage structured survey from a broad spectrum of participants. A best practice flow chart for managing the commissioning process is presented, tested and confirmed, identifying an auditable chain of responsibilities in the commissioning process. Key conclusions include the need to recognize that the commissioning process requires planning and managing from the earliest possible stage; the need to appoint a commissioning manager — preferable someone in-house, or a member of the design team; the need for better end-user documentation and training; the requirement for a more formalized approach and the requirement for clarification on the terms of engagement for the services designer. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited)
    • Map as a Service: A Framework for Visualising and Maximising Information Return from Multi-Modal Wireless Sensor Networks

      Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Newman, Robert; Dennett, Christopher; Mount, Sarah; Aldabbas, Omar (MDPI, 2015-09-11)
      This paper presents a distributed information extraction and visualisation service, called the mapping service, for maximising information return from large-scale wireless sensor networks. Such a service would greatly simplify the production of higher-level, information-rich, representations suitable for informing other network services and the delivery of field information visualisations. The mapping service utilises a blend of inductive and deductive models to map sense data accurately using externally available knowledge. It utilises the special characteristics of the application domain to render visualisations in a map format that are a precise reflection of the concrete reality. This service is suitable for visualising an arbitrary number of sense modalities. It is capable of visualising from multiple independent types of the sense data to overcome the limitations of generating visualisations from a single type of sense modality. Furthermore, the mapping service responds dynamically to changes in the environmental conditions, which may affect the visualisation performance by continuously updating the application domain model in a distributed manner. Finally, a distributed self-adaptation function is proposed with the goal of saving more power and generating more accurate data visualisation. We conduct comprehensive experimentation to evaluate the performance of our mapping service and show that it achieves low communication overhead, produces maps of high fidelity, and further minimises the mapping predictive error dynamically through integrating the application domain model in the mapping service.
    • Mapping of heavy metal contamination in alluvial soils of the Middle Nile Delta of Egypt

      Shokr, Mohamed S.; El Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Fullen, Michael A.; El-Beshbeshy, Talaat R.; Ali, Ramadan R.; Elhalim, Abd; Guerra, Antonio J. T.; Jorge, Maria C. O. (Taylor & Francis Co-Published with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2016-08-19)
      Areas contaminated by heavy metals were identified in the El-Gharbia Governorate (District) of Egypt. Identification used remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as the main research tools. Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat 8 and contour maps were used to map physiographic units. Nine soil profiles were sampled in different physiographic units in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the 33 soil samples was conducted using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were measured. V, Ni and Cr concentrations exceeded recommended safety values in all horizons of the soil profiles, while Cu had a variable distribution. Zn concentrations slightly exceeded recommended concentration limits. Concentrations were mapped in each physiographic unit using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) function of Arc-GIS 10.1 software. Pollution levels were closely associated with industry and urban areas.
    • Marginalization of end-user stakeholder’s in public private partnership road projects in Nigeria

      Toriola-Coker, Luqman Olalekan; Alaka, Hafiz; Agbali, Mohammed; Bello, Wasiu Adeniran; Pathirage, Chaminda; Oyedele, Lukmon (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-19)
      The operational phase of public private partnership (PPP) projects in Nigeria has consistently witnessed serious challenges. Researches by various authors suggest that the major factors militating against the successful growth and development of PPP projects in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world is the marginalization of end-user stakeholder in PPP projects. As such, this study set out to reveal factors affecting the successful management of the diverse interests of end-user stakeholders of the PPP road projects in Nigeria. Using factors from related literature, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to users of two major PPP road in operation in Nigeria: Lekki/Epe Toll and Apakun Murtala Mohammed PPP toll road. A total of 282 questionnaires were returned representing 70.5% response rate. Cronbach’s alpha test was used to check reliability levels of the questionnaire variables (i.e., Likert scale questions) while factor analysis was used to establish the underlying factors affecting the successful participation of end-users stakeholders in PPP road in Nigeria. These underlying factors were fully discussed. It was concluded that active involvement of end-users stakeholders in decision-making from inception to conclusion will solve the problem of marginalization of end-user stakeholder’s in Nigeria PPP road projects.
    • Markets misinterpreted? a comment on Sánchez-Amaro and Amici (2015)

      Kaburu, Stefano SK; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E. (Elsevier, 2016-08-09)
      In a recent essay, Sánchez-Amaro and Amici (2015) reviewed evidence in support of biological market theory (BMT) in primates. Since the pioneering work by Noë (1990, 1992; Noë, van Schaik, & van Hoof, 1991), and Barrett and colleagues (Barrett, Gaynor, & Henzi, 2002; Barrett, Henzi, Weingrill, Lycett, & Hill, 1999), several studies have looked for and found evidence of BMT in a variety of primate species, from lemurs (Norscia, Antonacci, & Palagi, 2009; Port, Clough, & Kappeler, 2009) to monkeys (Gumert 2007; Tiddi, Aureli, & Schino 2012; Fruteau, Lemoine, Hellard, van Damme & Noë, 2011) and apes (Koyama, Caws, & Aureli, 2012; Newton-Fisher & Lee, 2011; Kaburu & Newton-Fisher, 2015a, 2015b). With an increasingly large number of studies, a review such as the one by Sánchez-Amaro and Amici (2015) would be warmly welcome as a timely summary of the evidence for BMT, and an indication of future directions. The authors identify four areas of interest and usefully highlight some potential issues with BMT, for example where free trading is compromised by extortion or the need for comparable methods across studies. However, while their aims may be laudable, we feel there are particular flaws in some of their arguments and some misrepresentation of cited literature that we would like to correct.