• Waste Factors Impacting on Delivery Cost Performance of Design and Build Low-cost Housing Projects in Nigeria

      Obi, Lovelin Ifeoma; Arif, Mohammed; Awuzie, Bankole (University of Salford, 2015)
    • Water channel pore size determines exclusion properties but not solute selectivity

      Kitchen, Philip; Salman, Mootaz M; Pickel, Simone U; Jennings, Jordan; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna; Conner, Matthew T; Bill, Roslyn M; Conner, Alex C (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-30)
      Aquaporins (AQPs) are a ubiquitous family of transmembrane water channel proteins. A subgroup of AQP water channels also facilitates transmembrane diffusion of small, polar solutes. A constriction within the pore, the aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, is thought to control solute permeability: previous studies on single representative water channel proteins suggest narrow channels conduct water, whilst wider channels permit passage of solutes. To assess this model of selectivity, we used mutagenesis, permeability measurements and in silico comparisons of water-specific as well as glycerol-permeable human AQPs. Our studies show that single amino acid substitutions in the selectivity filters of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP3 differentially affect glycerol and urea permeability in an AQP-specific manner. Comparison between in silico-calculated channel cross-sectional areas and in vitro permeability measurements suggests that selectivity filter cross-sectional area predicts urea but not glycerol permeability. Our data show that substrate discrimination in water channels depends on a complex interplay between the solute, pore size, and polarity, and that using single water channel proteins as representative models has led to an underestimation of this complexity.
    • Weaving ethics into academic research

      Fullen, Michael A.; Marcinkonos, Saulius (EAIE, 2014)
      The college/UAS sector is traditionally oriented towards professional studies, and the incorporation of applied research is a more recent development. Therefore, the sector has specific foci of research, including income from applied research, compliance between applied research and other disciplines, practical applications of applied research results, applied research in collaboration with socio-economic partners and purposeful dissemination of applied research results to promote regional development. Our brief overview concludes that the young college/UAS sector in Lithuania has exiting opportunities and potential to be pioneers and to take advantage of developing structures for research ethics support in newly built research structures. In contrast, traditional universities and research centres must incorporate research ethics within existing research structures.
    • Web browser artefacts in private and portable modes: a forensic investigation

      Flowers, Cassandra; Mansour, Ali; Al-Khateeb, Haider M. (Inderscience, 2016-03-15)
      Web browsers are essential tools for accessing the internet. Extra complexities are added to forensic investigations when recovering browsing artefacts as portable and private browsing are now common and available in popular web browsers. Browsers claim that whilst operating in private mode, no data is stored on the system. This paper investigates whether the claims of web browsers discretion are true by analysing the remnants of browsing left by the latest versions of Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, and Opera when used in a private browsing session, as a portable browser, and when the former is running in private mode. Some of our key findings show how forensic analysis of the file system recovers evidence from IE while running in private mode whereas other browsers seem to maintain better user privacy. We analyse volatile memory and demonstrate how physical memory by means of dump files, hibernate and page files are the key areas where evidence from all browsers will still be recoverable despite their mode or location they run from.
    • Web of Science and Scopus language coverage

      Thelwall, Michael; Kousha, Kayvan; Vera-Baceta, Miguel-Angel (Springer International Publishing, 2019-10-12)
      The evaluation of research outputs in the form of journal articles is important to help with monitoring performance and to allocate funds. Elsevier’s Scopus and Clarivate’s Web of Science (WoS) are the two main sources for identifying outputs. For non-English-speaking countries, it is especially important that most of the scientific activity evaluated is represented in the bibliometric database used. All documents published in Scopus and WoS during 2018 (6,094,079 documents) were therefore analysed and compared for their languages and research areas. The most comprehensive source for each language and research area were identified and some coverage problems have been found.
    • What can be done to improve medicines adherence?

