• Benefit of continuous treatment for responders with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in the randomized FIRST trial

      Bahlis, NJ; Corso, A; Mugge, LO; Shen, ZX; Desjardins, P; Stoppa, AM; Decaux, O; De Revel, T; Granell, M; Marit, G; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-11-01)
      © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. The phase 3, randomized Frontline Investigation of Revlimid and Dexamethasone Versus Standard Thalidomide (FIRST) trial investigating lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous) vs melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide for 12 cycles (MPT) and Rd for 18 cycles (Rd18) in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) showed that Rd continuous prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival compared with MPT. A subanalysis of the FIRST trial was conducted to determine the benefits of Rd continuous in patients with NDMM based on depth of response. Patients randomized 1:1:1 to Rd continuous, Rd18 or MPT were divided into subgroups based on best response: complete response (CR; n=290), ≥ very good partial response (VGPR; n=679), ≥ partial response (PR; n=1 225) or ≤ stable disease (n=299). Over 13% of patients receiving Rd continuous who achieved ≥ VGPR as best response did so beyond 18 months of treatment. Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death by 67%, 51% and 35% vs MPT in patients with CR, ≥ VGPR and ≥ PR, respectively. Similarly, Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death by 61%, 54% and 38% vs Rd18 in patients with CR, ≥ VGPR and ≥ PR, respectively. In patients with CR, ≥ VGPR or ≥ PR, 4-year survival rates in the Rd continuous arm (81.1%, 73.1% or 64.6%, respectively) were higher vs MPT (70.8%, 59.8% or 57.2%, respectively) and similar vs Rd18 (76.5%, 67.7% and 62.5%, respectively). Rd continuous improved efficacy outcomes in all responding patients, including those with CR, compared with fixed duration treatment.
    • Benefits, barriers and guideline recommendations for the implementation of serious games in education for stakeholders and policymakers

      Tsekleves, Emmanuel; Cosmas, John; Aggoun, Amar (British Educational Research Association, 2014-10-24)
      Serious games and game-based learning have received increased attention in recent years as an adjunct to teaching and learning material. This has been well echoed in the literature with numerous articles on the use of games and game theory in education. Despite this, no policy for the incorporation of serious games in education exists to date. This review paper draws from the literature to provide guideline recommendations that would help educators and policymakers in making the first step towards this.
    • Best practices: in the 21st century, taxonomic decisions in herpetology are acceptable only when supported by a body of evidence and published via peer-review

      Kaiser, Hinrich; Crother, Brian I.; Kelly, Christopher M.R; Luiselli, Luca; O'Shea, Mark; Ota, Hidetoshi; Passos, Paulo; Schleip, Wulf D.; Wüster, Wolfgang (2013)
    • Bias estimation of p-values in analytic and simulated Cox Tests for non-nested models

      Wilson, Paul; Eilers, Paul H. C. (Statistical Modelling Society, 2008-07-07)
      In this paper we show that the estimation of p-values in both Cox’s test for non-nested models and its simulation based analogues is biased and that whilst simulation based Cox tests may be extended to nested models the consequent level of bias is so large as to render the test useless, but that this bias may be removed by adapting the null hypothesis to be simple.
    • Biased perceptions and personality traits attribution: cognitive aspects in future interventions for organizations

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Hampton, Paul (Frontiers Media, 2019-01-15)
      In most European countries, the proportion of females and males pursuing a career in Technology and Engineering is quite different. The under-representation of women in these jobs may be attributable to a variety of factors, one of which could be the negative and stereotyped perception of these work sectors as unsuitable for women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stereotyped perceptions impact the job representation of males and females in the Construction Industry, which is a particularly male-dominated work sector. Three construction organizations in the West Midlands (United Kingdom) were studied by means of ethnographic interviews and observations. Three (6.7%) of the 45 research participants (mean age 44.3) were women (focusing only in people working in Construction sites). There was a high differentiation of activities between the males and females. Biased perceptions and personality traits attribution played a fundamental role in such a differentiation. Despite some main limitations (low generalisability, lack of longitudinal findings), this study focused on some important practical implications for current work policies: changing the mindsets of people (starting from school age), using new flexible strategies and creating the role of internal advocates. The findings provide definitive evidence of the need to increase the promotion of social communication and public campaigns on gender equalities in male-dominated work sectors, taking into account the cognitive processes behind gender differences. The findings also give new hints on re-thinking the contribution of Psychology, particularly Cognitive Psychology, in fields with allegedly wide gender gaps.
    • BIM education framework for clients and professionals of the construction industry

