• First ripples in a tidal wave?

      Ball, Patrick A; Morrissey, Hana (Cambridge University Press, 2021-02-05)
    • Male, female, and nonbinary differences in UK Twitter self-descriptions: A fine-grained systematic exploration

      Thelwall, Saheeda; Fairclough, Ruth; Thelwall, Michael (De Gruyter Open, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: Although gender identities influence how people present themselves on social media, previous studies have tested pre-specified dimensions of difference, potentially overlooking other differences and ignoring nonbinary users. Design/methodology/approach: Word association thematic analysis was used to systematically check for fine-grained statistically significant gender differences in Twitter profile descriptions between 409,487 UK-based female, male, and nonbinary users in 2020. A series of statistical tests systematically identified 1474 differences at the individual word level, and a follow up thematic analysis grouped these words into themes. Findings: The results reflect offline variations in interests and in jobs. They also show differences personal disclosures, as reflected by words, with females mentioning qualifications, relationships, pets, and illnesses much more, nonbinaries discussing sexuality more, and males declaring political and sports affiliations more. Other themes were internally imbalanced, including personal appearance (e.g., male: beardy; female: redhead), self-evaluations (e.g., male: legend; nonbinary: witch; female: feisty), and gender identity (e.g., male: dude; nonbinary: enby; female: queen). Research limitations: The methods are affected by linguistic styles and probably under-report nonbinary differences. Practical implications: The gender differences found may inform gender theory, and aid social web communicators and marketers. Originality/value: The results show a much wider range of gender expression differences than previously acknowledged for any social media site.
    • A striking new species of Papuan groundsnake (Stegonotus: Colubridae) from southern Papua New Guinea, with a dichotomous key to the genus in New Guinea

      O'Shea, Mark; Richards, Stephen J (Magnolia Press, 2021-02-04)
      We describe a new species of groundsnake of the genus Stegonotus (Colubridae) from the Purari River basin in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. The new species can be most readily distinguished from all other New Guinean Stegonotus by its unique dorsal colour pattern which consists of a dark head and creamy-white anterior one third to two thirds of the body, grading into increasingly dense dark pigmentation on the posterior of the body and tail. It is most similar to S. iridis from the Raja Ampat Archipelago off western New Guinea, but that species has a different pattern of pigmentation dorsally, has a lower ventral scale count (198–211 vs. 229–239), and exhibits a different temporal scale arrangement. The description of S. aplini sp. nov. brings to fourteen the number of Stegonotus species described from New Guinea. A dichotomous key to described species in the New Guinea region is provided.
    • Effects of hand-rearing on the behaviour of zoo-housed chimpanzees

      Spiezio, Caterina; Vaglio, Stefano; Vandelle, Camille; Sandri, Camillo; Regaiolli, Barbara (Karger, 2021-12-31)
      Early-life experiences may considerably affect the behavioural patterns of adult primates. Particularly, atypical rearing practices might lead to abnormal behaviours and social-sexual deficiencies in captive, adult non-human primates. We conducted behavioural observations of mother-reared (n = 5) and hand-reared (n = 6) adult chimpanzees in a social group at Parco Natura Viva, Italy. We used continuous focal animal sampling to collect behavioural data focusing on individual and social behaviours. We found that all study subjects performed individual and social species-specific behaviours. However, mother-reared chimpanzees performed locomotion and affiliative behaviours significantly more than hand-reared subjects. In addition to these species-typical behaviours, hand-reared chimpanzees showed significantly more abnormal behaviours than mother-reared subjects. Therefore, these findings suggest that hand-rearing could have wide-reaching effects on the behavioural repertoire in adult zoo-housed chimpanzees. Hence, even if sometimes human intervention in rearing may be necessary to ensure the survival of captive infant chimpanzees, our results suggest that zoo-housed chimpanzees might benefit from minimized human-animal interactions and exposure to conspecifics throughout their development. These suggestions should be implemented in regular husbandry practices.
    • AHP-systems thinking analyses for kaizen costing implementation in the construction industry

