• Factors and procedures used in matching project managers to construction projects in Bangkok

      Ogunlana, Stephen; Siddiqui, Zafaar; Yisa, Silas; Olomolaiye, Paul (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2002)
      A number of factors and associated sub-factors influencing the matching of project managers to construction projects were identified after a thorough review of related literature and interviews of management personnel involved in the selection of project managers. There appears to be a consensus among the construction industry management in Bangkok on the factors, which influence the selection of construction project managers. A detailed survey of the top 100 construction companies in Thailand was conducted, to determine what factors are used in the industry to assign project managers to projects. A total of 73 completed questionnaires were received from 36 companies. It was established that influencing factors attract some degree of relative importance irrespective of the construction project category. The data showed no statistical difference between the three project categories in the weights given to the various factors considered for project manager assignment. Personal characteristics are considered least important for effective project management. It is argued that, at least in the Thai context, contractors are careful in assigning Project Managers that are capable of meeting external customers' needs. A matching model was developed based on the identified influencing factors and the relative importance they attached in the process of selecting the construction project managers. The model requires input in terms of the project requirements and evaluation of candidates' characteristics with respect to the influencing factors.
    • Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to hypertensive medications among Syrian refugees – cross-sectional study at the Zaatari camp, Jordan

      Abu Khudair, Sara; Khader, Yousef S; Morrissey, Hana; El-Khatib, Ziad; Sandor, Janos (Dove Medical Press, 2021-09-21)
      Objective: This study aimed to assess the level of medication adherence and associated factors among Syrian refugees with hypertension in Jordan. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 180 randomly selected Syrian refugees diagnosed with hypertension residing in Zaatari camp, Jordan. The Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) was used to assess adherence to antihypertensive medications. Additional data were collected on sociodemographics, therapy-related factors, patients’ behaviors and knowledge of hypertension disease and therapy, and health system-related factors. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between adherence scores and other variables. Results: The mean (SD) of ARMS scores was 15.7 (2.9). Based on ARMS scores, 22.8% of patients were adherents and 77.2% were non-adherents. Multivariate analysis showed that newly initiated therapy (≤ 2 years) and illiteracy were both strong predictors of lower adherence with p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively. Other variables that were significantly associated with lower adherence included discontinuation of antihypertensive medications due to side effects (p = 0.032), reporting irregular availability of free antihypertensive medications dispensed by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (p = 0.024), and dissatisfaction with health services (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Suboptimal adherence to antihypertensive medications remains a substantial unmet need among Syrian refugees with hypertension. As illiteracy appears to have a negative impact on adherence levels, educational interventions that promote medication adherence and favorable health behaviors through auditory and visual aids are needed to better reach and engage people with limited literacy skills. Strengthening the pharmaceutical supply chain at various levels is strongly recommended to respond quickly to changes in demand and prevent an indirect negative impact on adherence levels.
    • Factors influencing adoption model of continuous glucose monitoring devices for internet of things healthcare

      Md Ismail, Hossain; Ahmad Fadhil, Yusof; Ab Razak, Che Hussin; Noorminshah, A lahad; Sadiq, Ali Safaa (Elsevier, 2021-01-18)
      Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMs) device is the most developed technology, which has reshaped manual diabetes management with smart features having sensor, transmitter and monitor. However, the number of users for CGMs device is still very low compared to existing manual systems although this device provides a smart landmark in blood glucose monitoring for diabetes management. Consequently, the aspire of the assessment is to explore the factors that influence users’ intention to adopt CGMs device on the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare. This paper provides an adoption model for CGMs device by integrating some factors from different theories in existing studies of wearable healthcare devices. The proposed adoption model also examines current factors as a guideline for the users to adopt the CGMs device. We have collected data from 97 actual CGMs device users. Partial least square and structural equation modelling were involved for measurement and structural model assessment of this study. The experiential study specifies that interpersonal influence and trustworthiness are the strong predictors of attitude toward a wearable device, which shows significant relationships to use for CGMs device’s adoption. Personal innovativeness shows no significant relationship with attitude toward a wearable device. Besides, self-efficacy has no direct influence on a person’s health interest where heath interest directly influences users’ intention to use CGMs device. Moreover, perceived value is not found to be significant for measuring intention to use CGMs devices. The results from this research provide suggestions for the developers to ensure users’ intention to adopt CGMs device.
    • Factors Influencing Contractor Performance: An International Investigation