      Rodriguez, Ana Karina Silverio; Suresh, Subashini; Heesom, David; Suresh, Renukappa; University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK; University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK (IGI Global, 2017-04)
      Lack of qualified BIM professionals is a key BIM challenge that affects specific organisations and on a more macro scale, individual countries. A salient solution to this problem is the provision of better BIM education. This article represents the initial work into the implementation of BIM in the Dominican Republic, a country affected by different challenges in regard to BIM implementation, with a key issue surrounding the lack of BIM education. The aim of the article is the development of a conceptual BIM education framework which suggests strategies to be implemented in Academia and the industry for the delivery of BIM education to all the construction parties involved in a project, including the client. A literature review about BIM education and training and the revision of BIM education frameworks worldwide helped in its development. The framework is beneficial to this country as it is intended to be part of a toolkit, the final outcome of a PhD research on this country. However, it can be consulted by any country or organisation interested in developing BIM education strategies.
    • BIM for deconstruction: an interpretive structural model of factors influencing implementation

      Obi, Lovelin; Awuzie, Bankole; Obi, Chukwudi; Omotayo, Temitope S; Oke, Adekunle; Osobajo, Oluyomi (MDPI, 2021-05-25)
      Transitioning from demolition to deconstruction practices for end-of-life performances is gaining increasing attention following the need for the construction industry to minimise construction and demolition waste. Building information modelling (BIM) presents an opportunity for sustainable deconstruction. However, the notion of BIM for deconstruction (BIMfD) is still in its infancy in the United Kingdom. Although a few studies on BIMfD are evident, a focus on identifying the underlying factors necessary for successful implementation of BIMfD is lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyse the underlying factors necessary for BIMfD implementation in the UK construction industry. It employed a four-stage research design. The reviewed literature explored extant views on BIM implementation factors to identify an initial list of possible factors influencing BIMfD implementation. Subsequently, a mix of questionnaire, focus group discussions and structured interviews were employed at various stages to refine and contextualise 15 factors necessary for BIMfD implementation in the UK construction industry. The contextual interrelationships among the factors were evaluated using interpretive structured modelling (ISM). This evaluation culminated in a BIMfD implementation factor model. The findings identified BIMfD experts, responsiveness of business models to innovative practices and industry’s acceptance to embrace change as the principal factors influencing BIMfD implementation in the UK. The implications of the findings attest that BIMfD experts and advisors must champion the adoption and implementation of BIMfD in the UK and business models need to become more responsive to accommodate BIMfD innovative practices. A BIMfD framework was conceptualised. Even though the BIMfD framework was designed from the UK perspective, the global construction industry can leverage the outcomes of this study. This paper, therefore, brings to the fore, a hierarchical BIMfD implementation factor model to support improved deconstruction practices in the construction industry.
    • BIM implementation in China: A case study approach

      Jiang, Bo; Khan, Rana Raheel Afzal; Vian, Ahmed; Cheng, Zhijun (Atlantis Press, 2015-10-31)
      The term of Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become ubiquitous in construction industry of China. The purpose of this study is to investigate implementation of BIM in construction industry in China, including the BIM strategy, the BIM standards, and the projects that utilized BIM and so on. The methodology for this paper is based on a literature review of the strategy, the standards in relation to BIM and a detailed case study of 30 BIM implementation projects in construction industry in China. A range of key factors that affected the BIM implementation and the initiatives to accelerate the BIM development in China were found in this paper, such as the BIM standards system, the BIM commercial model, BIM contribution to sustainability and so on. From the research findings, some conclusions and recommendations were drawn to explore effective ways to promote the BIM implementation in China.
    • BIM in the water industry: addressing challenges to improve the project delivery process

