• Janus kinase enzyme (JAK) inhibitors and rheumatoid arthritis: a review of the literature

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick A; Askari, Ayman; NOURI, ABDULLA KHALID (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2019-11-15)
      Cytokines play an essential role in normal cell growth and the regulation of immune function. The emergence of Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors promises the start of a revolution in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Their efficacy and safety profile have been demonstrated in multiple trials and they have been licensed for the treatment of a number of diseases including RA and PsA. Moreover, the use of highly selective Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors is currently being studied aiming to reduce side effects compared with traditional JAKinibs, an example of that would be the recent FDA approved upadacitinib. The Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitorsmay supplant the classical biologic agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, since they exhibitthe advantages of oral administration, simultaneous blockade of multiple cytokines, reversibility and the lack of immunogenicity.
    • Joint subnatural-linewidth and single-photon emission from resonance fluorescence

      Lopez Carreno, J.C.; Zubizarreta Casalengua, E.; Laussy, F.P.; Valle, E. del (IOP, 2018-07-10)
      Resonance fluorescence—the light emitted when exciting resonantly a two-level system—is a popular quantum source as it seems to inherit its spectral properties from the driving laser and its statistical properties from the two-level system, thus providing a subnatural-linewidth single-photon source (SPS). However, these two qualities do not actually coexist in resonance fluorescence, since an optical target detecting these antibunched photons will either be spectrally broad itself and not benefit from the spectrally narrow source, or match spectrally with the source but in this case the antibunching will be spoiled. We first explain this failure through a decomposition of the field-emission and how this gets affected by frequency resolution. We then show how to restore the sought joint subnatural linewidth and antibunched properties, by interfering the resonance fluorescence output with a coherent beam. We finally discuss how the signal that is eventually generated in this way features a new type of quantum correlations, with a plateau of antibunching which suppresses much more strongly close photon pairs. This introduces a new concept of perfect SPS.
    • Key knowledge management strategies implemented in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia construction industry: an empirical study

      Renukappa, Suresh; Alosaimi, Hanouf; Suresh, Subashini (InderScience, 2017-10-05)
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) construction sector is an important industry and contributes approximately 20% of the gross domestic product (GDP). However, uncertainty, complexity, sustainability and Saudi Arabia National Policy Plan 2030 are among the most important features of the current construction business environment in the KSA. Therefore, for the KSA construction organisations, the creation of economic value by addressing the above issues now increasingly poses real profound strategic challenges. This paper focuses on key knowledge management (KM) strategies that the KSA construction organisations implemented en route to organisational competitiveness. The findings are in the main, based on semi-structured interviews with 46 professionals from 30 construction organisations. The data analysis revealed that, the key initiatives implemented broadly under the umbrella of KM are knowledge sharing initiatives, knowledge capturing initiatives and knowledge mapping initiatives. The scarcity of knowledge and expertise is, and will continue to be, a huge challenge for many construction organisations in the KSA.
    • Key risks in construction projects in Italy: contractors’ perspective

      Rostami, Ali; Oduoza, Chike F. (Emerald, 2017-05-15)
      Purpose Risks play an important role in the success of construction projects. Failure in identification and assessment of risks can lead to inadequacy in the process of managing risks, which in turn can critically affect the projects’ resources. A formal risk management is rarely practised in construction projects due to the lack of contractors’ awareness of key risks. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the investigation of risk factors in construction projects in Italy from contractors’ perspective. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data, based on which a total of ten key risks were ascertained. The identified risks were compared with the findings of the surveys conducted in the Australian and Chinese construction industry to address the unique risks associated with construction projects in Italy. Findings The key risks included delays in payments, client variations, design variations, inaccurate cost estimates, and tight project schedules. The comparison between those three countries specified the delays in payments and project funding problems as the most critical factors that are related to cultural influences and behaviour of clients. The findings assist contractors in the risk identification process, and can be applied to the development of a risk management framework for construction projects. Research limitations/implications The findings of this study cannot be generalised statistically for the whole of Italy as it was constrained geographically, with respondents drawn only from a self-selection sample of construction projects in the Veneto region of Northern Italy. The findings represent a snapshot of the key potential internal and external risks from the perspective of contractors. Originality/value The results of the study specified the key risks of construction projects from the perspective of contractors which can contribute to risk management for construction projects.
    • Kinetic Monte Carlo approach to nonequilibrium bosonic systems

      Liew, T. C. H.; Flayac, H.; Poletti, D.; Savenko, I. G.; Laussy, Fabrice (American Physical Society, 2017-09-18)
      We consider the use of a kinetic Monte Carlo approach for the description of nonequilibrium bosonic systems, taking nonresonantly excited exciton-polariton condensates and bosonic cascade lasers as examples. In the former case, the considered approach allows the study of the cross-over between incoherent and coherent regimes, which represents the formation of a quasicondensate that forms purely from the action of energy relaxation processes rather than interactions between the condensing particles themselves. In the latter case, we show theoretically that a bosonic cascade can develop an output coherent state.
    • Knowledge integration challenges and critical success factors within construction traditional procurement system

      Takhtravanchi, Mohammad; Pathirage, Chaminda (LLC CPC Business Perspectives, 2018-10-11)
      <jats:p>The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Integration (KI) in terms of capturing, sharing and transferring knowledge within construction projects based on the Traditional Procurement System (TPS). On the basis of available studies on KI and TPS within the industry investigated, multiple case studies were developed to reach the aforementioned objective, involving two case studies to reflect the building sector within construction industry. Furthermore, an Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach was used to summarize and identify the relationships between the identified challenges. ‘Culture of Organization, ‘Contractual Boundaries’ and ‘Knowledge Management System’ (policies and strategies of organization) are identified as the main challenges. Having an ‘open environment’ and ‘clear liability of project members for sharing knowledge at different phases of project’ are two of identified CSFs, which will assist project managers to enhance the KI process within construction projects undertaken through the TPS.</jats:p>
    • Knowledge management and artificial intelligence (AI)

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Jallow, Haddy (Academic Conferences and Publishing International Ltd, 2020-12-03)
      The fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0 is said to increase the opportunities and industry potential with the use of digitisation aids. The digitisation of the construction industry is becoming very important as processes, quality and efficiency are being focused on a lot more. Within the construction industry, knowledge management (KM) is a key part of learning from past mistakes on previous projects. As part of Industry 4.0, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the technologies that could provide a potential to the construction industry through gathering knowledge from previous projects to determine future project outcomes. Therefore, this research focusses on AI and its abilities to improve KM for the construction industry in the UK. Qualitative research approach was adopted to collect and analyse the data. A total of 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers within the construction industry. Results show that organisation have already implemented some sort of AI systems within projects and organisations in order to allow for better KM. Combining AI systems into Common Data Environments can help employees in finding documents easier with a unique ID or referenced words. It is concluded that AI systems can be built and used in order to assist with the KM processes that businesses have already implemented. It is recommended that there is a need for developing a business model canvas of implementing AI to benefit from KM within organisations in order to identify the difference between the business processes without AI for KM and with AI being used to assist KM.
    • Knowledge management in the UK water industry

      Kamunda, Andrew; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited, 2019-08-21)
      The UK government has set ambitious targets for the construction industry to maintain global competitiveness. It aims to remove barriers, increase productivity, improve competition, at the same time benefiting the customers by lowering water bills. Through the water industry regulators, Ofwat, Defra and DWI, the privatised water industry saw competition opened for business and non-household water customers in 2017. Knowledge has become known as the major resource organisations must have to maintain a competitive advantage. Management of this organisational knowledge, commonly referred to as Knowledge Management (KM), creates business value generating competitive advantage, enabling creation, communication and application of various knowledge to achieve business goals. Although the UK water industry is information and knowledge rich, there is limited research in the KM subject within this industry. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore, examine and understand how knowledge is being managed in the UK water industry. A qualitative case study was used for the collection and analysis of data with the results obtained through review of water company supply chain processes, documents, observations and semi structured interviews. Organisational culture and the need to maintain and retain business competitiveness was the major drive for implementation of KM, as found in this study. The water industry and its supply chain are changing their goals and objectives to align them with KM practices, identifying needed knowledge, creating KM resources, sharing and fostering knowledge through information technology tools. The study concludes that the knowledge rich water industry has put in place measures and processes fundamental to KM and will eventually take the next step for its full implementation. Organisational leadership and management were the initiating and driving positive KM cultures, placing knowledge as the major project resource. The current drive to create, foster and provide resources for KM through organisational culture changes and making use of information technology should continue to be invested in. This will allow organisations to maintain, sustain and increase competitiveness, improve productivity whilst meeting business goals. The advancement of information technology should also be taken advantage of as an enabler for implementing of KM strategies.
    • Knowledge management practices in Oman construction sector

      Almarshoudi, Abdulaziz; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh (IJKE, 2018-06-01)
      Implementing the strategies of Knowledge Management (KM) in the construction industry in Oman can produce significant benefits, such as continuous improvement and the improved performance of construction projects. In addition, the need to understand the determinants of successful Knowledge Management cannot be underestimated in organisations in the Middle East; specifically, those which are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The accelerated development in recent years regarding the GCC countries, highlights the need for these nations and their organisations to empower themselves through Knowledge Management. Nevertheless, very little empirical research has been conducted to understand this phenomenon. This paper investigates the role of Knowledge Management in relation to reducing the Cost of Poor Quality in the construction industry in Oman. Data was collected via questionnaires and interviews with Omani construction engineers from public and private sector. The findings reveal that knowledge capture and knowledge sharing are paramount to the contributory factors to the Cost of Poor Quality in practice, which includes the cost of errors and omissions, cost of design changes and the cost of poor skills.
    • Knowledge management related training strategies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia construction industry: An empirical study

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Alosaimi, Hanouf (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-04)
      The growing popularity of knowledge management (KM) in the construction industry has, unfortunately, not been matched by parallel empirical research in training and benefits of KM for construction industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This paper discusses the KM related training strategies implemented in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia construction industry. Given the relatively new and unexplored nature of the research problem, qualitative research method was adopted to collect and analyse data. Results are based on the analysis of data from 46 professionals from KSA construction organisations. This paper concludes that training interventions are a complex and context-embedded activity. The current study results suggests that for effective implementation of KM strategies, there is an urgent need for KSA construction industry to develop and deploy appropriate KM related management training programmes. Leadership plays an important role in breaking down barriers in achieving KM strategies. The practical implication of this research is that the KM should not only focus on the specific knowledge to be captured, shared, mapped and transferred between individuals but should also address strategic concerns at group and organisational levels.
    • Knowledge mapping of office workspace: a scientometric review of studies

      Jayantha, WM; Oladinrin, OT (Emerald, 2019-10-29)
      © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose: Office workspace is more than a place but one of the essential resources in business organizations. In recent years, research in office workspace management has become an increasingly important scholarly focus. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies to date on the subject. This study aims to explore a scientometric analysis of office workspace field. Design/methodology/approach: The title/abstract/keyword search method was used to extract related papers from 1990 to 2018. A total of 1,670 papers published in Scopus were obtained and subjected to scientometric data analysis techniques via CiteSpace software. Findings: The results revealed the active research institutions and countries, influential authors, important journals, representative references and research hotspots in this field. Practical implications: While this study focused on office workspace management, the findings hold useful implications for the built environment in general and facility management in particular, being a sector that encompasses multiple disciplines involving building, office assets, people, processes and technology, which enable effective functioning of the built facilities. Originality/value: This is probably the most comprehensive scientometric analysis of the office workspace field ever conducted. This study adds to the so far limited knowledge in the field and provides insights for future research.
    • Knowledge sharing maturity model for Jordanian construction sector

      Arif, Mohammed; Al Zubi, Mohammed; Gupta, Aman Deep; Egbu, Charles; Walton, Robert O.; Islam, Rubina (Emerald, 2017-01-16)
      Purpose - This purpose of the paper is to present a maturity model developed to assess Knowledge Sharing (KS) for the Jordanian construction sector. Design/methodology/approach - The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of the review of literature and documenting variables from the literature that highlight influence on KS in organisations. The second stage was designed for maturity model development by identifying the cultural factors that affect KS in the Jordanian construction sector through questionnaires and interviews. Factor analysis was used to find possible relationships between the cultural variables followed by semi-structured interviews. In the third stage the initial maturity model was refined through another set of semi-structured interviews. Findings – The model presented in the paper includes three levels of maturity. The first level identifies whether the variable barely exists in company’s KS practices. The second level shows the occasional techniques which the company uses to increase KS activities. The final level demonstrates the importance of the variable in affecting KS as being fundamentally ingrained in the company’s vision, mission, strategy and operations. Originality/value - The research has developed a model that can be used to measure the KS in an organisation. Although the model has been applied to the construction industry, it can easily be modified to fit other sectors.
    • Land use and agriculture

      Harper, Peter; Wexler, Josie; Kemp, Martin; Perez-Minana, Elena; Fullen, Michael A. (Centre for Alternative Technology,, 2010)
    • Large publishing consortia produce higher citation impact research but co-author contributions are hard to evaluate

      Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-02-20)
      This paper introduces a simple agglomerative clustering method to identify large publishing consortia with at least 20 authors and 80% shared authorship between articles. Based on Scopus journal articles 1996-2018, under these criteria, nearly all (88%) of the large consortia published research with citation impact above the world average, with the exceptions being mainly the newer consortia for which average citation counts are unreliable. On average, consortium research had almost double (1.95) the world average citation impact on the log scale used (Mean Normalised Log Citation Score). At least partial alphabetical author ordering was the norm in most consortia. The 250 largest consortia were for nuclear physics and astronomy around expensive equipment, and for predominantly health-related issues in genomics, medicine, public health, microbiology and neuropsychology. For the health-related issues, except for the first and last few authors, authorship seem to primary indicate contributions to the shared project infrastructure necessary to gather the raw data. It is impossible for research evaluators to identify the contributions of individual authors in the huge alphabetical consortia of physics and astronomy, and problematic for the middle and end authors of health-related consortia. For small scale evaluations, authorship contribution statements could be used, when available.
    • Large-vscale hydrogen production and storage technologies: Current status and future directions

      Olabi, AG; Abdelghafar, Aasim Ahmed; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Sayed, Enas Taha; Alami, Abdul Hai; Rezk, Hegazy; Abdelkareem, Mohammad Ali; Bahri, Adel Saleh (Elsevier, 2020-11-13)
      Over the past years, hydrogen has been identified as the most promising carrier of clean energy. In a world that aims to replace fossil fuels to mitigate greenhouse emissions and address other environmental concerns, hydrogen generation technologies have become a main player in the energy mix. Since hydrogen is the main working medium in fuel cells and hydrogen-based energy storage systems, integrating these systems with other renewable energy systems is becoming very feasible. For example, the coupling of wind or solar systems hydrogen fuel cells as secondary energy sources is proven to enhance grid stability and secure the reliable energy supply for all times. The current demand for clean energy is unprecedented, and it seems that hydrogen can meet such demand only when produced and stored in large quantities. This paper presents an overview of the main hydrogen production and storage technologies, along with their challenges. They are presented to help identify technologies that have sufficient potential for large-scale energy applications that rely on hydrogen. Producing hydrogen from water and fossil fuels and storing it in underground formations are the best large-scale production and storage technologies. However, the local conditions of a specific region play a key role in determining the most suited production and storage methods, and there might be a need to combine multiple strategies together to allow a significant large-scale production and storage of hydrogen.
    • Laser Cleaning of Grey Cast Iron Automotive Brake Disc: Rust Removal and Improvement in Surface Integrity

      Ogbekene, Y. F.; Shukla, P.; Zhang, Y.; Shen, X.; Prabhakaran, S.; Kalainathan, S.; Gulia, Kiran; Lawrence, J. (Oldcity Publications USA, 2018-11-30)
      There is a great need for removal of rust and surface damage from corroded engineering parts. This enables the retention of strength and increased longevity of metals and alloys in general. The use of lasers for cleaning, polishing and ablation has proven to be effective and promising overtime. This research is focused on a parametric study of laser cleaning a corroded grey cast iron brake disc. A continuous wave CO2 laser having a wavelength of 10.6μm was used for the study. A systematic approach was employed for the experiments where one parameter was changed while other parameters remained constant. Additional effects of laser cleaning were predicted by a Gaussian process regression approach. The results revealed that the best parameters which cleanly removed the rust were 60W of laser power, 900mm/s traverse speed, and a spot size of 722μm. The enhancement of surface microhardness of laser cleaned specimen was 37% compared to the rusted specimen surfaces. The roughness of the laser cleaned surface was, 1.29μm while the rusted surface comprised of 55.45μm (Ra). Microstructural analysis showed a presence of randomly distributed graphite flakes surrounded by a pearlitic matrix containing ferrite and cementite after laser cleaning. This was similar to that of the un-rusted surface. The hardness, roughness and microstructural content were in close relation with the respective properties of the unrusted automotive brake disc. This showed that the mechanical and physical properties of the brake disc were not altered negatively during the laser cleaning process. Implementation of the laser-cleaning technique in automotive and manufacturing industries should be embraced as it provides a faster, safer and cheaper way of enhancing the surface integrity of components and also paves way for other surface enhancement methodologies to be applied such as blast cleaning or laser shock cleaning for inducing extra strength, by beneficial residual stresses.
    • Lasers and Materials in Selective Laser Sintering

      Kruth, J. P.; Wang, X.; Laoui, Tahar; Froyen, Ludo (Emerald Publishing Group Ltd., 2003)
      Selective laser sintering (SLS) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid prototyping techniques (RPT). This is mainly due to its suitability to process almost any material: polymers, metals, ceramics (including foundry sand) and many types of composites. The material should be supplied as powder that may occasionally contain a sacrificial polymer binder that has to be removed (debinded) afterwards. The interaction between the laser beam and the powder material used in SLS is one of the dominant phenomena that defines the feasibility and quality of any SLS process. This paper surveys the current state of SLS in terms of materials and lasers. It describes investigations carried out experimentally and by numerical simulation in order to get insight into laser-material interaction and to control this interaction properly. (Emerald Publishing Group Limited)
    • Late disputes and the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract

      Ndekugri, Issaka E. (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2016-03-07)
      One of the reasons for project owners’ choice of the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract (ECC) is the avoidance of the risk of claims and disputes long after project completion. In a number of cases the court has been presented with difficult questions concerning adjudication after project completion and delayed reference of adjudicated disputes to the applicable final tribunal. The cases have not been from projects procured with NEC contracts. This paper critically examines these questions, the court’s answers to them and their implications for the NEC3 ECC family of contracts. It concludes that, in the drafting of future editions of the contract, the promoters of the contract should consider provisions targeted at: ensuring that the test of awareness for the purposes of the Clause 61.3 time-bar is on an objective basis; conclusive evidence clauses that impose a disincentive against seriously delayed challenges to assessment of compensation events and payment; and providing that the decision of an adjudicator becomes finally binding if the dispute decided is not referred to the tribunal within a stated period.
    • Latent fingermark pore area reproducibility.

      Gupta, Abhishek; Buckley, K.A.; Sutton, Raul (Amsterdam: Elsevier., 2008)
      The study of the reproducibility of friction ridge pore detail in fingermarks is a measure of their usefulness in personal identification. Pore area in latent prints developed using cyanoacrylate and ninhydrin were examined and measured by photomicrography using appropriate software tools. The data were analysed statistically and the results showed that pore area is not reproducible in developed latent prints, using either of the development techniques. The results add further support to the lack of reliability of pore area in personal identification.
    • Lateral collapse of short-length sandwich tubes compressed by different indenters and exposed to external constraints

      Baroutaji, A; Olabi, AG (Wiley, 2014-05-02)
      In this paper, sandwich tube components which consist of thin-walled circular tubes with aluminium foam core are proposed as energy absorption systems. The sandwich tubes were laterally crushed under quasi-static loading conditions. The sandwich tubes were crushed under two types of indenters and exposed to three different types of external constraints. The collapsing behaviour and the energy absorption responses of these systems were investigated by nonlinear finite element analysis through ANSYS-LS-DYNA. Various indicators which describe the effectiveness of energy absorbing systems were used as a marker to compare the various systems. It was found that the sandwich tube systems compressed by cylindrical indenters particularly the unconstrained system and the system with inclined constraints offered a very desirable force-deflection in which the force is almost constant in the post collapse stage. The employing of external constraints was noticed as a feasible method of increasing the SEA particularly when cylindrical indenter is used. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.