      Singh Samra, Jagjit; Ball, Patrick; Morrissey, Hana (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH, 2018-04-28)
      Background: Low rates of patients adhering to their medications is a major healthcare problem. This results in increased costs for healthcare providers. Aim: This review aimed to understand the causes and consequences of medicines nonadherence and to suggest effective methods to improve adherence. Method: The review focused on studies with primary outcome aimed at the impact of improving adherence on health outcomes and healthcare costs. Studies were appraised for their appropriateness as evidence using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. An initial scoping search was carried out on the following databases: Cochrane Library, PubMed, BMJ, and NICE. A total of 63 literary sources were used (systemic reviews, trials, reports, studies) and a further 6 sources were used to provide definitions. The data was interpreted to detect for bias. Conclusion: This review highlights the need for further research to further understand the relationship between intentional and unintentional nonadherence among different patient groups, conditions and types of treatment. There is also need for research that are directly aiming to understand patient beliefs about and their medication adherence barriers; the financial cost of medicines nonadherence and developing models to improve integration between healthcare professions.
    • What is a smart device? - a conceptualisation within the paradigm of the internet of things

      Silverio-Fernández, Manuel; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Springer, 2018-05-09)
      The Internet of Things (IoT) is an interconnected network of objects which range from simple sensors to smartphones and tablets; it is a relatively novel paradigm that has been rapidly gaining ground in the scenario of modern wireless telecommunications with an expected growth of 25 to 50 billion of connected devices for 2020 Due to the recent rise of this paradigm, authors across the literature use inconsistent terms to address the devices present in the IoT, such as mobile device, smart device, mobile technologies or mobile smart device. Based on the existing literature, this paper chooses the term smart device as a starting point towards the development of an appropriate definition for the devices present in the IoT. This investigation aims at exploring the concept and main features of smart devices as well as their role in the IoT. This paper follows a systematic approach for reviewing compendium of literature to explore the current research in this field. It has been identified smart devices as the primary objects interconnected in the network of IoT, having an essential role in this paradigm. The developed concept for defining smart device is based on three main features, namely context-awareness, autonomy and device connectivity. Other features such as mobility and userinteraction were highly mentioned in the literature, but were not considered because of the nature of the IoT as a network mainly oriented to device-to-device connectivity whether they are mobile or not and whether they interact with people or not. What emerges from this paper is a concept which can be used to homogenise the terminology used on further research in the Field of digitalisation and smart technologies.
    • When statutes collide: potential recovery of own party adjudication costs

      Hetherton, Tony; Charlson, Jennifer (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015-10-12)
      Purpose This research examines the potential recovery of own party adjudication costs under the Late Payment of Commercial Debts Regulations 2013. Design/methodology/approach The interaction between The Late Payment of Commercial Debts Regulations 2013 (derived from European Directive 2011/7/EU on combating late payment in commercial transactions) and the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 including reference to case law was explored. A qualitative research framework was used to collect primary data through semi-structured interviews with adjudication experienced construction industry professionals. Findings It was discovered that adjudicators are awarding own party costs under the Regulations but there was disagreement on the issues in both the literature and amongst the interviewees. Research limitations/ implications A definitive judgement is awaited from the Technology and Construction Court. Originality/ Value This paper will be of value to construction industry adjudication professionals.
    • Which aspects of the open science agenda are most relevant to scientometric research and publishing? An opinion paper

      Bornmann, Lutz; Guns, Raf; Thelwall, Michael; Wolfram, Dietmar (MIT Press, 2021-02-10)
      Open Science is an umbrella term that encompasses many recommendations for possible changes in research practices, management, and publishing with the objective to increase transparency and accessibility. This has become an important science policy issue that all disciplines should consider. Many Open Science recommendations may be valuable for the further development of research and publishing but not all are relevant to all fields. This opinion paper considers the aspects of Open Science that are most relevant for scientometricians, discussing how they can be usefully applied.
    • Which health and biomedical topics generate the most Facebook interest and the strongest citation relationships?

      Mohammadi, Ehsan; Gregory, Karl; Thelwall, Michael; Barahmand, Nilofar (Elsevier, 2020-02-26)
      Although more than a million academic papers have been posted on Facebook, there is little detailed research about which fields or cross-field issues are involved and whether there are field or public interest relationships between Facebook mentions and future citations. In response, we identified health and biomedical scientific papers mentioned on Facebook and assigned subjects to them using the MeSH and Science Metrix journal classification schema. Multistage adaptive LASSO and unpenalized least-squares regressions were used to model Facebook mentions by fields and MeSH terms. The fields Science and Technology, General and Internal Medicine, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and Sport Sciences produced higher Facebook mention counts than average. However, no MeSH cross-field issue differences were found in the rate of attracting Facebook mentions. The relationship between Facebook mentions and citations varies between both fields and MeSH cross-field issues. General and Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular System and Hematology and Developmental Biology have strongest correlations between Facebook mentions and citations, probably due to high citation rates and high Facebook visibility in these areas.
    • Which image types do universities tweet?