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Kamunda, Andrew (University of Northumbria, 2019-09-18)
      The UK Government BIM implementation 2016 target for all public projects formed the major driver for the construction industry to upskill and learn new ways of working. The water industry is a private sector that has no mandate to implement BIM and would also benefit from its use. Research has identified that fragmentation and inefficiency still existed in the water industry project delivery processes. These issues can be addressed by harnessing the collaboration that BIM brings by using emerging information technology. The UK water industry has had little research in the use of BIM in the project delivery processes over the years. Therefore, the aim of the research is to explore and examine BIM use in the water construction industry, as well as understand the challenges faced and how they are being addressed to improve project delivery processes. The qualitative case study approach was adopted for the collection and analysis of data which was carried out by undertaking observations, document reviews and semi structured interviews. A water company and a design and build contractor on a framework formed the research sample. The design and build contractor was also part of other water industry frameworks. The research findings identified that there are similarities between the water industry and the other infrastructure sectors in the use of BIM realizing benefits of collaborative working. These benefits included improved information quality, cost reductions, shorter programme durations and greater collaboration. However, BIM was yet to be fully understood and used which led to challenges of overcoming and changing organizational cultures, developing levels of BIM expertise, data and information control, interoperability and data entry. The research also identified that the water company was lagging in BIM use despite noticeable benefits shown by its supply chain. The paper concludes by identifying that the water industry supply chain has taken positive steps and started to benefit from BIM use. However, more needs to be done as BIM is still in its infancy facing challenges associated with changing organizational cultures. The research recommends that the water industry and its supply chain should continue to invest more resources in implementing BIM to achieve the benefits realized by other sectors with NBS and CITB becoming more visible. This should include staff training, creating standardized approaches, processes to harness the collaborative nature of BIM.
    • BIM in the water industry: Addressing challenges to improve the project delivery process

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Kamunda, Andrew; Jallow, Haddy (Emerald Publishing, 2020-07-07)
      Purpose The UK water industry is a private sector that has no government mandate to implement BIM but would benefit from its use. Research has identified that fragmentation and inefficiency still existed in the water industry project delivery processes. These issues can be addressed by harnessing the collaboration that Building Information Modelling (BIM) brings by using emerging information technology. The UK water industry has had little research in the use of BIM in the project delivery processes over the years. Design/methodology/approach The aim of the research is to explore and examine BIM elements currently used in the water industry, as well as understand the organisational cultural support for BIM. It also investigated the adoption of BIM which will enable to improve water industry project delivery processes. An empirical study was performed in the UK. Given the relatively new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research methodology was adopted. In total, 14 semi-structured interviews from six water sector organisations were conducted to collect data, which was then analysed using thematic analysis for inference and conclusion. Findings The study identified that BIM has already changed how projects are delivered by the water companies and their supply chain. Use of emerging technology such as Autodesk Revit, Civil 3D, and virtual reality has gained traction and is leading organisations to continue investing in these areas to remain relevant. Although staff training was offered by all organisations within the study cohort, some interviewees still thought that more can be done by their organisations as BIM is still maturing. Those interviewed regarded BIM models as data and information rich with the ability to enable the supply chain to obtain quicker approvals. Originality/value The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of BIM elements used in the water industry to improve project delivery processes. This study shows that the water industry supply chain has taken positive steps and started to benefit from BIM use. It also recommends that there is a need for cross‐sector collaboration to capture and share best and worst practices relating to BIM adoption in the water sector.
    • Bimodal responses of cells to trace elements: insights into their mechanism of action using a biospectroscopy approach

      Llabjania, Valmira; Hoti, Valmira; Pouran, Hamid M.; Martin, Francis L.; Zhang, Hao (Elsevier, 2014-05-22)
      Understanding how organisms respond to trace elements is important because some are essential for normal bodily homeostasis, but can additionally be toxic at high concentrations. The inflection point for many of these elements is unknown and requires sensitive techniques capable of detecting subtle cellular changes as well as cytotoxic alterations. In this study, we treated human cells with arsenic (As), copper or selenium (Se) in a dose–response manner and used attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) microspectroscopy combined with computational analysis to examine cellular alterations. Cell cultures were treated with Asv, Cu2+ or Seiv at concentrations ranging from 0.001 mg L−1 to 1000 mg L−1 and their effects were spectrochemically determined. Results show that Asv and Cu2+ induce bimodal dose–response effects on cells; this is in line with hormesis-driven responses. Lipids and proteins seem to be the main cell targets for all the elements tested; however, each compound produced a unique fingerprint of effect. Spectral biomarkers indicate that all test agents generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could either stimulate repair mechanisms or induce damage in cells.
    • (Bio)degradable polymeric materials for a sustainable future – part 1. Organic recycling of PLA/PBAT blends in the form of prototype packages with long shelf-life

      Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Janeczek, Henryk; Wałach, Wojciech; Hercog, Anna; Johnston, Brian; Rydz, Joanna (Elsevier, 2018-04-23)
      Prediction studies of advanced (bio)degradable polymeric materials are crucial when their potential applications as compostable products with long shelf-life is considered for today’s market. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the polylactide (PLA) content in the blends of PLA and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT); specifically how the material’s thickness corresponded to changes that occurred in products during the degradation process. Additionally, the influence of talc on the degradation profile of all samples in all environments was investigated. It was found that, differences in the degradation rate of materials tested with a similar content of the PLA component could be caused by differences in their thickness, the presence of commercial additives used during processing or a combination of both. The obtained results indicated that the presence of talc may interfere with materials behavior towards water and consequently alter their degradation profile.
    • (Bio)degradable polymeric materials for sustainable future—Part 3: Degradation studies of the PHA/wood flour-based composites and preliminary tests of antimicrobial activity

      Musioł, Marta; Jurczyk, Sebastian; Sobota, Michał; Klim, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Zięba, Magdalena; Janeczek, Henryk; Rydz, Joanna; Kurcok, Piotr; Johnston, Brian; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-05-11)
      The need for a cost reduction of the materials derived from (bio)degradable polymers forces research development into the formation of biocomposites with cheaper fillers. As additives can be made using the post-consumer wood, generated during wood products processing, re-use of recycled waste materials in the production of biocomposites can be an environmentally friendly way to minimalize and/or utilize the amount of the solid waste. Also, bioactive materials, which possess small amounts of antimicrobial additives belong to a very attractive packaging industry solution. This paper presents a study into the biodegradation, under laboratory composting conditions, of the composites that consist of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)] and wood flour as a polymer matrix and natural filler, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the degradation progress of the obtained composites with different amounts of wood flour. The degradation products were characterized by multistage electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Also, preliminary tests of the antimicrobial activity of selected materials with the addition of nisin were performed. The obtained results suggest that the different amount of filler has a significant influence on the degradation profile.
    • (Bio)degradable polymers as a potential material for food packaging: studies on the (bio)degradation process of PLA/(R,S)-PHB rigid foils under industrial composting conditions

      Kowalczuk, Marek; Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Adamas, Graz˙yna; Janeczek, Henryk; Rydz, Joanna (Springer-Verlag, 2015-12)
      The rigid foils obtained from polylactide (PLA) with synthetic poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] ((R,S)-PHB) can be used for production of food packages, which is important enhancement of biodegradable materials application. The biodegradable rigid packaging can be subjected to organic recycling together with food remains. The degradation of PLA and its blend with (R,S)-PHB as rigid foils were studied under industrial composting conditions. Incubation of these materials in water at 70 °C (hydrolytic degradation) was conducted as reference experiment. Gel permeation chromatography, electrospray mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry were used to determine the progress of degradation during incubation in selected environments. The present results showed that PLA-based rigid foil degrades under industrial composting conditions. In the blends, (R,S)-PHB content was found to accelerate the degradation process under industrial composting conditions in comparison with the reference experiment. Thus, it is possible to control the degradation process by changing the composition of polymer blend.
    • Bioactive (co)oligoesters with antioxidant properties – synthesis and structural characterization at the molecular level

      Maksymiak, Magdalena; Bałakier, Tomasz; Jurczak, Janusz; Adamus, Grazyna; Kowalczuk, Marek (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2016-06-10)
      A contemporary synthetic route, starting from the bioactive compound via the corresponding glycidyl ester and β-substituted β-lactone to (homo)- and (co)oligoesters with a bioactive moiety covalently linked as pendent groups along an oligomer backbone, was reported. The bioactive compounds were selected from antioxidants used in cosmetics. Two models of bioactive (homo)- and (co)oligoesters were synthesized via anionic ring-opening (co)oligomerization of p-methoxybenzoyloxymethylpropiolactone (p-AA-CH2-PL) initiated by p-anisic acid sodium salt. An analytical protocol was developed for a detailed structural characterization at the molecular level of these bioactive (co)oligoesters. The molecular level structure of the obtained bioactive (homo)- and (co)oligoesters was established by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) supported by 1H NMR analysis. Additionally, the results presented here are important for the analysis of designed biodegradable polymeric controlled-release systems of bioactive compounds with potential applications in cosmetology.
    • Bioactive and functional oligomers derived from natural PHA and their synthetic analogs

      Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline; Kurcok, Piotr; Adamus, Grazyna; Konieczny, Tomasz; Zięba, Magdalena; Ekere, Anabel Itohowo; Koller, Martin (CRC Press, 2020-11-05)
      Polyhydroxyalkanoate oligomers (oligo-PHA) are low molar mass PHA consisting of a small number of 3-hydroxyacid repeat units (usually not more than 200 residue units). They can be synthesized either naturally in eukaryotic cells and in prokaryotic cells through intracellular or extracellular degradation of storage PHA to yield natural oligomers, or via several chemical modifications such as basic hydrolysis or transesterification. The synthetic analogs of natural PHA oligomers are obtained by anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones. These synthetic and biodegradable oligomers, through various chemical modifications, can further allow the preparation of bioactive oligomers with attractive properties for novel and high value-added applications, especially in medicine, agrochemistry, and cosmetology. Bioactive oligomers are also biodegradable: they possess enhanced properties, controlled functional end groups, and thus can be potential components of copolymers or blends with other biodegradable polymers. The natural and synthetic routes used for the preparation of selected bioactive PHA oligomers and their detailed characterization by mass spectrometry are discussed in this chapter.
    • Bioactive oligomers from natural polyhydroxyalkanoates and their synthetic analogues

      Radecka, Iza; Adamus, Grażyna; Kurcok, Piotr; Kowalczuk, Marek (Industrial Chemistry Research Institute, Address: ul. Rydygiera 8, 01-793 Warsaw, Poland, 2017-04-01)
      Contemporary reports on the bioactive oligomers derived from natural aliphatic (co)polyesters (PHA) and their synthetic analogues, formed through anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones are presented. Synthetic routes for such oligomers, developed mostly by Polish authors, are discussed. The described approaches enable design of novel biodegradable and bioactive oligomers for diverse applications in medicine, cosmetic industry and agrochemistry. Abstrakt: Przedstawiono przegląd aktualnych wyników badań dotyczących bioaktywnych oligomerów otrzymywanych z naturalnych alifatycznych (ko)poliestrów (PHA) oraz ich syntetycznych analogów, uzyskanych na drodze anionowej polimeryzacji z otwarciem pierścienia (ROP) β-podstawionych β-laktonów. Omówiono ścieżki syntezy tych oligomerów opracowane głównie przez polskich badaczy. Zaprezentowane metody umożliwiają projektowanie nowych biodegradowalnych a zarazem bioaktywnych oligomerów dla różnorodnych zastosowań w medycynie, przemyśle kosmetyczny i agrochemii.
    • Biochemical liver function test in a transplant recipient: A case report

      Aslam, Fahim; Silmy, Shameemah (Acta Scientific, 2020-07-30)
      The percentage of liver transplantations over the last two decades has been on the rise across the world, nearly 33000 reported transplants took place in 2017 with an increase expected in the upcoming years. Majority of the recipients of liver transplant generally has liver cirrhosis caused by NAFLD/AFLD making them vulnerable to damage their other organs as well. In most cases the transplantation organ is donated by a blood relative within the family as most other donors have high chances of graft rejection. We report a case of liver cirrhosis patient with continuously liver function tests carried out for a period of three months, subsequently the patient was listed as one of the recipients for liver transplant as his biochemical parameters showed signs of liver failure progressing to severe state.
    • Biocompatible terpolyesters containing polyhydroxyalkanoate and sebacic acid structural segments - synthesis and characterization

      Kwiecien, Michal; Kwiecien, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kannappan, Vinodh; Morris, Mark R.; Adamus, Grazyna (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017-04-10)
      A convenient synthetic route of poly(3HB-co-3HH-co-SEB) terpolyesters has been reported. The developed protocol consists of two steps; poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHx) oligoesterdiols were synthesized via selective reduction of biopolyesters and then via their polycondensation with sebacoyl chloride the biodegradable terpolyesters, poly(3HB-co-3HH-co-SEB), were obtained. The structure of the obtained terpolyesters was established by NMR analysis supported by mass spectrometry. Modification of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by incorporating units derived from sebacic acid into its chains resulted in terpolyesters with better physico-chemical properties than the starting PHBHx biopolyester. These new polyester materials have greater thermal stability than the starting biopolyester. Furthermore, the introduction of sebacic acid units to a polyester chain leads to the reduction of the glass transition temperatures of the materials and reduces the required processing temperature. A preliminary study confirmed that poly(3HB-co-3HH-co-SEB) terpolyesters can be used to create scaffolds for cell cultures in the form of a three-dimensional spatial structure. Moreover, a toxicity test of the obtained terpolyester carried out on human cells demonstrated that the novel terpolyester is not toxic to human cells in vitro.
    • Biodegradable PBAT/PLA blend with bioactive MCPA-PHBV conjugate suppresses weed growth

      Kwiecień, Iwona; Adamus, Grazyna; Jiang, Guozhan; Radecka, Iza; Baldwin, Timothy C.; Khan, Habib R.; Johnston, Brian; Pennetta, Valentina; Hill, David; Bretz, Inna; et al. (ACS Paragon Plus Environment, 2017-12-20)
      The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) conjugated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was prepared via a melt transesterification route. The resultant bioactive oligomer was then mixed with a blend of polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with different loadings; to manufacture films to be used as a bioactive, biodegradable mulch to deliver the herbicide to target broadleaf weed species. The biological targeting of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the mulch film was investigated under glasshouse conditions using faba bean (Vicia faba) as a selective (non-target) model crop species having broadleaf morphology. The presence of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the biodegradable PBTA/PLA blend was shown to completely suppress the growth of broadleaf weed species, whilst displaying only a mild effect on the growth of the model crop. The degradation of the mulch film under glasshouse conditions was quite slow. The release of the MCPA-PHBV during this process was detected using NMR, GPC, EDS and DSC analyses, indicating that the majority of the MCPA diffused out after MCPA-PHBV conjugate bond scission. These data provide a strong “proof of concept” and show that this biodegradable, bioactive film is a good candidate for future field applications and may be of wide agricultural applicability.