      Xiao, Hong; Proverbs, David G. (Emerald Publishing Group Ltd., 2003)
      International comparisons of contractor performance can provide robust benchmarks for contractors in different countries and help to identify ways towards performance improvement. Based on a hypothetical construction project, overall contractor performance (OCP) in Japan, the UK and the USA is compared. Overall contractor performance is defined to embrace construction cost, construction time, construction quality and sustainable development, the philosophy being that the achievement of one aspect of performance should not be at the expense of another. Multiple regression analysis reveals that overall contractor performance is dependent on: their past performance on previous similar projects; their commitment towards lifetime employment; their perceived importance of time performance; their relationship with subcontractors; and the number of design variations during construction. To improve their overall performance, contractors are advised to focus on construction time, reduce delays, maintain a stable workforce and establish partnerships with their subcontractors. Clients should attempt to reduce design variations during construction. (Emerald Group Publishing Limited)
    • Factors influencing the effectiveness of an agro-environmental project in China

      Subedi, Madhu; Hocking, Trevor J.; Fullen, Michael A.; McCrea, Alison R.; Milne, Eleanor (IP Publishing, 2011)
      A case study identified the factors affecting farmers’ adoption of improved technologies extended by an agricultural development project in a rural village in Yunnan Province, China. Project effectiveness was influenced by: the success and appropriateness of recommended technologies and associated infrastructure development; the use of participatory approaches; material and advisory support to local stakeholders; clear explanations of project objectives to farmers; benefits for small landholders; land rights for farmers; farmers’ awareness and dissemination activities; and project duration. Farmers’ adoption of technologies should be a major criterion in evaluating project success.
    • Factors relating to soil fertility and species diversity in both semi-natural and created meadows in the West Midlands of England

      McCrea, Alison R.; Trueman, Ian C.; Fullen, Michael A. (Blackwell, 2004)
      The post-war decline in the area and diversity of neutral meadows in Britain, resulting from agricultural intensification, has prompted schemes to restore and create new habitats. Their success relies on understanding the relations between soil fertility and species diversity. We have investigated these relations, using multivariate analysis, in 28 semi-natural meadows and eight artificially created urban meadows. Mineralizable nitrogen was the most important soil characteristic in the semi-natural sites; the more N the soil contained the fewer were the species characteristic of traditional meadows. Both potassium and total magnesium favoured diversity, perhaps because their deficiency in many traditionally managed meadows jeopardizes the survival of broad-leaved species in competition with grasses. Available lead, at sub-lethal concentrations and measured as a Pb:Ca ratio, appeared to favour diversity in the semi-natural sites, possibly by inhibiting the uptake of P by competitive grasses and allowing the less competitive species associated with diversity to flourish. The main differences between the soils of the artificial and the semi-natural meadows were that the former contained more extractable P and less mineralizable N and organic matter. It seems that large soil phosphorus concentrations may be the main reason why relatively few species colonize or survive in grassland on many urban soils.
    • Farmers perceptions of climate change related events in Shendam and Riyom, Nigeria

      Goyol, S; Pathirage, C (MDPI AG, 2018-12-19)
      © 2018 by the authors. Although agriculture in Nigeria is the major source of income for about 70% of the active population, the impact of agrarian infrastructure on boosting productivity and supporting livelihoods has increased. Climate change and the increasing trend of climate-related events in Nigeria challenge both the stability of agrarian infrastructure and livelihood systems. Based on case studies of two local communities in Plateau state in Nigeria, this paper utilizes a range of perceptions to examine the impacts of climate-related events on agrarian infrastructures and how agrarian livelihood systems are, in turn, affected. Data are obtained from a questionnaire survey (n = 175 farmers) and semi-structured interviews (n = 14 key informants). The study identifies local indicators of climate change, high risks climate events and the components of agrarian infrastructures that are at risk from climate events. Findings reveal that, changes in rainfall and temperature patterns increase the probability of floods and droughts. They also reveal that, although locational differences account for the high impact of floods on road transport systems and droughts on irrigation infrastructures, both have a chain of negative effects on agricultural activities, economic activities and livelihood systems. A binomial logistic regression model is used to predict the perceived impact levels of floods and droughts, while an in-depth analysis is utilized to corroborate the quantitative results. The paper further stresses the need to strengthen the institutional capacity for risk reduction through the provision of resilient infrastructures, as the poor conditions of agrarian infrastructure were identified as dominant factors on the high impact levels.
    • Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene influences skeletal muscle phenotypes in non-resistance trained males and elite rugby playing position