      Stuart, Emma; Thelwall, Mike; Stuart, David (University of Illinois Libraries, 2019-02-18)
      Universities use social media to attract prospective staff, students, and funding; to engage with current students; and to support teaching and learning. Images on social media are becoming particularly dominant, and whilst Twitter is not primarily an image-based social media service, nonetheless 36 percent of links shared on Twitter point to an image. This research paper compares the types of images that universities post on Twitter to the results of previous research that has investigated the types of images that universities post on Instagram, in order to better understand how universities are using the two services for image sharing.The most popular type of image tweeted by universities was showcasing (61 percent), followed by humanizing images (20.9 percent). The dominance of showcasing images on Twitter fits with the notion of Twitter as an information source rather than a networking source, with it predominantly being used as a means of one-way communication with current students to broadcast university-specific information, rather than for attracting prospective staff, students, and funding, or to support teaching and learning.
    • Who shares health and medical scholarly articles on Facebook?

      Thelwall, Michael; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Barahmand, Nilofar (Wiley, 2019-11-26)
      Over a million journal articles had been shared on public Facebook pages by 2017, but little is known about who is sharing (posting links to) these papers and whether mention counts could be an impact indicator. This study classified users who had posted about 749 links on Facebook before October 2017 mentioning 500 medical and health-related research articles, obtained using altmetric.com data. Most accounts (68%) belonged to groups, including online communities, journals, academic organizations, and societies. Of individual profiles, academics accounted for only 4%, but the largest group were health care professionals (16%). More than half (58%) of all Facebook accounts examined were not academic. The non-academic dominance suggests that public Facebook posts linking to health-related articles are mostly used to facilitate scientific knowledge flow between nonacademic professionals and the public. Therefore, Facebook mention counts may be a combined academic and non-academic attention indicator in the health and medical domains.
    • Why does the UK need a Human Taphonomy Facility?

      Williams, Anna; Rogers, Christopher James; Cassella, John (Elsevier, 2019-01-21)
      Human Taphonomy Facilities (HTFs) are outdoor laboratories where scientific research is carried out on donated human cadavers in order to understand how human decomposition progresses in a variety of conditions. There are currently eight such facilities in the USA, one in Australia and one on mainland Europe. Forensic scientists in the UK have started to ask the question ‘Does the UK need a Human Taphonomy Facility?’. A review of the literature produced by the existing HTFs, as well as published opinion and commentaries about these facilities and the feasibility of one in the UK has been undertaken. The existing arguments for and against the establishment of a Human Taphonomy Facility in the UK have been examined. Given recent media interest in the possibility of the establishment of a Human Taphonomy Facility in the UK, and the surrounding controversy, it is important to evaluate the potential benefit or harm of the creation of such a facility to Society and the scientific community.
    • Women at workplace after COVID-19 crisis

      Khan, Asiha; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdalla, Wala (U.K Parliament, 2020-07-21)
      COVID-19 has widely affected the women’s labour market. Semi-structured interviews were used on five professional women across five different companies. These women held varying positions within their companies. Interviewees were asked, “how has COVID-19 affected them and their career and what can the government do to improve this”? The findings reveal that there are two main issues considered beyond COVID-19 in the workplace is the mental health issues of women and childcare facilities when employers provided the option to work from home.
    • Women's views on autologous cell-based therapy for post-obstetric incontinence

