• Towards reliable prediction of academic performance of architecture students using data mining techniques

      Aluko, Ralph O.; Daniel, Emmanuel I.; Shamisdeen Oshodi, Olalekan; Aigbavboa, Clinton O.; Akinsola, Abiodun Olanrewaju (Emerald, 2018-06-04)
      Purpose: In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of applicants seeking placements in undergraduate architecture programs. It is important during the selection phase of admission at universities to identify new intakes who possess the capability to succeed. Admission variable (i.e. prior academic achievement) is one of the most important criteria considered during the selection process. This paper aims to investigates the efficacy of using data mining techniques to predict the academic performance of architecture students based on information contained in prior academic achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The input variables, i.e. prior academic achievement, were extracted from students’ academic records. Logistic regression and support vector machine (SVM) are the data mining techniques adopted in this study. The collected data were divided into two parts. The first part was used for training the model, while the other part was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the developed models. Findings: The results revealed that SVM model outperformed the logistic regression model in terms of accuracy. Taken together, it is evident that prior academic achievement is a good predictor of academic performance of architecture students. Research limitations/implications: Although the factors affecting academic performance of students are numerous, the present study focuses on the effect of prior academic achievement on academic performance of architecture students. Originality/value: The developed SVM model can be used as a decision-making tool for selecting new intakes into the architecture program at Nigerian universities.
    • Towards Suitable Communication Protocols For Mobile Multiplayer Games on Heterogeneous Mobile Devices

      Salim, Aly; Mehdi, Qasim (The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2007)
      Currently research into communication protocols with regards to multiplayer gaming requirements has been sparse. There are a number of surveys on multicasting in mobile device communication which addresses latency reduction, density and traffic. Moreover, these studies have not addressed multiplayer gaming issues. Recent research in the area of mobile devices has focused in mobile communication and distribution systems for homogeneous devices but they have not fully addressed communication between heterogeneous devices. This work investigates suitable communication protocols for mobile multiplayer games on heterogeneous mobile devices. In particular issues such as scalability, reliability, bandwidth and data transportation time of communication systems and content distribution of mobile heterogeneous devices will be addressed. This paper proposes a hybrid protocol solution that addresses communication issues related to heterogeneous mobile devices as existing MANET protocols seem to lack the capability of solving these issues collectively.
    • Tracking the evolution of the English language as a network with temporal clustering

      Blanthorn, Oliver; Navarro-López, Eva María (2019-09-30)
    • Trading or coercion? variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E. (Springer, 2015-04-08)
      Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading—of grooming for mating—by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism–egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees’ willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.
    • Traditional Landholding Institutions and Individual Ownership of Land Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Abdulai, Raymond Talinbe; Antwi, Adarkwah (InderScience Publishers, 2005)
      As first level suppliers, land is vested in indigenous corporate bodies like clans/families, tribes and chiefs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The corporate bodies are called traditional landholding institutions. This socio-political arrangement of landownership has, however, been described as communal landholding which does not permit individual ownership of land rights and this, it is argued, impedes economic development. This paper critically examines the customary land tenure systems and concludes that they are composite with communal as well as individual landownership akin to what obtains in England. Traditional landownership systems in SSA do not appear to constrain individual ownership of land rights. (InderScience Publishers)
    • Traffic event detection framework using social media

      Salas, A; Georgakis, P; Nwagboso, C; Ammari, A; Petalas, I (IEEE, 2017-09-18)
      © 2017 IEEE. Traffic incidents are one of the leading causes of non-recurrent traffic congestions. By detecting these incidents on time, traffic management agencies can activate strategies to ease congestion and travelers can plan their trip by taking into consideration these factors. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Twitter because of the real-time nature of its data. Twitter has been used as a way of predicting revenues, accidents, natural disasters, and traffic. This paper proposes a framework for the real-time detection of traffic events using Twitter data. The methodology consists of a text classification algorithm to identify traffic related tweets. These traffic messages are then geolocated and further classified into positive, negative, or neutral class using sentiment analysis. In addition, stress and relaxation strength detection is performed, with the purpose of further analyzing user emotions within the tweet. Future work will be carried out to implement the proposed framework in the West Midlands area, United Kingdom.
    • Transcriptome analysis of gene expression provides new insights into the effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia on primary human cortical astrocytes cultured under hypoxia

      Salman, Mootaz M; Kitchen, Philip; Woodroofe, M Nicola; Bill, Roslyn M; Conner, Alex C; Heath, Paul R; Conner, Matthew T. (Frontiers Media, 2017-12-14)
      Hypothermia is increasingly used as a therapeutic measure to treat brain injury. However, the cellular mechanisms underpinning its actions are complex and are not yet fully elucidated. Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and are likely to play a critical role. In this study, transcriptional changes and the protein expression profile of human primary cortical astrocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions for 6 h were investigated. Cells were treated either with or without a mild hypothermic intervention 2 h post-insult to mimic the treatment of patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or stroke. Using human gene expression microarrays, 411 differentially expressed genes were identified following hypothermic treatment of astrocytes following a 2 h hypoxic insult. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were mainly enriched in the Wnt and p53 signaling pathways, which were inhibited following hypothermic intervention. The expression levels of 168 genes involved in Wnt signaling were validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR). Among these genes, 10 were up-regulated and 32 were down-regulated with the remainder unchanged. Two of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), p38 and JNK, were selected for validation at the protein level using cell based ELISA. Hypothermic intervention significantly down-regulated total protein levels for the gene products of p38 and JNK. Moreover, hypothermia significantly up-regulated the phosphorylated (activated) forms of JNK protein, while downregulating phosphorylation of p38 protein. Within the p53 signaling pathway, 35 human apoptosis-related proteins closely associated with Wnt signaling were investigated using a Proteome Profiling Array. Hypothermic intervention significantly down-regulated 18 proteins, while upregulating one protein, survivin. Hypothermia is a complex intervention; this study provides the first detailed longitudinal investigation at the transcript and protein expression levels of the molecular effects of therapeutic hypothermic intervention on hypoxic human primary cortical astrocytes. The identified genes and proteins are targets for detailed functional studies, which may help to develop new treatments for brain injury based on an in-depth mechanistic understanding of the astrocytic response to hypoxia and/or hypothermia.
    • Transcriptome analysis suggests a role for the differential expression of cerebral aquaporins and the MAPK signalling pathway in human temporal lobe epilepsy

      Salman, Mootaz M.; Sheilabi, Mariam A.; Bhattacharyya, Dev; Kitchen, Philip; Conner, Alex C.; Bill, Roslyn M.; Woodroofe, M. Nicola; Conner, Matthew T.; Princivalle, Alessandra P.; Biomolecular Sciences Research Centre (BMRC); Sheffield Hallam University; Howard Street Sheffield S1 1WB UK; et al. (Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), 2017-08-21)
      Epilepsies are common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting up to 2% of the global population. Pharmaco-resistance is a major clinical challenge affecting about 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Water homeostasis has been shown crucial for regulation of neuronal excitability. The control of water movement is achieved through a family of small integral membrane channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Despite the fact that changes in water homeostasis occur in sclerotic hippocampi of people with TLE, the expression of AQPs in the epileptic brain is not fully characterised. This study uses microarray and ELISA methods to analyse the mRNA and protein expression of the human cerebral AQPs in sclerotic hippocampi (TLE-HS) and adjacent neocortex tissue (TLE-NC) of TLE patients. The expression of AQP1 and AQP4 transcripts was significantly increased, while that of the AQP9 transcript was significantly reduced in TLE-HS compared to TLE-NC. AQP4 protein expression was also increased while expression of AQP1 protein remained unchanged, and AQP9 was undetected. Microarray data analysis identified 3333 differentially regulated genes and suggested the involvement of the MAPK signalling pathway in TLE pathogenesis. Proteome array data validated the translational profile for 26 genes and within the MAPK pathway (e.g. p38, JNK) that were identified as differentially expressed from microarray analysis. ELISA data showed that p38 and JNK inhibitors decrease AQP4 protein levels in cultured human primary cortical astrocytes. Elucidating the mechanism of selective regulation of different AQPs and associated regulatory proteins may provide a new therapeutic approach to epilepsy treatment.
    • Transesterification of PHA to Oligomers Covalently Bonded with (Bio)Active Compounds Containing Either Carboxyl or Hydroxyl Functionalities

      Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk , Marek; Adamus, Grażyna (2015-03-17)
      This manuscript presents the synthesis and structural characterisation of novel biodegradable polymeric controlled-release systems of pesticides with potentially higher resistance to weather conditions in comparison to conventional forms of pesticides. Two methods for the preparation of pesticide-oligomer conjugates using the transesterification reaction were developed. The first method of obtaining conjugates, which consist of bioactive compounds with the carboxyl group and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) oligomers, is "one-pot" transesterification. In the second method, conjugates of bioactive compounds with hydroxyl group and polyhydroxyalkanoates oligomers were obtained in two-step method, through cyclic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) oligomers. The obtained pesticide-PHA conjugates were comprehensively characterised using GPC, 1H NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. The structural characterisation of the obtained products at the molecular level with the aid of mass spectrometry confirmed that both of the synthetic strategies employed led to the formation of conjugates in which selected pesticides were covalently bonded to PHA oligomers via a hydrolysable ester bond.
    • Transition from elastic to plastic deformation as asperity contact size is increased

      Yong, C. W.; Smith, W.; Dhir, A.; Kendall, K. (Tribology Letters, 2007-01)
      Contacts between a clean sodium chloride pyramidal shaped asperity and a plane NaCl surface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. For small contacts, a few atoms across, the asperity jumped to contact and behaved elastically as normal load was applied. Then, when the force was reversed to detach the asperity, brittle failure occurred without any damage to the crystalline materials. However, as the contact size of the asperity was increased to 6×6 atoms in area, the mechanism of detachment was seen to alter. The jump to contact was elastic and damage free, but the separation could not be achieved elastically, but required plastic deformation, giving extensive energy dissipation and severe damage as edge defects propagated through the asperity. Above this contact size, plastic flow was dominant. However, there is clearly a further transition back to elastic fracture once the asperity becomes large enough for Griffith-type cracking to propagate above 1μm in size, since large sodium chloride contacts are known to be brittle above the micrometre scale, depending on the presence of crack initiating defects. Transition from elastic to plastic deformation as asperity contact size is increased | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225130915_Transition_from_elastic_to_plastic_deformation_as_asperity_contact_size_is_increased [accessed Jul 05 2018].
    • Transition mechanisms in cross-flow-dominated hypersonic flows with free-stream acoustic noise

      Cerminara, Adriano; Sandham, Neil (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-06-04)
      Transition to turbulence in high-speed flows is determined by multiple parameters, many of which are not fully understood, leading to problems in developing physics-based prediction methods. In this contribution, we compare transition mechanisms in configurations with unswept and swept leading edges that are exposed to free-stream acoustic disturbances. Direct numerical simulations are run at a Mach number of six with the same free-stream noise, consisting of either fast or slow acoustic disturbances, with two different amplitudes to explore the linear and nonlinear aspects of receptivity and transition. For the unswept configuration, receptivity follows an established mechanism involving synchronisation of fast acoustic disturbances with boundary-layer modes. At high forcing amplitudes, transition proceeds via the formation of streaks and their eventual breakdown. In the swept case, the process of streak-induced transition is modified by the presence of a cross-flow instability in the leading-edge region. Linear stability analysis confirms the presence of a cross-flow mode as well as weaker first and second mode waves. Both fast and slow types of forcing independently stimulate an unusual transition mechanism involving significantly narrower streaks than those arising from the cross-flow instability behind the swept leading edge or those induced nonlinearly in the unswept case. In the observed transition process, the cross-flow mode leads to a thin layer of streamwise vorticity that breaks up under the influence of high spanwise wavenumber disturbances. These disturbances first appear in the leading-edge region.
    • Transition to HE: the impact of perceptions of students and staff

      Davies, Jenny; Bentley, Hilary; Holland, Lynda (University of Wolverhampton, 2004)
      The aim of the project was to gain a fuller understanding of the perceptions of students entering undergraduate programmes in the School of Comnputing and Information Technology (SCIT) in order to improve the students' achievements on their course of study. The results have frd into an ongoing SCIT research programme, begun in 2002, that seeks to relate entrance qualification, feeder institution, learning style and a student's success in their first year in HE.
    • Transition towards circular economy implementation in the construction industry: a systematic review

      Osobajo, O; Omotayo, T; Oke, A; Obi, Lovelin (Emerald, 2020-08-18)
      Purpose – While Circular Economy (CE) is fast becoming a political and economic agenda for global urban development, there are still substantial knowledge gaps in possible strategies to speed up such transition, especially in the construction industry. This study analyses literature surrounding circular economy to unpack current trends possible future research directions to foster CE implementation in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach- The study undertakes a systematic review of Circular economy literature published between 1990 and 2019. It adopts a fivestage procedure as a methodological approach for the review: formulation of the evaluation of studies; analysis or synthesis; and results reporting. Findings – The findings on CE research in the construction industry show extensive focus on resource use and waste management. There are limited investigations in other areas of construction such as supply chain integration, building designs, policy, energy efficiency, land use, offsite manufacturing, whole life costing, and risk, cost reduction, cost management, health and safety management. The study findings provide evidence that current CE practice fails to incorporate other areas that would facilitate the network of true circular construction industry. Originality/value – This research provides a comprehensive overview of research efforts on CE in the construction context, identifying areas of extensive and limited coverage over three decades. Besides, it identifies possible pathways for future research directions on CE implementation, towards the accelerated transition to a true circular construction industry for the benefit of funding bodies and researchers.
    • Transmission and accumulation of CTL escape variants drive negative associations between HIV polymorphisms and HLA

      Leslie, A; Kavanagh, D; Honeyborne, I; Pfafferott, K; Edwards, C; Pillay, T; Hilton, L; Thobakgale, C; Ramduth, D; Draenert, R; et al. (Rockefeller University Press, 2005-03-21)
      Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 amino acid sequence polymorphisms associated with expression of specific human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles suggest sites of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated selection pressure and immune escape. The associations most frequently observed are between expression of an HLA class I molecule and variation from the consensus sequence. However, a substantial number of sites have been identified in which particular HLA class I allele expression is associated with preservation of the consensus sequence. The mechanism behind this is so far unexplained. The current studies, focusing on two examples of "negatively associated" or apparently preserved epitopes, suggest an explanation for this phenomenon: negative associations can arise as a result of positive selection of an escape mutation, which is stable on transmission and therefore accumulates in the population to the point at which it defines the consensus sequence. Such negative associations may only be in evidence transiently, because the statistical power to detect them diminishes as the mutations accumulate. If an escape variant reaches fixation in the population, the epitope will be lost as a potential target to the immune system. These data help to explain how HIV is evolving at a population level. Understanding the direction of HIV evolution has important implications for vaccine development.
    • Transmission power adaption scheme for improving IoV awareness exploiting: evaluation weighted matrix based on piggybacked information

      Sadiq, Ali Safa; Khan, Suleman; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Guizani, Mohsen; Mirjalili, Seyedali (Elsevier BV, 2018-03-21)
      © 2018 Elsevier B.V. As part of the new era the Internet of Things, an evolved form of Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks has recently emerged as the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). IoV has obtained a lot of attention among smart vehicle manufactures and illustrations due to its promising potential, but there are still some problems and challenges that need to be addressed. Transmission error occurs when an emergency message is disseminated to provide traffic awareness, and vehicles have to increase their channel transmission power to ensure further coverage and mitigate possible accidents. This might cause channel congestion and unnecessary power consumption due to an inaccurate transmission power setup. A promising solution could be achieved via periodically and predictively evaluating channel and GEO information that is transmitted over piggybacked beacons. Thus, in this paper we propose a Transmission Power Adaptation (TPA) scheme for obtaining better power tuning, which senses and examines the probability of channel congestion. Afterwards, it proactively predicts upcoming channel statuses using developed evaluation-weighted matrix, which observes correlations between coefficients of variance for estimated metrics. Considering beacon transmission error rate, crowding inter-vehicle distance, and channel delay, the matrix is periodically constructed and proavtively weighted for each metric based on a predefined threshold value. Eventually, predicted channel status is used as an indicator to adjust transmission power. This leads to decreased channel congestion and better awareness in IoV. The performance of the proposed TPA scheme is evaluated using OMNeT++ simulation tools. The simulation results show that our proposed TPA scheme performs better than existing method in terms of overall throughput, average beacon congestion rate, beacon recipient rate probabilities, channel-busy time, transmission power over distance, and accident probabilities.
    • Trends of 4D CAD Applications for Construction Planning

      Heesom, David; Mahdjoubi, Lamine (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2004)
      Since the early 1990s, there has been a growing interest in four-dimensional computer aided design (4D CAD) for construction project planning. Commercial 4D CAD applications are becoming more accessible and the use of this technology allows the construction planner to produce more rigorous schedules. A review of the technical competencies of these packages highlights that most of the commercially available packages concentrate on the use of 4D CAD simulations for aesthetic visualization purposes. Very few packages offer the ability to carry out analytical tasks on the developed simulation and this is often left to the interpretation of the user. A thorough appraisal of emerging research developments in 4D planning highlights that this technology is employed for various applications; however, the amount of detail required in a 4D simulation is still ambiguous. A model is proposed to determine the attributes required for use with each of the various applications of 4D CAD simulations. Finally, various lines of future research are highlighted, including the need for improved use of data exchange standards and the automation of linking the construction tasks to the 3D CAD model.
    • Triply differential (e,2e) studies of phenol

      da Silva, G. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Ali, E.; Madison, D. H.; Ning, C. G.; Nixon, K. L.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Brunger, M. J.; et al. (American Institute of Physics, 2014-09-28)
    • Trust aware crowd associated network-based approach for optimal waste management in smart cities

      Han, Choy Kok; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Tahir, Adam; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Curran, Kevin; Kong, Linghe; Sadiq, Ali Safa (CRC Press, 2020-12-30)
      Waste management has been a serious issue in urban areas due to the population growth. An appropriate solid waste management system is needed to improve the cleanliness of the environment. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the wide adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) within the context of smart cities has motivated numerous number of studies investigating new solutions that could be helpful in mitigating and solving the waste management issue. Despite the existence of such methods have been introduced and used in managing waste’s location, volume and the optimal path for collection, yet these IoT based technologies are vulnerable to misinformation kinds of cyber attack. Consequently these types of attacks will yield crucial impact on the decided collection path and the frequency of garbage trucks visiting the fake reported waste points, which obviously costs money and time. Hence, this chapter proposes a trusted crowd associated network architecture that uses a group of components to monitor waste and provide optimum collection route for the garbage truck. Netlogo a multi-agent platform has been used to simulate a real time monitoring on waste management as a proof of concept. Our proposed approach measures the waste level data then updates and records them continuously. An optimal route will then be provided to the garbage truck for the optimal waste’s collection once a certain number of bins have reached a predefined threshold (combination of weight and height values). Three simulation scenarios are defined, implemented, and their results have been validated. The performance measure shows that our proposed solution could provide an aid waste management companies in reducing cost and time in the waste collection process, which supports the integration plans of IoT technology within smart cities.
    • Trust influencing factors in main contractor and subcontractor relationships during projects

      Manu, Emmanuel; Ankrah, Nii; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Proverbs, David (Elsevier, 2015-07-07)
      Trust is crucial for achieving optimum benefits from supply chain integration and collaboration in the construction sector. Yet relationships between main contractors and subcontractors continue to be influenced by issues that promote vicious circles of distrust. This research investigates the trust influencing factors in main contractor–subcontractor relationships on projects. Empirical data was gathered from across four case studies through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observations and document reviews, and analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that the change management process, economic climate, payment practices, perceptions of future work opportunities, job performance and the project-specific context influence trustfulness and trustworthiness of the different parties. The findings also imply that stronger trust in the main contractor's supply chain can only be realised and sustained through promotion of trustworthiness-induced rather than benefit-induced trustfulness.