      Heffernan, SM; Stebbings, GK; Kilduff, LP; Erskine, RM; Day, SH; Morse, CI; McPhee, JS; Cook, CJ; Vance, B; Ribbans, WJ; et al. (Springer Nature, 2017-01-19)
      Background FTO gene variants have been associated with obesity phenotypes in sedentary and obese populations, but rarely with skeletal muscle and elite athlete phenotypes. Methods In 1089 participants, comprising 530 elite rugby athletes and 559 non-athletes, DNA was collected and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant using real-time PCR. In a subgroup of non-resistance trained individuals (NT; n = 120), we also assessed structural and functional skeletal muscle phenotypes using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry. In a subgroup of rugby athletes (n = 77), we assessed muscle power during a countermovement jump. Results In NT, TT genotype and T allele carriers had greater total body (4.8% and 4.1%) and total appendicular lean mass (LM; 3.0% and 2.1%) compared to AA genotype, with greater arm LM (0.8%) in T allele carriers and leg LM (2.1%) for TT, compared to AA genotype. Furthermore, the T allele was more common (94%) in selected elite rugby union athletes (back three and centre players) who are most reliant on LM rather than total body mass for success, compared to other rugby athletes (82%; P = 0.01, OR = 3.34) and controls (84%; P = 0.03, OR = 2.88). Accordingly, these athletes had greater peak power relative to body mass than other rugby athletes (14%; P = 2 x 10-6). Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that the T allele is associated with increased LM and elite athletic success. This has implications for athletic populations, as well as conditions characterised by low LM such as sarcopenia and cachexia.
    • Fault Identification-based voltage sag state estimation using artificial neural network

      Liao, H; Anani, N (Elsevier, 2017-10-23)
      © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based approach to identify faults for voltage sag state estimation. Usually ANN cannot be used to abstract relationship between monitored data and arbitrarily named fault indices which are not related at all logically in numerical level. This paper presents a novel approach to overcome this problem. In this approach, not only the networks are trained to adapt to the given training data, the training data (the expected outputs of fault indices) is also updated to adapt to the neural network. During the training procedure, both the neural networks and training data are updated interactively. With the proposed approach, various faults can be accurately identified using limited monitored data. The approach is robust to measurement uncertainty which usually exists in practical monitoring systems. Furthermore, the updated fault indices are able to suggest the difference of the impact of various faults on bus voltages. .
    • Feasibility of an oxygen-getter with nickel electrodes in alkaline electrolysers

      Symes, Daniel; Taylor-Cox, Connie; Holyfield, Leighton; Al-Duri, Bushra; Dhir, Aman (2014-03-21)
      Alkaline electrolysis is the long-established technology for water splitting to produce hydrogen and has been industrially used since the nineteenth century. The most common materials used for the electrodes are nickel and derivatives of nickel (e.g. Raney nickel). Nickel represents a cost-effective electrode material due to its low cost (compared to platinum group metals), good electrical conductivity and exhibits good resistance to corrosive solutions. The steady degradation of the nickel electrodes over time is known as a result of oxide layer formation on the electrode surface. Reducing oxide layer growth on the electrode surface will increase the efficiency and lifetime of the electrolyser. Titanium has a higher affinity to oxygen than nickel so has been introduced to the electrolyser as a sacrificial metal to reduce oxide layer formation on the nickel. Two identical electrolysers were tested with one difference: Cell B had titanium chips present in the electrolyte solution, whilst Cell A did not have titanium present. SEM results show a reduction of 16 % in the thickness of the Cell B oxide layer on nickel compared to the Cell A nickel, which is supported by the large increase in oxide layer build-up on the titanium in Cell B. EDX on the same samples showed on average a 59 % decrease in oxygen on the Cell B nickel compared to Cell A. XPS surface analysis of the same samples showed a 17 % decrease in the oxygen on Cell B nickel. These results support the hypothesis that adding titanium to an alkaline electrolyser system with nickel electrodes can reduce the oxide layer formation on the nickel.
    • Fecal concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone in cotton-top tamarins hosted in different zoological parks: Relationship among physiological data, environmental conditions and behavioral patterns