      Wright, Bernice; Emmanuel, Anton; Athanasakos, Eleni; Parmar, Nina; Parker, Georgina; Green, Belinda; Tailby, Emma; Chandler, Heidi; Cushnie, Julyette; Pembroke, June; et al. (Future Medicine, 2016-02)
      Aim: Fecal and urinary incontinence are devastating consequences of obstetric-related perineal injury. The aim of the present study is to determine acceptability to parous women of autologous cell-based therapy for fecal and urinary incontinence that arises due to pelvic diaphragm tearing during vaginal childbirth. Materials & methods: A multiple choice questionnaire survey was offered to 76 parous women at the Maternity Unit, University College Hospital, London, UK. Seventy completed questionnaires – response rate: 92%. Results: In total, 84% of women indicated a willingness to accept autologous cell-based therapy for obstetric injury-induced incontinence rather than surgery. Conclusion: These observational data provide an indication of likely acceptance of autologous cell-based therapies for birth injury incontinence and will help with designing new therapeutic approaches.
    • Xylitol: a potential alterative pharmaceutical excipient in the production of pharmaceutical tablets

      Kaialy, Waseem (Annual Research Conference, University of Wolverhampton, 2016)
    • Zeolite L Synthesis using Different Molar Gel Compositions for the Purpose of Minimising Reagent Water.

      Wan, Ya; Williams, Craig D.; Duke, Catherine V. A.; Cox, Jeffrey J. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001)
      A new starting molar gel composition 1.3K2O:Al2O3:6.0SiO2:37H2O containing much less silica, potassium and water than a conventional gel composition has been successfully used for the synthesis of zeolite L with minimum chemical waste. Inductively coupled plasma analysis on the mother liquors showed that conversion of 99.7% for Al, 90.9% for Si and 82.2% for K had been achieved when the new gel composition was used for the synthesis. The zeolite L synthesized from the new gel composition showed a well-defined cylindrical morphology. Zeolite L has also been synthesized from two other modified molar gel compositions 1.5K2O:Al2O3:6.0SiO2:37H2O and 1.9K2O:1.0Al2O3:6.0SiO2:67H2O. The chemical waste associated with those two synthesis gel compositions is also greatly reduced.
    • Zeolite Materials.

      Williams, Craig D. (RSC Press, 2002)
      SYNOPSIS: This book introduces the molecular world, surveys the role and scope of chemistry and illustrates its central role in science and its application to diverse areas, from biological systems to new technology. Co-published by the RSC and the Open University, this series provides an integrated introduction to all branches of chemistry both for students wishing to specialize and those wishing to gain a broad understanding of chemistry and its relevance to the everyday world and to other areas of science. The books, with their case studies and accompanying CD-ROMS, should also provide useful resource material for teachers and lecturers. (The CD-ROMs are designed for use on a PC running Windows 95, 98, ME or 2000.)
    • Zero Augmentation: A method for fitting zero-modified count models that allows both zero-inflation and zero-deflation

      Wilson, Paul; Bowman, Adrian W. (Statistical Modelling Society, 2010-07-05)
      The concept of zero-inflation is now well established, and several software packages exist that fit zero-inflated models. Whilst there is some mention of zero-deflation in the literature, there is very little published evidence of research into zero-modified models that allow for both zero-inflation and zero-deflation within the one model. We present a very simple method that enables the fitting of zero-modified models via any software that fits zero-inflated models, and investigate the benefits of fitting zero-modified models.
    • Zoonotic transfer of clostridium difficile harboring antimicrobial resistance between farm animals and humans

      Knetsch, CW; Kumar, N; Forster, SC; Connor, TR; Browne, HP; Harmanus, C; Sanders, IM; Harris, SR; Turner, L; Morris, T; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2017-12-13)
      The emergence of Clostridium difficile as a significant human diarrheal pathogen is associated with the production of highly transmissible spores and the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors. Unlike the hospital-associated C. difficile RT027 lineage, the community-associated C. difficile RT078 lineage is isolated from both humans and farm animals; however, the geographical population structure and transmission networks remain unknown. Here, we applied whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of 248 C. difficile RT078 strains from 22 countries. Our results demonstrate limited geographical clustering for C. difficile RT078 and extensive coclustering of human and animal strains, thereby revealing a highly linked intercontinental transmission network between humans and animals. Comparative whole-genome analysis reveals indistinguishable accessory genomes between human and animal strains and a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes in the pangenome of C. difficile RT078. Thus, bidirectional spread of C. difficile RT078 between farm animals and humans may represent an unappreciated route disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes between humans and animals. These results highlight the importance of the “One Health” concept to monitor infectious disease emergence and the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes.