• Rabbit syndrome: update on aetiology and management for pharmacists, psychiatrists and dentists

      Reyad, Ayman Antoun; Girgis, Eriny; Mishriky, Raafat (Journalcmpr, 2019-03-28)
      Rabbit syndrome (RS) is an involuntary movement disorder, characterized by fast and fine movements of oral and masticatory muscles along the mouth vertical axis in the absence of tongue involvement. RS prevalence varies between 2.3% to 4.4% and could result from the administration of antipsychotics and antidepressants. In case of second generation antipsychotics, there is a reduced risk of RS compared with first generation antipsychotics with mainly isolated literature case reports especially with the use of risperidone as antipsychotic. RS affects only the buccal region, with the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, in particular the substantia nigra. The management of RS include reduction or change of the psychotropic treatment and use of anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl. Although RS is rare and easily treatable, it is essential that dentists and psychiatrists could distinguish this syndrome from other movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia.
    • Rainfall simulator study of the erosion control potential of palm geotextiles for mine dam slope stabilization

      Bühmann, C.,; Paterson, G.; Pienaar, G.M.E.; Nell, J.P.; Mulibana, N.E.; van Deventer, P.W.; Fullen, Michael A.; Subedi, Madhu; Sarsby, Robert W. (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      Mining has been the backbone of the South African economy since the late 19th century. Large volumes of mine waste, such as tailings, have been generated in some areas. Mine waste is highly susceptible to both water and wind erosion, it may create moderate to severe chemical imbalances or toxicities and has a severe abrasive effect on seedlings, a low water-holding capacity and is prone to compaction and crusting. Biogeotextiles are potentially effective and economically-viable erosion control products. The main objective of the study reported herein was to establish the erosion control properties of palm-mats by determining erosion-related variables via rainfall simulation. The textiles were manufactured from the leaves of the Lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) and covered about 40% of the tailing surface. Ten representative samples of South African mine waste materials were collected for the rainfall simulator studies. Measured erosion parameters included; runoff, sediment load in runoff and interrill erodibility. Seven samples were sand-textured and three were silty. Sediment load was not dependent on exchangeable sodium or organic matter contents, but prominently associated with pH, silt percentage and the quartz content in the clay fraction. When the samples were covered with palm-mats the amount of runoff was similar to that of bare materials, but sediment yield was reduced by about 55%. These results confirm the suitability of palm geotextiles for erosion control on tailing dam slopes.
    • Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment

      Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Murphy, Ashley M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M. (Wiley, 2017-08-18)
      Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer‐only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers.
    • Rapid aquaporin translocation regulates cellular water flow: Mechanism of hypotonicity-induced subcellular localization of aquaporin 1 water channel

      Conner, MT; Conner, AC; Bland, CE; Taylor, LHJ; Brown, JEP; Parri, HR; Bill, RM; School of Life & Health Sciences and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom. (American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2012-02-09)
      The control of cellular water flow is mediated by the aquaporin (AQP) family of membrane proteins. The structural features of the family and the mechanism of selective water passage through the AQP pore are established, but there remains a gap in our knowledge of how water transport is regulated. Two broad possibilities exist. One is controlling the passage of water through the AQP pore, but this only has been observed as a phenomenon in some plant and microbial AQPs. An alternative is controlling the number of AQPs in the cell membrane. Here, we describe a novel pathway in mammalian cells whereby a hypotonic stimulus directly induces intracellular calcium elevations through transient receptor potential channels, which trigger AQP1 translocation. This translocation, which has a direct role in cell volume regulation, occurs within 30 s and is dependent on calmodulin activation and phosphorylation of AQP1 at two threonine residues by protein kinase C. This direct mechanism provides a rationale for the changes in water transport that are required in response to constantly changing local cellular water availability. Moreover, because calcium is a pluripotent and ubiquitous second messenger in biological systems, the discovery of its role in the regulation of AQP translocation has ramifications for diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes, as well as providing an explanation for the rapid regulation of water flow that is necessary for cell homeostasis. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    • Rapid Manufacturing of Metal Components by Laser Forming

      Santos, Edson Costa; Shiomia, Masanari; Osakada, Kozo; Laoui, Tahar (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006)
      This overview will focus on the direct fabrication of metal components by using laser-forming techniques in a layer-by-layer fashion. The main driving force of rapid prototyping (RP) or layer manufacturing techniques changed from fabrication of prototypes to rapid tooling (RT) and rapid manufacturing (RM). Nowadays, the direct fabrication of functional or structural end-use products made by layer manufacturing methods, i.e. RM, is the main trend. The present paper reports on the various research efforts deployed in the past decade or so towards the manufacture of metal components by different laser processing methods (e.g. selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and 3-D laser cladding) and different commercial machines (e.g. Sinterstation, EOSINT, TrumaForm, MCP, LUMEX 25, Lasform). The materials and applications suitable to RM of metal parts by these techniques are also discussed.
    • Rapid, regioselective living ring-opening metathesis polymerization of bio-derivable asymmetric tricyclic oxanorbornenes

      Naguib, Mohamed; Schiller, Tara L.; Keddie, Daniel J.; Polymer and Pigments Department; National Research Centre; Cairo 12622 Egypt; International Institute for Nanocomposites Manufacturing (IINM); WMG; University of Warwick; Coventry CV4 7AL UK; School of Biology; Chemistry and Forensic Science; Faculty of Science and Engineering; University of Wolverhampton; Wulfruna Street Wolverhampton WV1 1LY UK (Wiley, 2018-01-15)
      The synthesis of a range of alkyl esters (methyl, n-butyl, and n-decyl) prepared via Steglich esterification of the thermodynamically controlled exo, exo Diels–Alder adduct of furfuryl alcohol and maleic anhydride is reported. Subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of these bio-derivable tricyclic oxanorbornene analogs delivers polymers with targeted molar mass and low molar mass dispersity. The polymerizations are rapid with complete monomer conversion achieved within 15 min. Significantly, the presence of the cyclic lactone at the bridgehead of these monomers leads to polymers with high regioregularity (>85% head-to-tail) and high stereoregularity (>75% trans). The resultant polymers display both high thermal stability and high glass transition temperatures. This new class of oxanorbornene monomer, accessed from bio-derivable furfuryl alcohol and maleic anhydride, may be further tailored to incorporate a range of functional moieties. Furthermore, the exceptional properties of the derived polymers indicate potential in a range of applications.
    • Re-examination of Hemidactylus tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895: Populations from Timor provide insight into the taxonomy of the H. brookii Gray, 1845 complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

      KATHRINER, ANDREW; O’SHEA, MARK; KAISER, HINRICH (Magnolia Press, 2014-11-27)
      Recent herpetofaunal investigations in Timor-Leste revealed populations similar to Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1845 in four of 13 districts. In order to properly identify these populations, we examined their relationships to other H. brookiicomplex populations, notably those from nearby Roti Island, Indonesia (to which the name H. tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895 has been applied) and topotypic Bornean samples. We evaluated both meristic and mensural data from a set of specimens that included the type material of H. brookii and H. tenkatei, and we generated nuclear (RAG1) and mitochondrial(ND2) DNA sequence data for Timor-Leste specimens and a topotypical Bornean specimen presumed to represent H. brookii sensu stricto. Morphologically, Timorese geckos are clearly distinct from H. brookii and identical to H. tenkatei. Our molecular data show that the Bornean specimen thought to be H. brookii is genetically congruent with Timor-Leste specimens, and this specimen is therefore identified as H. tenkatei. Our data also reveal that the Burmese species H. subtriedroides Annandale, 1905 is distinct from both H. tenkatei and H. brookii. While the current data do not allow us to determine with certainty whether H. tenkatei is the oldest available name for these widespread forms, it is the only name that can be reliably applied at this time.
    • Re: consumers report value of Glucosamine for rheumatoid arthritis

      Sanders, Marcus; Ball, Patrick A.; Morrissey, Hana; School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Health, Science and the Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, 2017-08-29)
    • Real-Estate Resource Control: Policy Incentives and Investment for Development

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi (RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      Real estate investments are increasingly seen as the cornerstone for prosperity and stable economies in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for real estates to play this role effectively depends on the scale of real estate investment opportunities that exists in the society in question. These investment opportunities at any rate depend on the nature of government policies that regulates real estate markets and the general investment environment. The African policy environments that have given birth to the current regime of real estate policies in Africa are highly monopolised. These have led ultimately to real estate policies that have vested in respective government’s enormous control over real estate resources. The broadly skewed real estate resource control configurations that have emerged as a result are definitely generating perverse investment incentives. These policies are difficult to remove because of the incentives they offer and the costs of doing so. It is unlikely that even well meaning governments would succeed in reforming them in any definable way. Perhaps the most plausible way to get round this albatross would be to employ incentives/disincentives of development aid conditionalities to compel these governments to hand back controls of these real estate resources to the market and private sector so that the distortions of the past policies can be corrected. (RICS)
    • Real-Time Refocusing using an FPGA-based Standard Plenoptic Camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljevic, Vladan (IEEE, 2018-03-22)
      Plenoptic cameras are receiving increasing attention in scientific and commercial applications because they capture the entire structure of light in a scene, enabling optical transforms (such as focusing) to be applied computationally after the fact, rather than once and for all at the time a picture is taken. In many settings, real-time interactive performance is also desired, which in turn requires significant computational power due to the large amount of data required to represent a plenoptic image. Although GPUs have been shown to provide acceptable performance for real-time plenoptic rendering, their cost and power requirements make them prohibitive for embedded uses (such as in-camera). On the other hand, the computation to accomplish plenoptic rendering is well-structured, suggesting the use of specialized hardware. Accordingly, this paper presents an array of switch-driven Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, implemented with FPGA to accomplish high-throughput spatial-domain rendering. The proposed architecture provides a power-efficient rendering hardware design suitable for full-video applications as required in broadcasting or cinematography. A benchmark assessment of the proposed hardware implementation shows that real-time performance can readily be achieved, with one order of magnitude performance improvement over a GPU implementation and three orders of magnitude performance improvement over a general-purpose CPU implementation.
    • Real-time traffic event detection using Twitter data

      Jones, Angelica Salas; Georgakis, Panagiotis; Petalas, Yannis; Suresh, Renukappa; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom (ICE Publishing, 2018-04-13)
      Incident detection is an important component of intelligent transport systems and plays a key role in urban traffic management and provision of traveller information services. Due to its importance, a wide number of researchers have developed different algorithms for real-time incident detection. However, the main limitation of existing techniques is that they do not work well in conditions where random factors could influence traffic flows. Twitter is a valuable source of information as its users post events as they happen or shortly after. Therefore, Twitter data have been used to predict a wide variety of real-time outcomes. This paper aims to present a methodology for a real-time traffic event detection using Twitter. Tweets are obtained through the Twitter streaming application programming interface in real time with a geolocation filter. Then, the author used natural language processing techniques to process the tweets before they are fed into a text classification algorithm that identifies if it is traffic related or not. The authors implemented their methodology in the West Midlands region in the UK and obtained an overall accuracy of 92·86%.
    • Recent advances and applications of bacterial cellulose in biomedicine

      Swingler, Sam; Gupta, Abhishek; Gibson, Hazel; Kowalczuk, Marek; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Radecka, Iza (MDPI AG, 2021-01-28)
      Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an extracellular polymer produced by Komagateibacter xylinus, which has been shown to possess a multitude of properties, which makes it innately useful as a next-generation biopolymer. The structure of BC is comprised of glucose monomer units polymerised by cellulose synthase in β-1-4 glucan chains which form uniaxially orientated BC fibril bundles which measure 3–8 nm in diameter. BC is chemically identical to vegetal cellulose. However, when BC is compared with other natural or synthetic analogues, it shows a much higher performance in biomedical applications, potable treatment, nano-filters and functional applications. The main reason for this superiority is due to the high level of chemical purity, nano-fibrillar matrix and crystallinity. Upon using BC as a carrier or scaffold with other materials, unique and novel characteristics can be observed, which are all relatable to the features of BC. These properties, which include high tensile strength, high water holding capabilities and microfibrillar matrices, coupled with the overall physicochemical assets of bacterial cellulose makes it an ideal candidate for further scientific research into biopolymer development. This review thoroughly explores several areas in which BC is being investigated, ranging from biomedical applications to electronic applications, with a focus on the use as a next-generation wound dressing. The purpose of this review is to consolidate and discuss the most recent advancements in the applications of bacterial cellulose, primarily in biomedicine, but also in biotechnology.
    • Recent advances in district energy systems: a review

      Mahmoud, Montaser; Ramadan, Mohamad; Naher, Sumsun; Pullen, Keith; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-08-08)
      World energy consumption has increased significantly in the last decade and for this reason several energy management strategies are currently under investigation to accommodate this high demand. In this frame, the current paper presents a review of the advances of district systems (DSs) which offers a contribution to the mission to reduce the environmental and economic impact of energy consumption. The aim of the study is to examine the potential of these systems and their ability to cope with the requirements of energy demands. Additionally, the paper reviews several optimization strategies including poly-generation, cogeneration and energy storage that could be adopted to upgrade the performance of DSs. Furthermore, the paper discusses the main obstacles facing the development of this domain and proposes some suggestions to encourage adoption of the district approach.
    • Receptivity to freestream acoustic noise in hypersonic flow over a generic forebody

      Cerminara, Adriano; Durant, Antoine; André, Thierry; Sandham, Neil D; Taylor, Nigel J (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), 2018-11-12)
      Direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations have been performed to investigate the receptivity and breakdown mechanisms in a Mach 6 flow over a generic forebody geometry with freestream acoustic disturbances. The simulations are based on transition experiments carried out in April 2015 in the Boeing/U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research Mach 6 facility at Purdue University. A three-dimensional model for both fast and slow freestream acoustic waves with multiple frequencies and spanwise wave numbers has been adopted in the numerical simulations, for which high-amplitude disturbances have been considered in order to simulate noisy wind-tunnel conditions. The numerical results revealed similarities in comparison to the experimental observations, especially when slow acoustic waves were considered as freestream disturbances. In particular, slow acoustic waves have been found to induce the breakdown process via crossflow instabilities located in the off-centerline region, with formation of streamwise streaks. Fast acoustic waves, in contrast, appeared more efficient in inducing earlier nonlinear growth through destabilization of the boundary layer along the symmetry plane of the body.
    • Recursive Interest Management For Online Games

      Kumar, Pawan; Mehdi, Qasim (The University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2006)
      Performance and scalability in multi-player online games and distributed simulators mainly depends on the effectiveness of the deployed interest management schemes. These schemes aim at providing messagefiltering mechanisms that reduces the communication overheads. However, in order to do so, they incur computational costs that are quite significant and are not suitable for scalable real time systems. In this paper, a recursive algorithm for interest management is presented that can be applied for systems that use multi-dimensional routing spaces for interest management. The algorithm’s simulation shows that it is more efficient and scalable than existing approaches.
    • Redefining ICT embeddedness in the construction industry: Maximising technology diffusion capabilities to support agility

      Goulding, Jack; Arif, Mohammed; Ezcan, Volkan (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-27)
      Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) research often engages linear approaches for embedding/implementing/diffusing new technology into existing business systems and processes. However, developments in information and communication technology (ICT) often fail to deliver their full potential for a number of reasons. This paper presents these challenges and highlights the need to embrace equifinality as part of a structured approach for improving impact diffusion. The central tenet and foci of this work rests with the optimisation of AEC business agility. Given this, a multiple case study approach using three large construction organisations (in Turkey) was used to capture primary data from 30 respondents – representing viewpoints from three management levels: Top Management, Middle Management and First Line Management. Findings are presented in the form of a conceptual framework, the details of which highlight the constructs needed [inter alia ICT adoption/diffusion] to develop organisational: i) responsiveness, ii) flexibility and iii) corporate competence.
    • Rediscovery of the Endangered Carchi Andean Toad, Rhaebo colomai (Hoogmoed, 1985), in Ecuador, with comments on its conservation status and extinction risk

      Reyes-Puig, Carolina; Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B.; Torres-Sánchez, María; Wilkinson, Mark; Streicher, Jeffrey W.; Maddock, Simon T; Kotharambath, Ramachandran; Müller, Hendrick; Angiolani Larrea, Francesca Nicole; Almeida-Reinoso, Diego; et al. (Pensoft Publishers, 2019-05-24)
      Since 1984 there have been no records of Rhaebo colomai (Hoogmoed, 1985) within the territory of Ecuador. This species was known from 2 localities in the province of Carchi, northwestern Ecuador, and the department of Nariño, southwestern Colombia, which were reported in 1979 and 2015, respectively. We report the recent sightings of R. colomai at 3 new localities in Ecuador and discuss and evaluate this species’ extinction risk and conservation status.
    • Rediscovery of the rare Star Mountains worm-eating Snake, Toxicocalamus ernstmayri O'Shea et al., 2015 (Serpentes: Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) with the description of its coloration in life

      O'Shea, Mark; Herlihy, Brian; Paivu, Blaise; Parker, Fred; Richards, Stephen J; Kaiser, Hinrich (www.amphibiand-reptile-conservation.org, 2018-06-18)
      A series of photographs of the recently described Star Mountains Worm-eating Snake, Toxicocalamus ernstmayri O’Shea et al., 2015, taken at the Ok Tedi Mine in the Star Mountains, North Fly District, Western Province, Papua New Guinea, represents only the second record of this poorly-known species. Toxicocalamus ernstmayri was hitherto only known from its holotype, collected in December 1969 at the village of Wangbin approximately 13.2 km ESE of the photo locality. The Ok Tedi snake was observed and photographed during the day in October 2015 as it moved across a section of active mine workings, before retreating into dense montane rainforest. This series of photographs constitutes the first sighting of this snake in 45 years and the first sighting of a living animal, providing evidence of the species’ continued existence in an area of considerable environmental and demographic changes brought about by human development. These images also provide evidence of its startling coloration in life.
    • Reduced expression of PMCA1 is associated with increased blood pressure with age which is preceded by remodeling of resistance arteries

      Little, Robert; Zi, Min; Hammad, Sally K; Nguyen, Loan; Njegic, Alexandra; Kurusamy, Sathishkumar; Prehar, Sukhpal; Armesilla, Angel Luis; Neyses, Ludwig; Austin, Clare; et al. (Wiley, 2017-08-09)
      Hypertension is a well-established risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events and older age is a risk factor for the development of hypertension. Genome wide association studies have linked ATP2B1, the gene for the plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1 (PMCA1), to blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Here we present the effects of reduction in the expression of PMCA1 on BP and small artery structure and function when combined with advancing age. Heterozygous PMCA1 null mice (PMCA1Ht) were generated and conscious BP was measured at 6 to 18 months of age. Passive and active properties of isolated small mesenteric arteries were examined by pressure myography. PMCA1Ht mice exhibited normal BP at 6 and 9 months of age but developed significantly elevated BP when compared to age matched wild type controls at ≥ 12 months of age. Decreased lumen diameter, increased wall thickness and increased wall:lumen ratio was observed in small mesenteric arteries from animals 9 months of age and older, indicative of eutrophic remodeling. Increases in mesenteric artery intrinsic tone and global intracellular calcium were evident in animals at both 6 and 18 months of age. Thus, decreased expression of PMCA1 is associated with increased BP when combined with advancing age. Changes in arterial structure precede the elevation of BP. Pathways involving PMCA1 may be a novel target for BP regulation in the elderly.
    • Reduction of shadow band synthesis during PCR amplification of repetitive sequences from modern and ancient DNA

      Schmerer, WM; Paleo DNA Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, Lakehead University, Thunderbay, Ontario, Canada. (Humana Press, 2003-01-01)
      Repetitive sequences like short tandem repeat (STR) loci are generally referred to as slippery DNA (1). They owe this nickname to a characteristic leading to slippage within the primer-template complex during PCR elongation of the new strand (2,3), resulting in the synthesis of byproducts shortened by one repeat unit compared with the original sequence. The generation of these so-called shadow bands (4) is a well-known problem connected with the amplification of repetitive DNA, complicating the genotype analysis of modern (e.g., ref. 5), forensic (6), and ancient (7,8) specimens. In some applications, the occurrence of this artifact makes it necessary to develop guidelines for allele designation (6,9).