      Fontani, Sara; Vaglio, Stefano; Beghelli, Valentina; Mattioli, Michela; Bacci, Silvia; Accorsi, Pier Attilio (Taylor and Francis, 2014-05-14)
      The aim of this investigation was to study the welfare of 3 captive groups of cotton-top tamarins housed in different zoological parks. Ethological observations were conducted during 1 year. In addition, fecal samples were collected and the concentrations of glucocorticoids, androgens, and progestogens were measured. Within each group, no significant differences in fecal cortisol concentrations were found between subjects. The fecal concentrations of testosterone and progesterone significantly differed depending on the sexes and ages of the tamarins. A significant association was found among hormone concentrations, exhibit dimensions, and group composition. A highly significant correlation was found between all hormones considered and the space available for each subject. Significant differences in behavioral patterns were observed among groups, including social–individual, affiliative–aggressive, and anogenital–suprapubic scent marking. Correlations between hormone measurements and behaviors were detected. In conclusion, this study confirmed the associations between some behaviors exhibited by these nonhuman primates and both cortisol and testosterone; these data also highlight the role played by progesterone in these behaviors.
    • Federated blockchain-based tracking and liability attribution framework for employees and cyber-physical objects in a smart workplace

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Cosson, Jon; Pillai, Prashant (IEEE, 2019-04-11)
      The systematic integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) into the supply chain to increase operational efficiency and quality has also introduced new complexities to the threat landscape. The myriad of sensors could increase data collection capabilities for businesses to facilitate process automation aided by Artificial Intelligence (AI) but without adopting an appropriate Security-by-Design framework, threat detection and response are destined to fail. The emerging concept of Smart Workplace incorporates many CPS (e.g. Robots and Drones) to execute tasks alongside Employees both of which can be exploited as Insider Threats. We introduce and discuss forensic-readiness, liability attribution and the ability to track moving Smart SPS Objects to support modern Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR) within a defence-in-depth strategy. We present a framework to facilitate the tracking of object behaviour within Smart Controlled Business Environments (SCBE) to support resilience by enabling proactive insider threat detection. Several components of the framework were piloted in a company to discuss a real-life case study and demonstrate anomaly detection and the emerging of behavioural patterns according to objects' movement with relation to their job role, workspace position and nearest entry or exit. The empirical data was collected from a Bluetooth-based Proximity Monitoring Solution. Furthermore, a key strength of the framework is a federated Blockchain (BC) model to achieve forensic-readiness by establishing a digital Chain-of-Custody (CoC) and a collaborative environment for CPS to qualify as Digital Witnesses (DW) to support post-incident investigations.
    • Federated-Distributed Simulation of Rigid Bodies in Computer Games

      Kumar, Pawan; Mehdi, Qasim (The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2007)
      In this paper we detail our prototype rigid bodies simulation environment that was developed for testing and evaluation of federated simulation development kit (FDK) in computer games. Also we discuss the algorithms that were developed for rigid bodies simulation including the dynamic collision detection, numerical methods and discuss the approach used for distributed rigid bodies using FDK.
    • Feedback stability for dissipative switched systems

      Karalis, P; Navarro-López, Eva María (Elsevier, 2017-10-18)
      A method is proposed to infer Lyapunov and asymptotic stability properties for switching systems, under arbitrary continuous-state feedback. Continuous-time systems which are dissipative in the multiple-storage function sense are considered. A partition of the state space, induced by the cross-supply rates and the feedback function, is used to derive conditions for stability. It is argued that the conditions proposed here are more straightforward to check, when compared to those proposed by other approaches in the literature. Some numerical examples are offered to illustrate this point.
    • Female citation impact superiority 1996-2018 in six out of seven English-speaking nations

      Thelwall, Mike (Wiley, 2019-11-12)
      Efforts to combat continuing gender inequalities in academia need to be informed by evidence about where differences occur. Citations are relevant as potential evidence in appointment and promotion decisions, but it is unclear whether there have been historical gender differences in average citation impact that might explain the current shortfall of senior female academics. This study investigates the evolution of gender differences in citation impact 1996-2018 for six million articles from seven large English-speaking nations: Australia, Canada, Ireland, Jamaica, New Zealand, UK, and the USA. The results show that a small female citation advantage has been the norm over time for all these countries except the USA, where there has been no practical difference. The female citation advantage is largest, and statistically significant in most years, for Australia and the UK. This suggests that any academic bias against citing female authored research cannot explain current employment inequalities. Nevertheless, comparisons using recent citation data, or avoiding it altogether, during appointments or promotion may disadvantage females in some countries by underestimating the likely impact of their work, especially in the long term.
    • Female copulation calls vary with male ejaculation in captive olive baboons

      Vaglio, Stefano; Ducroix, Louise; Rodriguez Villanueva, Maria; Consiglio, Rosanna; Kim, Ayong Julia; Neilands, Patrick; Stucky, Kerstin; Lameira, Adriano R (Brill, 2020-08-11)
      Copulation calls are mating-associated vocalizations that are common in primates, with females vocalizing after copulation in several Old World monkeys and apes. Baboon females typically produce copulation calls that correlate with fertile phase. Calls are, thus, regarded as an upshot of cycle physiology and sexually selected calls. Here, we describe three captive troops of olive baboons wherein, against expectation, females suppressed vocalizing during copulations. Vaginal cytology, together with sexual swelling observations, confirmed that females experienced full receptive cycles. Ovulation did not affect vocal probability during sex, while copulation calls were predicted by male ejaculation just as in other Old World primate species. Results cast doubt on the existence of physiological triggers for baboon copulation calls. Social factors may instead play a larger role. Alterations in social structure (as typically observed in the wild) may be implemented strategically as captive enrichment in order to reveal how females in highly social primates change sexual strategies and, therefore, the use of their copulation calls.
    • Field Case Studies of Soil Organic Matter Sequestration in Lithuania and the UK.

      Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Jankauskas, Benediktas; Jankauskienė, Genovaitė; Slepetiene, Alvyra (WIT Press, 2008)
      Investigations have assessed the environmental benefits of soil organic matter (SOM) storage at two long-term European experimental research sites: (i) SOM data from a soil conservation (set-aside) site in the UK and (ii) SOM data from a carbon sequestration benchmarking site in Lithuania. The first case study (Hilton, UK) illustrates the environmental benefits of changes in SOM content before and after the adoption of set-aside, a recognized soil conservation technique. Ten run-off plots (7–15° gradients) were put to ley in 1991. Run-off and erosion rates decreased to tolerable levels once ~30% vegetation cover had established and remained low (mean of 69 plot years 0.21 t ha–1 year–1, SD 0.14). Meanwhile, SOM content increased consistently and significantly on the set-aside plots (mean of 2.22% by weight in 14 years) and soil erodibility significantly decreased. Results suggest using grass-leys for set-aside is a viable soil conservation technique, which may also contribute to carbon sequestration. The second case study (Kaltinenai, Lithuania) addresses the issue of comparing international SOM databases to assist carbon modelling and carbon sequestration estimates. Five analytical approaches have been used to calculate SOM. Linear correlation and paired regression equations were used to calculate the various techniques. Correlation coefficients varied between r = 0.83–0.98 (n = 92, P<0.001). Based on the strength and significance of these relationships, it is proposed that simple linear or more complex paired regression equations can be confidently employed to recalculate SOM data between various analytical methodologies. However, it also demonstrates the potential difficulty of international carbon benchmarking, as part of the global policy to ameliorate climate change.
    • Field studies of the effects of jute geotextiles on runoff and erosion in Shropshire, UK

      Mitchell, David J.; Barton, A.P.; Fullen, Michael A.; Hocking, Trevor J.; Zhi, Wu Bo; Zheng, Yi (Wiley InterScience, 2003)
      Jute geotextiles are widely used to stabilize steep banks and road cuttings. Jute protects bare surfaces until seeded grass becomes established, then after several years, the jute decays. To evaluate two types of jute geotextiles, eight erosion plots were established in July 1994 at the Hilton Experimental Site, Shropshire, UK. On 10 April 1995, the plots were treated as follows: (1) jute geotextile net; (2) jute mat; (3) perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne); and (4) bare soil, with duplicates of each treatment. Over one year, sediment yields from jute net and jute mat were 1.1% and 1.2%, respectively, of the yield from the bare control. Although both had similar soil protection qualities, runoff was very different. The runoff from the jute net was 35% and the jute mat 247% of the control. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of jute net for erosion and runoff control, while the jute mat may both conserve soil and 'harvest' rain or redirect runoff.
    • Filtering multiphoton emission from state-of the-art cavity quantum electrodynamics

      Sanchez Munoz, Carlos; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Valle, Elena del; Tejedor, Carlos; Gonzalez-Tudela, Alejandro (OSA, 2018-01-08)
      Engineering multiphoton states is an outstanding challenge with applications in multiple fields such as quantum metrology, quantum lithography, or even biological sensing. State-of-the-art methods to obtain them rely on post-selection, multi-level systems, or Rydberg atomic ensembles. Recently, it was shown that a strongly driven two-level system interacting with a detuned cavity mode can be engineered to continuously emit 𝑛-photon states. In the present work, we show that spectral filtering of its emission relaxes considerably the requirements on the system parameters even to the more accessible bad-cavity situation, opening up the possibility of implementing this protocol in a much wider landscape of different platforms. This improvement is based on a key observation: in the imperfect case where only a certain fraction of emission is composed of 𝑛-photon states, these have a well-defined energy separated from the rest of the signal, which allows one to reveal and purify multiphoton emission just by frequency filtering. We demonstrate these results by obtaining analytical expressions for the relevant figures of merit of multiphoton emission, such as the 𝑛-photon coupling rate between cavity and emitter, the fraction of light emitted as 𝑛-photon states, and 𝑛-photon emission rates. This allows us to make a systematic study of such figures of merit as a function of the system parameters and demonstrate the viability of the protocol in several relevant types of cavity quantum electrodynamics setups, where we take into account the impact of their respective experimental limitations.
    • Financing renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic: An empirical study

      Donastorg, Angelines; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Emerald, 2021-06-18)
      Purpose Currently, Renewable Energy (RE) sources represent a crucial pillar in obtaining sustainable development, one of the global goals for all countries. However, this presents a unique challenge for emerging and developing countries. Since, the technical and financial issues remain a significant barrier in implementing RE projects several mechanisms are available to aid the financial aspect of investing and implementing clean energy projects. This paper discusses new and traditional trends in the financial area of renewable investment, focusing on the Dominican Republic (DR), identifying the gaps in the financial area regarding RE. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was conducted in the Dominican Republic. This country is located at the heart of the Caribbean. Given the complexity of RE and developing countries issues and the scarcity of comparable research in the area, an interpretivist research paradigm along with the qualitative methodology was adopted. Primary data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The study sample includes: Directors, Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Managers responsible for the implementation of RE strategies in their respective departments/organisations. NVivo software was used for data management and the collected data was analysed using content analysis. Findings The research highlighted several severe financial handicaps regarding RE in the DR: The lack of RE assets recognition; Lack of RE investment loans; Perceived RE risk; and Lack of financial guarantor. After extensive interviews with critical actors in the RE sector in the DR, the possible solutions and recommendations for avoiding locking the energy and economic sector in fossil fuel debt, are: (a) diversification of RE technology assets recognition (b) implementation of government RE fund (c) RE education on all actors (d) introduction and adoption of new financial trends such as: green bonds, bank pooling, cooperatives and more. Originality/value This paper provides information and knowledge related to financial tools and policies that are available for the RE projects in the DR. The results have a socio-economic impact. This research provides a better understanding of the key financial tools to be explored by RE project developers in the developing countries. This study shows the gaps that exist between the knowledge that the stakeholders should possess and the actual knowledge that exists in the country regarding the financial aspect of an RE project.