      Omotayo, T; Awuzie, B; Egbelakin, T; Obi, L; Ogunnusi, M (MDPI, 2020-12-05)
      The incessant reportage of cost overruns and abandoned projects in contemporary literature have accentuated the need for a re-examination of the nature of the cost management strategies deployed to these projects. This study explores the potential of kaizen costing strategy to engender effective cost management within construction project delivery systems in developing countries. Data collected during this study were analysed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and systems thinking approaches to determine the criticality of the factors influencing the effective implementation of kaizen costing. Seven (7) archetypes leading to final causal loop diagram identified the incorporation of the plan–do–check–act approach to project and cost planning, the budgeting system of the construction companies, overhead cost reduction during construction and the overall procurement process. Executing these archetypes will potentially reduce high overhead costs, project cost and time overruns, as well as enhance construction industry sector growth policies and construction organisation corporate governance.
    • Measuring the impact of biodiversity datasets: data reuse, citations and altmetrics

      Khan, Nushrat; Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer, 2021-02-28)
      Despite growing evidence of open biodiversity data reuse by scientists, information about how data is reused and cited is rarely openly accessible from research data repositories. This study explores data citation and reuse practices in biodiversity by using openly available metadata for 43,802 datasets indexed in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and content analyses of articles citing GBIF data. Results from quantitative and content analyses suggest that even though the number of studies making use of openly available biodiversity data has been increasing steadily, best practice for data citation is not yet common. It is encouraging, however, that an increasing number of recent articles (16 out of 23 in 2019) in biodiversity cite datasets in a standard way. A content analysis of a random sample of unique citing articles (n=100) found various types of background (n=18) and foreground (n=81) reuse cases for GBIF data, ranging from combining with other data sources to create species distribution modelling to software testing. This demonstrates some unique research opportunities created by open data. Among the citing articles, 27% mentioned the dataset in references and 13% in data access statements in addition to the methods section. Citation practice was inconsistent especially when a large number of subsets (12~50) were used. Even though many GBIF dataset records had altmetric scores, most posts only mentioned the articles linked to those datasets. Among the altmetric mentions of datasets, blogs can be the most informative, even though rare, and most tweets and Facebook posts were for promotional purposes.
    • Recent advances and applications of bacterial cellulose in biomedicine

      Swingler, Sam; Gupta, Abhishek; Gibson, Hazel; Kowalczuk, Marek; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Radecka, Iza (MDPI AG, 2021-01-28)
      Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an extracellular polymer produced by Komagateibacter xylinus, which has been shown to possess a multitude of properties, which makes it innately useful as a next-generation biopolymer. The structure of BC is comprised of glucose monomer units polymerised by cellulose synthase in β-1-4 glucan chains which form uniaxially orientated BC fibril bundles which measure 3–8 nm in diameter. BC is chemically identical to vegetal cellulose. However, when BC is compared with other natural or synthetic analogues, it shows a much higher performance in biomedical applications, potable treatment, nano-filters and functional applications. The main reason for this superiority is due to the high level of chemical purity, nano-fibrillar matrix and crystallinity. Upon using BC as a carrier or scaffold with other materials, unique and novel characteristics can be observed, which are all relatable to the features of BC. These properties, which include high tensile strength, high water holding capabilities and microfibrillar matrices, coupled with the overall physicochemical assets of bacterial cellulose makes it an ideal candidate for further scientific research into biopolymer development. This review thoroughly explores several areas in which BC is being investigated, ranging from biomedical applications to electronic applications, with a focus on the use as a next-generation wound dressing. The purpose of this review is to consolidate and discuss the most recent advancements in the applications of bacterial cellulose, primarily in biomedicine, but also in biotechnology.
    • Improving the decision-making process in the higher learning institutions via electronic records management system adoption

      Mukred, Muaadh; Yusof, Zawiyah M; Mokhtar, Umi Asma; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Hawash, Burkan; Ahmed, Waleed Abdulkafi (Korea Society of Internet Information, 2021-01-31)
      Electronic Records Management System (ERMS) is a computer program or set of applications that is utilized for keeping up to date records along with their storage. ERMS has been extensively utilized for enhancing the performance of academic institutions. The system assists in the planning and decision-making processes, which in turn enhances the competencies. However, although ERMS is significant in supporting the process of decision-making, the majority of organizations have failed to take an initiative to implement it, taking into account that are some implementing it without an appropriate framework, and thus resulted in the practice which does not meet the accepted standard. Therefore, this study identifies the factors influencing the adoption of ERMS among employees of HLI in Yemen and the role of such adoption in the decision-making process, using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) along with Technology, Organization and Environment (TOE) as the underpinning theories. The study conducts a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire as the technique for data collection, distributed to 364 participants in various Yemeni public Higher Learning Institutions (HLI). Using AMOS as a statistical method, the findings revealed there are significant and positive relationships between technology factors (effort expectancy, performance expectancy, IT infrastructure and security), organizational factors (top management support, financial support, training, and policy),environmental factors (competitiveness pressure, facilitating conditions and trust) and behavioral intention to adopt ERMS, which in return has a significant relationship with the process of decision-making in HLI. The study also presents a variety of theoretical and empirical contributions that enrich the body of knowledge in the field of technology adoption and the electronic record’s domain.
    • Self-healing polymers synthesized by Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) of bio-derived furanic molecules

      Keddie, Daniel; Naguib, Mohamed; Rashed, Atteya (Springer Nature, 2021-02-09)
      Novel bio-derivable tricyclic oxanorbornene polymers, based upon secondary furfurylamine and maleic anhydride derived monomers, prepared via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) are reported. The tricyclic oxanorbornenes with fused lactam ring are exo Diels–Alder adducts. DFT calculations support the cycloaddition is the first step followed by lactamization. The polymerizations are rapid and deliver polymers with targeted molar mass and low dispersity (Đ). The prepared polymers with furanyl pendant groups have reactivity toward maleimide-bearing compounds to form thermally induced crosslinked networks through thermoreversible Diels–Alder reactions. The thermoreversible (self-healing) behavior is confirmed by sol gel transition. This new class of bio-derived polymer could be further modified with different active moieties as pendant groups and hence be tailored for more applications in the future.
    • Strategic framework for unmanned aerial systems integration in public organisations in the Dominican Republic disaster management context

      Vanderhorst, Hamlet Reynoso; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-02-09)
      In the Caribbean region, there is a significant yearly number of natural events incidents. The impact of those events has affected the well-being, social and economic structures of the countries in this region. The investment in disaster management strategies is a fundamental decision to the region for improving capabilities, understanding the liabilities, dealing with the disaster stages, and integrating systems and tools to obtain greater results in resilience strategies. Therefore, information technology and robotics have played an effective role bringing innovation to the traditional approaches by improving the capabilities of personnel and serves as a catalyst to rapid data collection tools for effective decision-making during disastrous situation, as has been the case of the Dominican Republic. The organic adoption process of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has represented a large step forward regarding this matter. Examples of the adoption process occurs based on their flexibility in their regulatory context, funding investments in testing the applications of UAS, such as surveying, delivering medical samples and spray disinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are only some mature applications that address a future-proofing concept as well as the integration into a typical institutional workflow. Therefore, this paper aims to be an introductory guide for decision and policymakers, educators and technicians to reduce the scepticism, lack of knowledge and know-how in the adoption of reliable, practical and effective tools by providing a combination of theories from socio-technical systems (socio-technical change impact model (SCI)) and organizational level (technology-organizational-environmental) frameworks of the UAS adoption process for natural events, tasks and critical roles in disaster management taking into account the Dominican Republic context. Qualitative cases of studies were evaluated from nine (9) professionals related to disaster management in the Dominican Republic, and a semi-structured interview were used to approach the adoption process of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) in these organisations.
    • The development of current collection in micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells—a review

      Hodjati-Pugh, Oujen; Dhir, Aman; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert (MDPI AG, 2021-01-25)
      Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (µT-SOFCs) are suited to a broad range of applications with power demands ranging from a few watts to several hundred watts. µT-SOFCs possess inherently favourable characteristics over alternate configurations such as high thermo-mechanical stability, high volumetric power density and rapid start-up times, lending them particular value for use in portable applications. Efficient current collection and interconnection constitute a bottleneck in the progression of the technology. The development of current collector designs and configuration reported in the literature since the inception of the technology are the focus of this study.
    • Brexpiprazole in the acute management of schizophrenia

