• V-MCM-41 as selective catalyst for epoxidation of olefins and trans-2-hexene-1-ol.

      Farzaneh, Farzin; Zamanifar, Elham; Williams, Craig D. (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004)
      Vanadium containing MCM-41(V-MCM-41) was synthesized by one pot synthesis and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The oxidation of olefins such as 1-hexene, cyclohexene, cyclopentene, norbornene and trans-2-hexene-1-ol with tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in the presence of V-MCM-41 as catalyst in different solvents(CH2Cl2, CH3CN, CH3OH·CHCl3) is described. It was found that V-MCM-41 in refluxing CHCl3 was very reactive for epoxidation of trans-2-hexene-1-ol with 52% reactivity and 100% selectivity. Oxidation of trans-2-hexene-1-ol to the corresponding epoxide in the absence of solvent was successfully carried out with the enhancement of reactivity to 94%.
    • Validating the correlation of traffic-associated hydrocarbon and nitrogen dioxide with distance from a trunk road within a rural environment in UK

      Obara, Paul G.; Roberts, CLive L.; Young, Christopher; Williams, Craig D. (Elsevier, 2011)
      This study monitored traffic-associated air pollutants at four sampling sites within the A49 trunk road. Measurements of the gaseous air pollutants were carried out at various distances (roadside, 50m, and 100m) from the A49 trunk road using short term tubes at breathing heights. Data was collected over a 23-month period (June 2008–April 2010). Statistical analyses of hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) show positive r2 and p-values, and suggest seasonal, intra- and inter-site variations in a distance–decay relationship. Higher mean concentrations were obtained within the winter season and near the roadside with a gradual decline with distance from the emission source. However, at some locations with increased vehicular activities, this relationship was altered. Elevated mean concentrations were observed within 50m at Craven Arms (CA 50) and Strefford Road (SR 50); suggesting the influence of traffic on the concentration levels of the contaminants.
    • Validation of epigenetic markers to identify colitis associated cancer: Results of module 1 of the ENDCAP-C study

      Beggs, Andrew D; Mehta, Samir; Deeks, Jonathan J; James, Jonathan D; Caldwell, Germaine M; Dilworth, Mark P; Stockton, Joanne D; Blakeway, Daniel; Pestinger, Valerie; Vince, Alexandra; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-11-22)
      BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammation caused by ulcerative colitis (UC) causes a pro-neoplastic drive in the inflamed colon, leading to a markedly greater risk of invasive malignancy compared to the general population. Despite surveillance protocols, 50% of cases proceed to cancer before neoplasia is detected. The Enhanced Neoplasia Detection and Cancer Prevention in Chronic Colitis (ENDCaP-C) trial is an observational multi-centre test accuracy study to ascertain the role of molecular markers in improving the detection of dysplasia. We aimed to validate previously identified biomarkers of neoplasia in a retrospective cohort and create predictive models for later validation in a prospective cohort. METHODS:A retrospective analysis using bisulphite pyrosequencing of an 11 marker panel (SFRP1, SFRP2, SRP4, SRP5, WIF1, TUBB6, SOX7, APC1A, APC2, MINT1, RUNX3) in samples from 35 patients with cancer, 78 with dysplasia and 343 without neoplasia undergoing surveillance for UC associated neoplasia across 6 medical centres. Predictive models for UC associated cancer/dysplasia were created in the setting of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mucosa. FINDINGS:For neoplastic mucosa a five marker panel (SFRP2, SFRP4, WIF1, APC1A, APC2) was accurate in detecting pre-cancerous and invasive neoplasia (AUC = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.88), and dysplasia (AUC = 0.88; (0.84, 0.91). For non-neoplastic mucosa a four marker panel (APC1A, SFRP4, SFRP5, SOX7) had modest accuracy (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62,0.73) in predicting associated bowel neoplasia through the methylation signature of distant non-neoplastic colonic mucosa. INTERPRETATION:This multiplex methylation marker panel is accurate in the detection of ulcerative colitis associated dysplasia and neoplasia and is currently being validated in a prospective clinical trial. FUNDING:The ENDCAP-C study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme (11/100/29).
    • Valorisation of waste expanded polystyrene in concrete using a novel recycling technique

      Herki, B.A.; Khatib, Jamal M. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-15)
      This study examines the engineering properties of lightweight aggregate concretes (LWACs) incorporating a novel Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)-based lightweight aggregated called Stabilised Polystyrene (SPS). The SPS aggregate was produced by 80% waste EPS, 10% clay and 10% cement. The influence of the increasing incorporation of SPS on the workability, density, compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, drying shrinkage, expansion and water absorption (WA) of the different concretes has been investigated. The results showed that the use of SPS enabled to reduce the density of concrete by 8–52% compared to that of the control concrete. The reduction in density was due to the increase in total porosity in the lightweight concretes (LWCs), which also induced higher WA, drying shrinkage and expansion. The 28-day compressive strength of the LWAC was in the range of 4.6–16.4 MPa; thus, the concrete mixture with the higher performances almost satisfied the mechanical and density criteria of structural LWC. These results show that the utilisation of SPS for the manufacture of LWACs is possible.
    • Variable alterations of the microbiota, without metabolic or immunological change, following faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with chronic pouchitis

      Landy, J; Walker, AW; Li, JV; Al-Hassi, HO; Ronde, E; English, NR; Mann, ER; Bernardo, D; McLaughlin, SD; Parkhill, J; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-08-12)
      Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, where efficacy correlates with changes in microbiota diversity and composition. The effects of FMT on recipient microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain unclear. We assessed the effects of FMT on microbiota composition and function, mucosal immune response, and clinical outcome in patients with chronic pouchitis. Eight patients with chronic pouchitis (current PDAI ‰7) were treated with FMT via nasogastric administration. Clinical activity was assessed before and four weeks following FMT. Faecal coliform antibiotic sensitivities were analysed, and changes in pouch faecal and mucosal microbiota assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. Lamina propria dendritic cell phenotype and cytokine profiles were assessed by flow cytometric analysis and multiplex assay. Following FMT, there were variable shifts in faecal and mucosal microbiota composition and, in some patients, changes in proportional abundance of species suggestive of a 'healthier' pouch microbiota. However, there were no significant FMT-induced metabolic or immunological changes, or beneficial clinical response. Given the lack of clinical response following FMT via a single nasogastric administration our results suggest that FMT/bacteriotherapy for pouchitis patients requires further optimisation.
    • Variation of the performance of a PV panel with the number of bypass diodes and partial shading patterns

      Ibrahim, Haider; Anani, Nader (IEEE, 2019-10-28)
      This paper presents an investigation into the variation of the performance of a PV module under different patterns of partial shading with variation in the number of bypass diodes. The investigation was performed using a MATLAB/Simulink simulation approach, which mitigates the need for complex numerical techniques. The single-diode model of a PV cell was used in the modelling. The performance is assessed in terms of the global maximum power yield and the number of local power peaks in the power-voltage characteristic of the PV module. Results indicate that increasing the number of bypass diodes can improve the energy yield of a module at the expense of increasing the number of local power peaks in the power-voltage curve. It is also found that the latter depends, not only on the pattern of partial shading, but also on its severity.
    • Variations of PV module parameters with irradiance and temperature

      Ibrahim, H; Anani, N (Elsevier, 2017-10-23)
      © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents a comparison of common and well-documented methods for varying the single-diode model parameters extracted at standard test conditions (STC) of a PV module to suit varying operating conditions of irradiance and temperature. To perform such a comparison, accurate values of the single-diode parameters at STC are required. These were obtained using well-established numerical and iterative methods. The Newton-Raphson method was found to be most accurate for obtaining these parameters at STC. Consequently, these parameters were used to compare the methods of varying the single-diode model parameters with temperature and irradiance. MATLAB software has been developed to evaluate the performance of each method using the Shell SQ150 PV module. Results are compared with measured data and discussion of the accuracy of various methods is presented. .
    • Variations under the JCT Standard Form Building Contract

      Ndekugri, Issaka E.; Rycroft, M. (Sweet & Maxwell, 2002)
      Provisions of JCT standard form on variations, including variations allowed, challenging variations and general scheme for valuation of variations, giving guidance on practical implications and how to deal with potential pitfalls.
    • Vegetable fibre degradation in polluted water

      Karri, R.S.; Sarsby, Robert W.; Fullen, Michael A. (Taylor & Francis Group (CRC Press), 2007)
      Over the past 25 years large quantities of vegetative matter (particularly gardening waste) have been deposited in engineered landfills. The fibrous nature of this type of waste initially creates a form of 'soil reinforcement' within the refuse mass. With time the fibres will degrade and the reinforcing effect will be lost and this could have a serious effect on the stability of refuse slopes. Laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the effect of pore water composition on the strength properties of fibrous vegetable matter and individual vegetable fibres. This preliminary assessment of whether the stability of 'as-constructed' landfill slopes is likely to be affected significantly by decomposition of vegetable matter within the refuse was conducted using a 'typical' vegetable fibre.
    • Vegetation diversity on coal mine spoil heaps-how important is the texture of the soil substrate?

      Kompała-Bąba, A; Bierza, W; Błońska, A; Sierka, E; Magurno, F; Chmura, D; Besenyei, L; Radosz, Ł; Woźniak, G (Springer International Publishing, 2019-02-28)
      © 2019, The Author(s). The relationship between the size of the particle fractions of the soil substrate and the diversity of the spontaneously developing vegetation was investigated on coal mine spoil heaps in Upper Silesia (Southern Poland). The analyses were based on 2567 research plots of developed spontaneous vegetation and their associated soil substrate samples collected from 112 coal mine spoil heaps. For each research plot the prevailing particle size fraction was determined (stones, gravel, sand, silt), the species composition and abundance was recorded and the species richness (S), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′), Simpson (C) and Evenness (E) indices were used to determine species diversity. From a total of 119 research plots (in all particle size fraction categories), the values of 15 physicochemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity, water holding capacity, moisture, carbon content, total N, available P, Mg and exchange cations Ca, Mg, K, Na, fine particles (%), gravel (%), stone (%)) were obtained to asses their impact on the floristic composition of vegetation patches using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Additionally, functional traits of the dominant species of each vegetation patch (life forms, life strategies and socio-ecological groups), were selected to analyse their relation to substrate texture. It was shown that the highest species richness and the highest values for Shannon-Wiener diversity index, as well as Simpson and Evenness indices, were obtained in plots formed on stones. Moreover, the greatest variation in the participation of species representing different habitats, life forms, and life strategies was found on gravelly substrates. Contrary to our expectations, the vegetation diversity (in terms of both species and their functional traits) was not highest in habitats with a high composition of fine size particles.
    • The verticillenes. Pivotal intermediates in the biosynthesis of the taxanes and the phomactins

      Palframan, MJ; Pattenden, G; School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. gp@nottingham.ac.uk. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2018-07-06)
      © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Covering: up to May 2018 The verticillene family of 6,12-membered ring-fused diterpenes are found in plants, liverworts, corals and insects. Carbocations derived from verticillene hydrocarbons are central intermediates in the biosynthesis of the taxane and the phomactin families of polycyclic natural products. This perspective delineates these unique biosynthetic interrelationships, which are reinforced by recent biomimetic synthesis investigations, alongside quantum chemical calculations and targeted engineering studies of the taxadiene synthase (TXS) cascade.
    • Vestibular and oculomotor influences on visual dependency

      Roberts, R Edward; Da Silva Melo, Mariane; Siddiqui, Aazim A; Arshad, Qadeer; Patel, Mitesh (American Physiological Society, 2016-09-01)
      The degree to which a person relies on visual stimuli for spatial orientation is termed visual dependency (VD). VD is considered a perceptual trait or cognitive style influenced by psychological factors and mediated by central reweighting of the sensory inputs involved in spatial orientation. VD is often measured with the rod-and-disk test, in which participants align a central rod to the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in the presence of a background that is either stationary or rotating around the line of sight—dynamic SVV. Although this task has been employed to assess VD in health and vestibular disease, what effect torsional nystagmic eye movements may have on individual performance is unknown. Using caloric ear irrigation, 3D video-oculography, and the rod-and-disk test, we show that caloric torsional nystagmus modulates measures of VD and demonstrate that increases in tilt after irrigation are positively correlated with changes in ocular torsional eye movements. When the direction of the slow phase of the torsional eye movement induced by the caloric is congruent with that induced by the rotating visual stimulus, there is a significant increase in tilt. When these two torsional components are in opposition, there is a decrease. These findings show that measures of VD can be influenced by oculomotor responses induced by caloric stimulation. The findings are of significance for clinical studies, as they indicate that VD, which often increases in vestibular disorders, is modulated not only by changes in cognitive style but also by eye movements, in particular nystagmus.
    • Videogame Based Learning and the Problem of Gender Equity: Exemplifying an Androgynous Approach to Developing Computer Science E-Learning Games in Higher Education

      Nte, Sol (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2008)
      Several authors have considered those virtual spaces in which videogames take place as being gendered and videogames themselves as gender specific (e.g. Jenkins, 1999; Subrahmanyam & Greenfield, 1994; Hartmann & Klimmt, 2006). Videogames are often considered to be an entry path into computer literacy for young people (Greenfield & Cocking, 1996; Kiesler et Al. 1985), if this is the case then to some degree first year undergraduate computer literacy is likely to be informed by videogame experiences. Videogames can be considered to be one of the most “engaging intellectual pastimes that we have invented” (Prensky, 2004) which suggests successful videogames as a useful model for developing sound E-Learning applications (Ebner & Holzinger 2007) . However since E-Learning must be careful to avoid gender bias in the presentation of learning resources, any adoption of a videogame development model must undergo a process of “ungendering” wherein game models are analysed in terms of gender equity and suitably corrected. An actively androgynous “games for gamers” not specific genders (Subrahmanyam & Greenfield, 1999) approach is proposed and exemplified to consider how the game developer can avoid producing learning games that have some form of gender bias in the degree to which they are effective. This paper examines the preparatory theoretical work in the development of a pilot study that employs an androgynous software approach to avoid those effects of gendering originating in videogames which can negatively affect games based E-Learning. The analysis is presented from a software development perspective and documents the theoretical considerations that led to the development of the “Class Solitaire” demo - a version of the popular “solitaire” videogame designed to teach java subclassing to first year undergraduates.
    • Visual impairment and ICT: are we magnifying the problem?

      Musgrove, Nick; Homfray, Richard P.; Evans, S.; Sales, A.S.; Hughes, R.; Cooper, N. (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Discusses research on the use of the "twin-monitor" approach both as a teaching tool and as an enabling technology for students with visual impairments.
    • Visualisation of latent fingerprint on wild bird eggshells by alternate light sources following superglue fuming

      Darby, Alison; Rogers, Christopher; Greene, Benjamin; Parry, Eleri; Wray, Elisabeth M.; Yang, Jixin (OMICS Publishing Group, 2015-05-20)
      The theft of the eggs of endangered or protected species of bird, and subsequent reduction in wildlife population, is a significant problem worldwide. Detection rates are comparatively low towards this type of crime and fingerprinting of egg shells is infrequently utilised due to the technical barrier. This paper explores a novel technique using cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming in conjunction with fluorescent dye to visualise latent fingerprints upon avian eggshells assisted with alternate light sources. A systematic investigation of experimental parameters has also been carried out to optimise the condition for the fingerprint visualisation. This research project has successfully developed latent fingerprints upon smooth wild bird eggshells but was less successful on developing prints on more textured, porous eggshells.
    • Visualizing the intercity railway network in Mainland China

      Niu, Fangqu; Li, Jun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of Wolverhampton, UK (Sage, 2018-01-31)
      This study uses an equal population cartogram to plot the intercity railway network in Mainland China.
    • Vitamin A derivatives use in the treatment of skin conditions

      Al-Abadie, Mohammed; Oumeish, Faris; Al-Rubaye, Mohammed; Rafiq, Shahid; Ball, Patrick; Morrissey, Hana (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2020-11-18)
      Retinoids are used to treat various skin diseases. They add valuable impact of when used early in the treatment of dermatological conditions. Overall vitamin A derivatives are underused, with isotretinoin is the most used. This paper aims to develop prescribers’ knowledge about their benefits, to improve their usability and aids in alleviating patient concerns to improve therapeutic outcomes in dermatological conditions. In acne vulgaris, adapalene gel and tretinoin cream showed equal efficacy. In psoriasis the combination of acitretin and PUVA was superior to PUVA alone. Acitretin showed a reduction of 41% in the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and similar efficacy to potent steroids and calcipotriol. In chronic hand eczema, alitretinoin showed 50% improvement in patient’s refractory to steroid treatment. In photoaging and aging, retinoids were shown to increase the synthesis and decrease the degradation rate of collagen and hyaluronate, reducing the impact of aging. In rosacea, topical and systemic isotretinoin showed complete remission in 24% of the patients compared to only 14 % with antibiotics (metronidazole and doxycycline). In lichen planus, isotretinoin demonstrated clinical and histopathological efficacy. In cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, bexarotene used alone or with PUVA or narrow band UVB, showed a response between 80.0% to 84.0%. Lastly in Kaposi sarcoma alitretinoin gel showed superiority to all other agents and better tolerance. This review highlights the benefit of timely use of vitamin A derivatives to encourage wider use.
    • Vitamin D has an aetiological role in dementias; myth or fact ?

      Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Girgis, Eriny; Mishriky, Raafat (International Journal of Development Research, 2020-05-30)
      Vitamin D is produced through the cutaneous transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol by UVB-irradiation with multiple neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions, while regulating calcium-mediated neuronal excitotoxicity. Vitamin D acts mainly through binding to intracellular Vitamin D receptor (VDR) with a possible involvement of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP). This is a review of evidence for the aetiological role of vitamin D in dementias and other neurological disorders. There is contradictory evidence regarding vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of dementia progression. Adding vitamin D to the standard medications used in dementia may have a future role in dementia management. Key words: Vitamin D; Dementia; Aetiology; Memantine; Dementia Medications; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Vitamin D Receptor; Neurological Disorders
    • Vitamin D: pharmacology and clinical challenges in oral health care

      Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Girgis, Eriny (FDI World Dental Press Ltd., 2019-07-01)
      Vitamin D is a hormone, produced endogenously through cutaneous transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol by UVB-irradiation with skeletal and non-skeletal functions and could be involved in oral health conditions especially periodontitis. Vitamin D main mechanism of action occurs through binding to its intracellular receptor. In this article, we aim to review the beneficial role of vitamin D in dentistry. Articles related to vitamin D and oral health were screened and reviewed with the main findings and clinical implications presented. Vitamin D deficiency prevalence is high especially among the elderly and is associated with oral health complications such as periodontitis with a possible role of vitamin D supplementation in oral health conditions’ management. The review discusses the main findings as although the majority of the literature demonstrates vitamin D essential role, some research suggest excess vitamin D supplementation could lead to other health issues. Thus, further research is needed to define vitamin D target levels and establish effective strategies for managing patients suffering from oral health conditions especially periodontitis. Improving the knowledge of dental practitioners, periodontologists and pharmacists regarding vitamin D deficiency implications in oral health conditions could guide the management of oral conditions especially periodontitis.
    • Volcano eruption algorithm for solving optimization problems

      Hosseini, Eghbal; Al-Shakarchi, Ali; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Rawat, Danda B; Saif, Mehrdad; Yang, Xinan (Springer Nature, 2020-06-30)
      Meta-heuristic algorithms have been proposed to solve several optimization problems in different research areas due to their unique attractive features. Traditionally, heuristic approaches are designed separately for discrete and continuous problems. This paper leverages the meta-heuristic algorithm for solving NP-hard problems in both continuous and discrete optimization fields, such as nonlinear and multi-level programming problems through extensive simulations of volcano eruption process. In particular, a new optimization solution named Volcano Eruption Algorithm (VEA) proposed in this paper, which is inspired from the nature of volcano eruption. The feasibility and efficiency of the algorithm are evaluated using numerical results obtained through several test problems reported in the state-of-theart literature. Based on the solutions and number of required iterations, we observed that the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm performs remarkably well to solve NP-hard problem. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm is applied to solve some large-size benchmarking LP and Internet of Vehicles (IoV) problems efficiently.