• The relationship between intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in United Kingdom resident south asians and whites: A comparative, cross-sectional observational study

      Coley-Grant, Deon; Jawad, Mohammed; Ashby, Helen L; Cornes, Michael P; Kumar, Bharan; Hallin, Magnus; Nightingale, Peter G; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2021-07-07)
      Ethnic differences in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at similar total 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been reported between US resident Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, but this has not been studied between South Asians and Whites. We, therefore, compared the iPTH relationship to 25(OH)D in UK resident South Asians and Whites. A comparative, cross-sectional observational study in which demographic and laboratory data on South Asian and White residents of Wolverhampton, UK were analyzed. Log-log models measured the association between 25(OH)D and the interaction term of ethnicity and iPTH. Seven hundred and seventy-two patients consisting of 315 white subjects (208 women) and 457 South Asian subjects (331 women) were studied. Compared to South Asians, White subjects were older, had higher serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, creatinine (lower eGFR), adjusted calcium and magnesium, but similar concentrations of iPTH and phosphate. In an adjusted model, variables significantly associated with 25(OH)D included age, creatinine, adjusted calcium and ethnicity; but not iPTH and the interaction term of ethnicity and iPTH (beta coefficient –0.071, 95% CI –0.209, 0.067, p=0.32). In our study cohort, iPTH was not, per se, influenced by 25 (OH)D. We found no ethnic differences in the association between iPTH and 25(OH)D between South Asians and White UK residents
    • Relationship between phosphorus in organic growing media and its uptake by ryegrass

      Kelay, Asha; Harris, P. J. C.; Bateman, M. J. (Taylor & Francis, 2010)
      The supply of nutrients to plants from organic growing media depends on mineralization as the addition of inorganic nutrients is forbidden in certified organic systems. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between total phosphorus (P), extractable (Olsen’s) P, organic P, and biomass P in growing media and uptake of P by ryegrass. Three proprietary products were used alone and combined in 1:2 and 2:1 proportions to give nine growing media. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Choice’) was irrigated with a modified Hoagland’s solution minus P, and the shoots were harvested after 28, 56, and 84 days. There was no significant correlation between the amounts of the different forms of P in the growing media and ryegrass dry weight or P concentration in harvested grass. However, total ryegrass P uptake was significantly positively correlated with initial total P and organic P in the growing media.
    • The relationship between the last planner® system and collaborative planning practice in UK construction

      Daniel, EI; Pasquire, C; Dickens, G; Ballard, HG (Emerald, 2017-05-15)
      © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how the newly emerging UK practice of "collaborative planning" (CP) for construction project delivery aligns with the advocated principles of the global last planner system (LPS) of production planning and control. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed, qualitative, exploratory approach was adopted for the study. This entailed qualitative data through three techniques, namely: semi-structured interviews, documents analysis, and structured observation. In total, 30 in-depth interviews were conducted over a 12 month period with lean construction consultants, clients, main contractors, and subcontractors drawn from the building, highways and infrastructure and rail sector. In all, 15 projects were visited where practices were observed. Findings: The study reveals that the current practice of CP in the UK partially aligns with the LPS principles. Where practitioners have heard of the LPS they believe it to be the same practice as CP. Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to 30 interviews, observation of 15 projects and document analysis. The aim of the study is not to generalise the findings, however, since the study examined top construction companies and practitioners in the UK and the findings were consistent across the sample, some conclusions could be made. The study is also limited to examining the construction phase only, future studies should incorporate the design phase. Practical implications: A clear identification of the elements of current practice compared to the components of the LPS provides a contribution to the future practice of project production planning and management in the construction industry. Social implications: The study highlights a continuing resistance to collaboration within the industry. This resistance is subtly embedded within implemented practices even though they are based on collaborative working for their success. Originality/value: This is among the first studies in the UK that comprehensively examines and reports the application of LPS/CP practice in construction across the major construction sectors. Future studies could build on the findings from this work to develop an approach/methodology to improve the current practice.
    • Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency and Their Effect on Oxidative Stress

      Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Nwalo, Friday Nweke; Chibuzor, Gregory Eze; Ejiagha, Endaline Chiamaka; Abonyi, Micheal Chinweuba; Ugwu, Theophilus Ejiofor; Ikechukwu Obiudu, Kenneth; Agbafor, Kingsley Nwonu; Oyejide Ojo, Opeolu; Ewa Ubi, Benjamin (OMICS Publishing Group, 2018-08-20)
      Objective: Though the relationship between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported, their interaction to influence oxidative stress is not fully understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between T2D and G6PD deficiency and assessed their effect on oxidative stress. Methodology: A total of 73 T2D and 75 non-diabetic (ND) out-patients at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) in Enugu, Nigeria were recruited. They were screened for G6PD deficiency, oxidative stress markers; lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were assayed. Results: Oxidative stress was influenced by T2D as malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl and HbA1c levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in T2D patients compared to ND patients. Significantly (p<0.05) decreased SOD and catalase activity were also observed in T2D patients. G6PD deficiency and T2D showed a significant relationship (p<0.05) in male patients (χ 2=5.070; p=0.024). Moreover, there was no significant (p>0.05) interaction between G6PD deficiency and T2D to influence oxidative stress in patients. Conclusion: The interaction between G6PD deficiency and T2D did not influence oxidative stress though there was a possible relationship between G6PD deficiency and T2D in male patients.
    • Relationships between affiliative social behavior and hair cortisol concentrations in semi-free ranging rhesus monkeys

      Woodell, Lauren J.; Hamel, Amanda F.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Byers, Kristen L.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M. (Elsevier, 2017-06-29)
      Sociality is a fundamental aspect of human behavior and health. One benefit of affiliative social relationships is reduced short-term levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), which are indicative of physiological stress. Less is known, however, about chronic GC production in relation to affiliative social behavior. To address this issue, we studied a semi-free ranging troop of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and collected hair samples to measure hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs), as a measure of chronic GC production, during routine biannual exams. We collected social behavior (both aggressive and affiliative) and hair samples for 32 adult female rhesus macaques over one year (Experiment 1). Our results indicated that adult females who initiated higher levels of social affiliation had significantly lower levels of HCCs. Neither the initiation nor the receipt of aggression were significantly related to HCCs in this study. In a second experiment we studied 28 mother-infant dyads for the first 90 days postpartum to examine mother-infant facial interactions (i.e. mutual gazing). We analyzed HCCs during weaning approximately one year later, which is a major transitional period. We found that infants that engaged in higher levels of mutual gazing in the first 90 days postpartum had significantly lower levels of HCCs during weaning. Finally, we studied 17 infant rhesus macaques (13 males) to examine whether social behavior (such as play) in the first five months of life correlated with infant HCCs over those months (Experiment 3). We found that infant males that engaged in more social play had significantly lower levels of HCCs. By relying on an animal model, our study shows that affiliative social traits are associated with lower long-term GC production. Future research should address the complex interactions between social behavior, chronic GC production, and mental and physical health.
    • Relationships between soil organic matter content and soil erosion severity in Albeluvisols of the Žemaičiai Uplands

      Jankauskas, Benediktas; Jankauskienė, Genovaitė; Fullen, Michael A. (Lithuanian Academy of Sciences, 2007)
      This article analyses relationships between soil erosion severity and soil organic matter (humus) content. The paper describes approaches to assess cumulative soil loss due to the combined action of natural (geological) and accelerated (human induced) soil erosion on Eutric Albeluvisols in Lithuania. Evaluation of soil erosion severity helps us understand which segments of the landscape are susceptible to erosion and therefore require soil conservation. The study also evaluates changes in soil organic matter content in relation to erosion severity. Factors considered in evaluating soil erosion severity included the existing genetic soil horizons remaining after soil erosion processes, the estimated thickness of lost soil and slope inclination. The estimated depth of soil loss due to the combined action of natural and accelerated soil erosion varied from 0.1–0.8 m on the undulating topography of the Žemaičiai Uplands. Erosion rates increased with slope steepness. Therefore, natural soil fertility (as indicated by spring barley yields) decreased by 21.7, 39.7 and 62.4% on slopes of 2–5°, 5–10° and 10–15°, respectively, compared with flat land. Crop yield was strongly negatively correlated (r2 = 0.790, P < 0.001, n = 138) with erosion severity and strongly positively correlated (r = 0.922; P < 0.001, n = 80) with soil organic matter content.
    • Remediation of oil spills using zeolites

      Fullen, Michael A.; Kelay, Asha; Williams, Craig D. (2011)
      Current research is testing the hypothesis that zeolites can efficiently and cost effectively adsorb oil spills. To date, this aspect of zeolites science has received little attention. A series of five Master of Science (M.Sc.) Projects at the University of Wolverhampton have shown that the zeolite clinoptilolite can effectively adsorb oil. Various sand-clinoptilolite mixes were tested in replicated laboratory analyses in terms of their ability to adsorb engine oil. Adsorption increased with clinoptilolite amount. The relationship between percentage clinoptilolite and oil adsorption was asymptotic. Thus, on a cost-effective basis, a 20% clinoptilolite: 80% sand mix seems the most costeffective mix. However, a particularly exciting finding was that it was possible to burn the oil-sand-zeolite mix and reuse the ignited mix for further oil adsorption. Experiments are ongoing, but to date the ignition and adsorption cycle has been repeated, on a replicated basis, seven times. Still, the ignited mix adsorbs significantly more oil than the sand control. Initial results suggest that the temperature of ignition is critical, as high temperatures can destroy the crystal and micro-pore structure of zeolites. Thus, low temperature ignition (~400oC) seems to allow the retention of structural integrity. Similar results were obtained using the zeolite chabazite and experiments are in progress on phillipsite, which is the third major zeolite mineral. If the hypotheses can be proven, there are potentially immense benefits. Sand-zeolite mixtures could be used to effectively adsorb terrestrial oil spills (i.e. at oil refinery plants, road accidents, beach spills from oil tankers and spills at petrol stations) and thus remediate oil-contaminated soils. The contaminated mix could be ignited and, given the appropriate infrastructure, the energy emission of combustion could be used as a source for electrical power. Then, the ignited mix could be reused in subsequent oil spills. This offers enormous potential for an environmentally-friendly sustainable ‘green’ technology. It would also represent intelligent use of zeolite resources. On a global scale, including Europe, clinoptilolite is the most common and inexpensive zeolite resource.
    • Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites.

      Rios, Carlos A.; Williams, Craig D.; Roberts, Clive L. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008)
      Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations, resulting from the microbial oxidation of pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The generation of AMD and release of dissolved heavy metals is an important concern facing the mining industry. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of low-cost sorbents like coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites to clean-up AMD generated at the Parys Mountain copper-lead-zinc deposit, Anglesey (North Wales), and to remove heavy metals and ammonium from AMD. pH played a very important role in the sorption/removal of the contaminants and a higher adsorbent ratio in the treatment of AMD promoted the increase of the pH, particularly using natural clinker-based faujasite (7.70-9.43) and the reduction of metal concentration. Na-phillipsite showed a lower efficiency as compared to that of faujasite. Selectivity of faujasite for metal removal was, in decreasing order, Fe>As>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr. Based on these results, the use of these materials has the potential to provide improved methods for the treatment of AMD.
    • Reply to Adrion et al. On Patel et al. Letter to the Editor, British Medical Journal

      Patel, Mitesh; Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M.; Harcourt, Jonny P.; Golding, John F.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (British Medical Journal, 2018-02-28)
      We apologise for not having noticed earlier Adrion and colleagues’ comments on our study comparing the effectiveness of intratympanic Methylprednisolone to Gentamicin in refractory Ménière’s disease [1], covered by the BMJ [2]. Contrary to our expectations, both drugs were equally effective in controlling vertigo (primary outcome).
    • Reply to the discussion by Ganesh on “Analysis of passive earth pressure modification due to seepage flow effects"

      Hu, Z; Yang, Z.X.; Wilkinson, Stephen (Canadian Science Publishing, 2017-09-13)
      Using an assumed vertical retaining wall with a drainage system along the soil–structure interface, this paper analyses the effect of anisotropic seepage flow on the development of passive earth pressure. Extremely unfavourable seepage flow inside the backfill, perhaps due to heavy rainfall, will dramatically increase active earth pressure while reducing passive earth pressure, thus increasing the probability of instability of the retaining structure. A trial and error analysis based on limit equilibrium is applied to identify the optimum failure surface. The flow field is computed using Fourier series expansion, and the effective reaction force along the curved failure surface is obtained by solving a modified Kötter equation considering the effect of seepage flow. This approach correlates well with other existing results. For small values of both the internal friction angle and interface friction angle, the failure surface can be appropriately simplified with a planar approximation. A parametric study indicates that the degree of anisotropic seepage flow affects the resulting passive earth pressure. In addition, incremental increases in the effective friction angle and interface friction angle both lead to an increase in passive earth pressure.
    • Representing the Superplasticity of Inconel 718

      Zhang, B.; Mynors, Diane J.; Mugarra, A.; Ostolaza, K. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004)
      Modelling the superplastic process using finite element analysis can enable optimum process parameters to be determined and lead to a better understanding of the process. Constitutive equations, which accurately represent a material’s behaviour, are very important in the development of representative process models. The development of a set of constitutive equations for superplastic grade Inconel 718 alloy based around a hyperbolic sine relation is described in this paper. The hyperbolic sine relation with strain dependant parameters is shown to represent the relationship between stress, strain and strain rate over a wide strain range. The valid strain range is sufficient to cover both strain hardening and flow softening behaviour.
    • Research on in-situ measurement of soil-fixation capability of corn roots

      Zheng, Chao-yuan; Fan, Mao-pan; Zheng, Yi; Fullen, Michael A.; Li, Yongmei; Subedi, Madhu (2010)
      Experiments in-situ measuring the stabilization capability of soil by corn roots (10 cm and 20 cm) and bare soil square with anchor-shank tension meter and self-designed shear box were conducted. The results indicated that when an equally load was applied, the displacement of bare soil was higher that that of corn square in two depths, the displacment was the lowest in 20 cm depth. The higher the root took in the soil square, the more load which made soil square separate from bulk soil was required. The bending point-F2 and plastic deformation point-F3 of soil square with corn in 10 cm were 2.7 kN and 2.9 kN, respectively; those of soil square in 20. cm were 3.6 kN and 3.61kN; those in bare soil square in 10 cm depth were 2.3 kN and 2.5 kN; those of bare soil square in 20 cm depth were 3.1 kN and 3.4 kN. It is proposed that that is an appropriate method in fix-quantify measure corn root soil-fixation capability in the agriculture soil and water conservation.
    • Researchers’ attitudes towards the h-index on Twitter 2007–2020: criticism and acceptance

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer Nature, 2021-04-26)
      The h-index is a well-known indicator of the scientific impact of an academic publishing career. Its hybrid publishing/citation nature and inherent bias against younger researchers, women, people in low resourced countries, and those not prioritizing publishing arguably give it little value for most formal and informal research evaluations. Nevertheless, it is well-known by academics, used in some promotion decisions, and is prominent in bibliometric databases, such as Google Scholar. In the context of this apparent conflict, it is important to understand researchers’ attitudes towards the h-index. This article used public tweets in English to analyse how scholars discuss the h-index in public: is it mentioned, are tweets about it positive or negative, and has interest decreased since its shortcomings were exposed. The January 2021 Twitter Academic Research initiative was harnessed to download all English tweets mentioning the h-index from the 2006 start of Twitter until the end of 2020. The results showed a constantly increasing number of tweets. Whilst the most popular tweets unapologetically used the h-index as an indicator of research performance, 28.5% of tweets were critical of its simplistic nature and others joked about it (8%). The results suggest that interest in the h-index is still increasing online despite scientists willing to evaluate the h-index in public tending to be critical. Despite this, in limited situations it may be effective at succinctly conveying the message that a researcher has had a successful publishing career.
    • Researches on in-situ measurement of the soil fixing capability of rape roots

      Mao, Yan-ting; Zheng, Yi; Fullen, Michael A.; Li, Yongmei; Subedi, Madhu (Yunnan Agricultural University, 2008)
      Experiments of in-situ measuring the stabilization capability of soil by rape roots in 10 cm depth with the anchor-shank tensiometer and self-designed shear box were conducted. The results showed that when a 3.5 KN load was applied, the displacements of sample plot 1 (roots density = 1.11 kg/m3), sample plot 2 (roots density = 0.57 kg/m3) and control plot reached 38.0 mm, 46.0 mm and 49.7 mm, respectively. The higher the root density was in the sample plot, the more loads formation point-F3 of sample plot 1 were 3.5 kN and 4.0 kN, respectively; those of sample plot 2 were 3.1 kN and 3.5 kN. It is proposed that this is an appropriate method to evaluate the root function of different crops or plants in maintaining slope stability.
    • ResearchGate: Disseminating, communicating, and measuring Scholarship?

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan; Statistical Cybermetrics Research Group; School of Mathematics and Computer Science; University of Wolverhampton; Wulfruna Street Wolverhampton WV1 1LY UK; Statistical Cybermetrics Research Group; School of Mathematics and Computer Science; University of Wolverhampton; Wulfruna Street Wolverhampton WV1 1LY UK (2015-05)
    • Researching personal information on the public web: methods and ethics

      Wilkinson, D; Thelwall, M (SAGE Publications, 2010-08-17)
      There are many personal and social issues that are rarely discussed in public and hence are difficult to study. Recently, however, the huge uptake of blogs, forums, and social network sites has created spaces in which previously private topics are publicly discussed, giving a new opportunity for researchers investigating such topics. This article describes a range of simple techniques to access personal information relevant to social research questions and illustrates them with small case studies. It also discusses ethical considerations, concluding that the default position is almost the reverse of that for traditional social science research: the text authors should not be asked for consent nor informed of the participation of their texts. Normally, however, steps should be taken to ensure that text authors are anonymous in academic publications even when their texts and identities are already public. © SAGE Publications 2011.
    • Resonant excitation of acoustic waves in one-dimensional exciton-polariton systems

      Yulin, AV; Kozin, VK; Nalitov, AV; Shelykh, IA (American Physical Society, 2019-10-18)
      We analyze the interaction of exciton-polariton condensates in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity with acoustic phonons. We consider the case of a coherently pumped condensate and demonstrate that upon passing of a certain threshold the parametric instability in the system leads to the generation of a coherent acoustic wave and additional polariton harmonics. The process is strongly affected by exciton-exciton interactions which lead to the appearance of the effects of the bistability and hysteresis in the system.
    • Responding To Critical Incidents And Disasters: Facilitating Resilience In High Risk – Professions

      Paton, Douglas,; Moss, Simon.; Morrissey, Hana; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David (Charles C Thomas Publishing Ltd, 2017-01)
    • Results from the first English stool bank using faecal microbiota transplant as a medicinal product for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection

      McCune, VL; Quraishi, MN; Manzoor, S; Moran, CE; Banavathi, K; Steed, H; Massey, DCO; Trafford, GR; Iqbal, TH; Hawkey, PM; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-03-16)
      © 2020 Background: Faecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) has improved outcomes for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) compared to antibiotic therapy. FMT is classified as a medicinal product in the United Kingdom, similar to the USA and Canada, limiting supply via stool banks without appropriate licencing. In the largest UK cohort to date, we describe the clinical outcomes for 124 patients receiving FMT for recurrent or refractory CDI and present a framework to produce FMT as a licenced medicinal product. Methods: Anonymous unrelated healthy donors, screened via health assessment and microbiological testing donated stool. In aerobic conditions FMT aliquots were prepared for immediate use or frozen storage, following a production framework developed to comply with Good Manufacturing Practice. Outcome measures were clinical response to FMT defined as resolution of diarrhoea within seven days and clinical cure defined as response without diarrhoea recurrence at 90 days. Findings: Clinical response was 83·9% (95% CI 76·0%–90·0%) after one treatment. Clinical cure was 78·2% (95% CI 67·4%–89·0%) across the cohort. Refractory cases appeared to have a lower initial clinical response rate compared to recurrent cases, however at day 90 there were no differences observed between these groups. Interpretation: The methodology developed here enabled successful licencing of FMT by The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency as a medicinal product. This has widened the availability of FMT in the National Health Service via a stool bank and can be applied in other centres across the world to improve access to safe and quality assured treatments.
    • Rethinking and optimising post-consumer packaging waste: A sentiment analysis of consumers’ perceptions towards the introduction of a deposit refund scheme in Scotland

      Oke, A; Osobajo, O; Obi, L; Omotayo, T; Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, UK. Electronic address: a.oke1@rgu.ac.uk. (Elsevier, 2020-09-23)
      © 2020 Elsevier Ltd Packaging waste production, especially single-use containers, is exerting detrimental effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including human health. To internalise the externalities associated with single-use containers, different instruments, including a deposit refund scheme (DRS), have been operationalised in many countries. Therefore, DRS is introduced in Scotland to reduce plastic litters by increasing recycling rates and incentivising pro-environmental behavioural change. This study addresses the complexity of single-use plastic containers by analysing consumers’ perceptions regarding the introduction of DRS in Scotland. Using 940 comments from the BBC “Have Your Say” messageboard, this study adopts sentiment analysis to understand consumers’ opinions about the introduction and implementation of DRS in Scotland. Findings suggest that a UK-wide scheme that is similar in terms of operations and structure is required for DRS to be successful. While consumers’ knowledge and opinions about DRS are mixed, the efficacy of DRS including its relevance is questioned and raises doubts about its contribution to sustainability. The findings imply the need for UK countries to negotiate and collaborate on appropriate and attractive interventions in addressing post-consumer single-use plastic containers. The implications of the findings for policy and practice, especially in improving the operations of DRS are further discussed.