      Begum, Aisha; Mishriky, Raafat; Antoun Reyad, Ayman (IJCMPR, 2020-12-28)
      Brexpiprazole is a new atypical antipsychotic used for the management of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and is associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects compared to traditional antipsychotics due to its additional serotonergic effect, which may improve cognitive symptoms associated with social function decline in schizophrenia. We searched for randomized controlled-trials (RCT) to review the efficacy and tolerability of brexpiprazole in acute management of schizophrenia using different resources including PubMed, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled-Trials. Data were extracted for adverse effects, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), PANSS Excited Component (PEC) and Response Rate >30%. 5 RCT were identified and showed that brexpiprazole was favorable compared to placebo in improving PANSS with a mean difference (MD) -5.40 [confidence interval (CI) -6.98, -3.82] and PSP 3.2 [CI 2.09, 4.32] (P<0.00001). Improvement in PANSS positive, PANSS negative subscales and response rate were significant (P<0.00001). Brexpiprazole led to reduced treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects (risk ratio (RR) 0.58), however an increased risk of akathisia was observed (RR= 1.31) especially at higher doses but did not reach statistical significance. In summary, brexpiprazole improved significantly the symptoms of schizophrenia and is well-tolerated, while long-term research is still required to establish its role, particularly in patients with co-morbidities. These findings will guide clinical teams in supporting patients suffering from schizophrenia.
    • Distributed Ledger Technologies in Supply Chain Security Management: A Comprehensive Survey

      Asante, Mary; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Bottarelli, Mirko; Ghafoor, Kayhan (IEEE, 2021-12-31)
      Supply-chains (SC) present performance bottlenecks that contribute to a high level of costs, infltration of product quality, and impact productivity. Examples of such inhibitors include the bullwhip effect, new product lines, high inventory, and restrictive data fows. These bottlenecks can force manufacturers to source more raw materials and increase production signifcantly. Also, restrictive data fow in a complex global SC network generally slows down the movement of goods and services. The use of Distributed LedgerTechnologies (DLT) in supply chain management (SCM) demonstrates the potentials to to reduce these bottlenecks through transparency, decentralization, and optimizations in data management. These technologies promise to enhance the trustworthiness of entities within the supply chain, ensure the accuracy of data-driven operations, and enable existing SCM processes to migrate from a linear to a fully circular economy. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 111 articles published in the public domain in the use and effcacyofDLTin SC.It acts asaroadmapfor current and futureresearchers whofocus onSC Security Management to better understand the integration of digital technologies such as DLT. We clustered these articles using standard descriptors linked to trustworthiness, namely, immutability, transparency, traceability, and integrity.
    • Cleaning the molecular machinery of cells via proteostasis, proteolysis and endocytosis selectively, effectively, and precisely: intracellular self-defense and cellular perturbations

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Gulia, Kiran; Chhillar, Mitrabasu; NIET, National Institute of Medical Science, India. chemistry_rajiv@hotmail.com. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020-11-02)
      Network coordinates of cellular processes (proteostasis, proteolysis, and endocytosis), and molecular chaperones are the key complements in the cell machinery and processes. Specifically, cellular pathways are responsible for the conformational maintenance, cellular concentration, interactions, protein synthesis, disposal of misfolded proteins, localization, folding, and degradation. The failure of cellular processes and pathways disturbs structural proteins and the nucleation of amyloids. These mishaps further initiate amyloid polymorphism, transmissibility, co-aggregation of pathogenic proteins in tissues and cells, prion strains, and mechanisms and pathways for toxicity. Consequently, these conditions favor and lead to the formation of elongated amyloid fibrils consisting of many-stranded β-sheets (N,N-terminus and C,C-terminus), and abnormal fibrous, extracellular, proteinaceous deposits. Finally, these β-sheets deposit, and cells fail to degrade them effectively. The essential torsion angles (φ, ψ, and ω) define the conformation of proteins and their architecture. Cells initiate several transformations and pathways during the regulation of protein homeostasis based on the requirements for the functioning of the cell, which are governed by ATP-dependent proteases. In this process, the kinetics of the molding/folding phenomenon is disturbed, and subsequently, it is dominated by cross-domain misfolding intermediates; however, simultaneously, it is opposed by small stretching forces, which naturally exist in the cell. The ubiquitin/proteasome system deals with damaged proteins, which are not refolded by the chaperone-type machinery. Ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3-Ub) participate in all the cellular activity initiated and governed by molecular chaperones to stabilize the cellular proteome and participate in the degradation phenomenon implemented for damaged proteins. Optical tweezers, a single-resolution based technique, disclose the folding pathway of linear chain proteins, which is how they convert themselves into a three-dimensional architecture. Further, DNA-protein conjugation analysis is performed to obtain folding energies as single-molecule kinetic and thermodynamic data.
    • An extended finite element model for fracture mechanical response of tomato fruit

      Li, Dongdong; Li, Zhiguo; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline (Elsevier, 2021-01-16)
      Fresh fruit micro-rupture generally occurs during mechanical handling, which severely affects the product’s postharvest quality along the supply chain. An extended finite element (XFEM) model was developed for investigating the fracture mechanical response of tomato fruit under postharvest mechanical compression. A 1/4 tomato fruit was modeled using three parts: exocarp, mesocarp and septa frame, and pre-crack. An amplitude curve-based uniformly distributed pressure load was applied over the internal surface of the locule for replacing the pressure change of the liquid in the fruit locule during compression simulation. The XFEM-based cohesive segments method in conjunction with Phantom nodes was used to simulate the initiation and propagation of the pre-crack in the fruit model. It was assumed that the fruit tissues were linear elastic and ideally brittle solid materials before fracture, the tissue fracture energy was independent of the size and geometry of the cracked tissue specimen, the tissue fracture response met a linear elastic traction-separation behavior, the crack initiation followed the maximum principal stress criterion and the crack evolution followed a linear softening law and a mode-independent and energy-based fracture criterion. The peak force applying over the locule surface was predicted as 0.02 MPa when the crack of the fruit virtually started to propagate. The XFEM model was found to be capable of reproducing the compression force-percentage deformation behavior as well as crack propagation of a tomato fruit in compression up to 28 % deformation with an average relative error was about 8 %. Both XFEM simulation and experiment data showed a rapid pre-crack propagation the percentage deformation was more than 20 %. Furthermore, the propagation length of the crack in the fruit model was sensitive to the peak pressure in the locule and the fracture mechanics (e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, failure stress, fracture energy) of the exocarp and mesocarp. This study demonstrates the application of XFEM as a novel tool to understand how fruit rupture under mechanical loading when the fruit mechanics varies at different conditions (e.g., ripeness), and the extent of crack propagation which are important for improving or developing new mechanical handling technologies.
    • MultiModal route planning in mobility as a service

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G; Barnaghi, Payam M; Gottlob, Georg; Katsaros, Dimitrios; Manolopoulos, Yannis; et al. (ACM, 2019-10-31)
      Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new approach for multimodal transportation in smart cities which refers to the seamless integration of various forms of transport services accessible through one single digital platform. In a MaaS environment there can be a multitude of multi modal options to reach a destination which are derived from combinations of available transport services. Terefore, route planning functionalities in the MaaS era need to be able to generate multi-modal routes using constraints related to a user's modal allowances, service provision and limited user preferences (e.g. mode exclusions) and suggest to the traveller the routes that are relevant for specific trips as well as aligned to her/his preferences. In this paper, we describe an architecture for a MaaS multi-modal route planner which integrates i) a dynamic journey planner that aggregates unimodal routes from existing route planners (e.g. Google directions or Here routing), enriches them with innovative mobility services typically found in MaaS schemes, and converts them to multimodal options, while considering aspects of transport network supply and ii) a route recommender that filters and ranks the available routes in an optimal manner, while trying to satisfy travellers' preferences as well as requirements set by the MaaS operator (e.g. environmental friendliness of the routes or promotion of specific modes of transport).
    • Heuristic-based journey planner for mobility as a service (Maas)

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G (MDPI, 2020-12-04)
      The continuing growth of urbanisation poses a real threat to the operation of transportation services in large metropolitan areas around the world. As a response, several initiatives that promote public transport and active travelling have emerged in the last few years. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one such initiative with the main goal being the provision of a holistic urban mobility solution through a single interface, the MaaS operator. The successful implementation of MaaS requires the support of a technology platform for travellers to fully benefit from the offered transport services. A central component of such a platform is a journey planner with the ability to provide trip options that efficiently integrate the different modes included in a MaaS scheme. This paper presents a heuristic that implements a scenario-based journey planner for users of MaaS. The proposed heuristic provides routes composed of different modes including private cars, public transport, bike-sharing, car-sharing and ride-hailing. The methodological approach for the generation of journeys is explained and its implementation using a microservices architecture is presented. The implemented system was trialled in two European cities and the analysis of user satisfaction results reveal good overall performance.
    • Total interpretive structural modelling of graduate employability skills for the built environment sector

      Obi, L; Hampton, P; Awuzie, B (MDPI, 2020-12-08)
      Contemporary practices and future projections in the Built Environment (BE) sector highlight an increasing demand on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to produce graduates possessing relevant skills aligned to meet workplace demands. This study aims to analyse the key skills influencing BE graduate employability in the United Kingdom (UK) for the benefit of HEIs. This investigation leverages on a critical review of extant literature and an elicitation of the perceptions of targeted macro, meso, and micro level key stakeholders in the BE sector to identify key employability skills. The Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) technique was used to analyse the contextual interrelationships among the identified skills to develop a hierarchical model that provides HEI with insight for BE curriculum development. Six key employability skillsets hierarchically modelled into four levels were identified as crucial for potential graduates to successfully attract and adapt to contemporary practices in the Built Environment sector. Findings reveal communication and team-working skills as critical, independent skills driving the successful development of the remaining four skillsets. This research extends the literature on employability skills by investigating the interactions of various skills that predominantly predicts graduate employability in the Built Environment sector. The resulting TISM skills model provides hierarchical and logical interdependencies beneficial to assist HEIs to strategically design BE curricular to enhance graduate employability.
    • Neonatal ethics and the ANNP: Providing high quality practical support for neonatal intensive care teams

      Pillay, Thillagavathie; Kent, Sarah; McMahon, Robin (Elsevier, 2020-11-10)
    • Design of stainless steel cross-sections with outstand elements under stress gradients

      Gkantou, Michaela; Bock, Marina; Theofanous, Marios (Elsevier, 2021-01-09)
      A significant amount of research has been reported on stainless steel tubular sections, while studies on I- and C-sections remain relatively limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of stainless steel I- and C-sections subjected to minor axis bending, with outstand flanges subjected to stress gradients. Numerical models are developed and validated against reported test data on austenitic stainless steel sections under minor axis bending. Subsequently, parametric studies using standardised material properties on austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel grades, covering a wide variety of cross-section slendernesses, are carried out to expand the structural performance data. The results are used to assess the applicability of the Eurocode slenderness limits, revealing that the Class limit 3 for outstand flanges under stress gradient is overly conservative. Moreover, Eurocode underestimates the predicted bending strengths, whereas the level of accuracy and consistency improves for stocky sections, when the Continuous Strength Method is used. Aiming to address the lack of accuracy and consistency in the design predictions of slender sections, particular focus is placed on their performance. It is demonstrated that outstand elements under stress gradients exhibit significant inelastic behaviour after the compression flanges have locally buckled. Inelastic buckling behaviour is not considered in current design guidance, thus resulting in overly conservative and fundamentally incorrect strength predictions. An alternative design method based on the plastic effective width concept is proposed for slender stainless steel I- and C-sections in minor axis bending, which leads to more favourable and less scattered strength predictions.