• Quality control perspectives during mass production with a focus on the chemical industry

      Oduoza, Chike; Akdogun, Anil; Vanli, Ali Sendar (InTechOpen, 2020-03-11)
      Mass production was part of the industrial revolution in 1870 and, with it, a huge step change in manufacturing processes. Its impact was ground breaking and became even more remarkable with automation in a business production environment. The chemical industry is one of the manufacturing sectors that has benefited from the technology of mass production achieved through automating the business process. In this era of industry 4.0 and with the associated advanced technologies of smart manufacturing, cloud computing, cyber physical systems and internet of things, mass production has been revolutionised but still faced issues such as quality control of the production process which was affected by supply chain management, customised production of commodity and specialty chemicals and huge demand from other chemical industry manufacturers. This chapter has reviewed the evolution of mass production during traditional manufacturing to the present day and carried out a risk assessment to quality of production in a mass production environment with a view to recommending adequate quality control of the production process. The chapter also included a case study for mass production of a pharmaceutical drug—Amoxicillin which was partly batch produced into dry powder and then mass produced using tableting and encapsulating machine, highlighting sources of contamination and inconsistency in tablet weight if adequate control measures were not put in place.
    • Quality of life assessment using heath related quality of life in affected CKDu individuals; concept paper

      Aslam, Fahim; Rilwan, Rizkha; Weerasinghe, Chathuri (Medwin Publishers, 2020-11-25)
      Pandemics over the years have been a constant threat towards mankind, the most recent COVID-19 outbreak is no exception to this. With the emerging demand of treating the outbreak, majority of the frontline workers have been assigned towards helping out the COVID-19 affected patients leaving the others behind. However, over time several healthcare practitioners have been using alternative forms of patient assessment tools. Heath Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of the commonly used tools that have been widely used across Europe and America, using these, patients can self-evaluate their own conditions without requiring the assistance of a doctor. This paper focuses provides a conceptual framework that can be followed for quality of life assessment in chronic kidney patients using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) questionnaire.
    • Quantisation feasibility and performance of RSS-based secret key extraction in VANETs

      Bottarelli, Mirko; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Kbaier Ben Ismail, Dhouha; Karadimas, Petros; Al-Khateeb, Haider (IEEE, 2018-06-12)
      Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) has emerged as a unique implementation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). These networks promise to increase road safety and improve the driving experience by exploiting recent advances in wireless technologies for both intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle communications. Physical layer security is a promising alternative approach to secure communication in VANETs where physical and applications’ constraints encourage the use of lightweight and fast cryptographic algorithms. Our work focuses on the quantisation stage of the secret generation process, by reviewing existing schemes in the public domain and associated performance metrics. Evaluations are done through simulation with the aid of a wireless channel model which includes three-dimensional scattering and scatterers’ mobility. Preliminary findings show that RSS-based algorithms do not perform efficiently in the proposed vehicular stochastic wireless model. Hence they are not able to satisfy the typical low latency required in safetyrelated broadcasting messaging. We conclude that more research is desirable to design protocols capable of taking advantage from the nodes’ high-mobility and the consequent variability of both coherence intervals and level crossing rates, to further improve secret bit extraction throughput.
    • Quantitative analysis of malondialdehyde-guanine adducts in genomic DNA samples by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

      Yates, Sally A; Dempster, Nicola M; Murphy, Mark F; Moore, Sharon A (Wiley, 2017-04-16)
      The lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde forms M1 dG adducts with guanine bases in genomic DNA. The analysis of these adducts is important as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and inflammation which may be linked to disease risk or exposure to a range of chemicals.
    • Quantum optics: A new way to correlate photons

      Laussy, Fabrice (Springer Nature, 2017-03-29)
      Resonance fluorescence from a semiconductor quantum dot unravels a rich two-photon landscape of correlations, and may be used to test their quantum nonlocality.
    • Quasi-static, impact and energy absorption of internally nested tubes subjected to lateral loading

      Baroutaji, A; Gilchrist, MD; Olabi, AG (Elsevier BV, 2015-10-20)
      © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents the responses of nested tube systems under quasi-static and dynamic lateral loading. Nested systems in the form of short internally stacked tubes were proposed as energy absorbing structures for applications that have limited crush zones. Three configurations of nested tube systems were experimentally analysed in this paper. The crush behaviour and energy absorbing responses of these systems under various loading conditions were presented and discussed. It was found that the quasi-static and dynamic responses of the nested systems were comparable under an experimental velocity of v=4.5 m/sec. This is due to insignificant strain rate and inertia effects of the nested systems under the applied velocity. The performance indicators, which describe the effectiveness of energy absorbing systems, were calculated to compare the various nested systems and the best system was identified. Furthermore, the effects of geometrical and loading parameters on the responses of the best nested tube system were explored via performing parametric analysis. The parametric study was performed using validated finite element models. The outcome of this parametric study was full detailed design guidelines for such nested tube energy absorbing structures.
    • Quasichiral interactions between quantum emitters at the nanoscale

      Downing, Charles; López Carreño, Juan Camilo; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Valle, Elena del; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio (American Physical Society, 2019-02-07)
      We present a combined classical and quantum electrodynamics description of the coupling between two circularly polarized quantum emitters held above a metal surface supporting surface plasmons. Depending on their position and their natural frequency, the emitter-emitter interactions evolve from being reciprocal to nonreciprocal, which makes the system a highly tunable platform for chiral coupling at the nanoscale. By relaxing the stringent material and geometrical constraints for chirality, we explore the interplay between coherent and dissipative coupling mechanisms in the system. Thus, we reveal a quasichiral regime in which its quantum optical properties are governed by its subradiant state, giving rise to extremely sharp spectral features and strong photon correlations.
    • Rabbit syndrome: update on aetiology and management for pharmacists, psychiatrists and dentists

      Reyad, Ayman Antoun; Girgis, Eriny; Mishriky, Raafat (Journalcmpr, 2019-03-28)
      Rabbit syndrome (RS) is an involuntary movement disorder, characterized by fast and fine movements of oral and masticatory muscles along the mouth vertical axis in the absence of tongue involvement. RS prevalence varies between 2.3% to 4.4% and could result from the administration of antipsychotics and antidepressants. In case of second generation antipsychotics, there is a reduced risk of RS compared with first generation antipsychotics with mainly isolated literature case reports especially with the use of risperidone as antipsychotic. RS affects only the buccal region, with the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, in particular the substantia nigra. The management of RS include reduction or change of the psychotropic treatment and use of anticholinergic medications such as trihexyphenidyl. Although RS is rare and easily treatable, it is essential that dentists and psychiatrists could distinguish this syndrome from other movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia.
    • Rainfall simulator study of the erosion control potential of palm geotextiles for mine dam slope stabilization

      Bühmann, C.,; Paterson, G.; Pienaar, G.M.E.; Nell, J.P.; Mulibana, N.E.; van Deventer, P.W.; Fullen, Michael A.; Subedi, Madhu; Sarsby, Robert W. (CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2010)
      Mining has been the backbone of the South African economy since the late 19th century. Large volumes of mine waste, such as tailings, have been generated in some areas. Mine waste is highly susceptible to both water and wind erosion, it may create moderate to severe chemical imbalances or toxicities and has a severe abrasive effect on seedlings, a low water-holding capacity and is prone to compaction and crusting. Biogeotextiles are potentially effective and economically-viable erosion control products. The main objective of the study reported herein was to establish the erosion control properties of palm-mats by determining erosion-related variables via rainfall simulation. The textiles were manufactured from the leaves of the Lala palm (Hyphaene coriacea) and covered about 40% of the tailing surface. Ten representative samples of South African mine waste materials were collected for the rainfall simulator studies. Measured erosion parameters included; runoff, sediment load in runoff and interrill erodibility. Seven samples were sand-textured and three were silty. Sediment load was not dependent on exchangeable sodium or organic matter contents, but prominently associated with pH, silt percentage and the quartz content in the clay fraction. When the samples were covered with palm-mats the amount of runoff was similar to that of bare materials, but sediment yield was reduced by about 55%. These results confirm the suitability of palm geotextiles for erosion control on tailing dam slopes.
    • Rank acquisition in rhesus macaque yearlings following permanent maternal separation: The importance of the social and physical environment

      Wooddell, Lauren J.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Murphy, Ashley M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Dettmer, Amanda M. (Wiley, 2017-08-18)
      Rank acquisition is a developmental milestone for young primates, but the processes by which primate yearlings attain social rank in the absence of the mother remain unclear. We studied 18 maternally reared yearling rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that differed in their social and physical rearing environments. We found that early social experience and maternal rank, but not individual traits (weight, sex, age), predicted dominance acquisition in the new peer‐only social group. Yearlings also used coalitions to reinforce the hierarchy, and social affiliation (play and grooming) was likely a product, rather than a determinant, of rank acquisition. Following relocation to a familiar environment, significant rank changes occurred indicating that familiarity with a physical environment was salient in rank acquisition. Our results add to the growing body of literature emphasizing the role of the social and physical environment on behavioral development, namely social asymmetries among peers.
    • Rapid aquaporin translocation regulates cellular water flow: Mechanism of hypotonicity-induced subcellular localization of aquaporin 1 water channel

      Conner, MT; Conner, AC; Bland, CE; Taylor, LHJ; Brown, JEP; Parri, HR; Bill, RM; School of Life & Health Sciences and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom. (American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2012-02-09)
      The control of cellular water flow is mediated by the aquaporin (AQP) family of membrane proteins. The structural features of the family and the mechanism of selective water passage through the AQP pore are established, but there remains a gap in our knowledge of how water transport is regulated. Two broad possibilities exist. One is controlling the passage of water through the AQP pore, but this only has been observed as a phenomenon in some plant and microbial AQPs. An alternative is controlling the number of AQPs in the cell membrane. Here, we describe a novel pathway in mammalian cells whereby a hypotonic stimulus directly induces intracellular calcium elevations through transient receptor potential channels, which trigger AQP1 translocation. This translocation, which has a direct role in cell volume regulation, occurs within 30 s and is dependent on calmodulin activation and phosphorylation of AQP1 at two threonine residues by protein kinase C. This direct mechanism provides a rationale for the changes in water transport that are required in response to constantly changing local cellular water availability. Moreover, because calcium is a pluripotent and ubiquitous second messenger in biological systems, the discovery of its role in the regulation of AQP translocation has ramifications for diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes, as well as providing an explanation for the rapid regulation of water flow that is necessary for cell homeostasis. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
    • Rapid Manufacturing of Metal Components by Laser Forming

      Santos, Edson Costa; Shiomia, Masanari; Osakada, Kozo; Laoui, Tahar (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006)
      This overview will focus on the direct fabrication of metal components by using laser-forming techniques in a layer-by-layer fashion. The main driving force of rapid prototyping (RP) or layer manufacturing techniques changed from fabrication of prototypes to rapid tooling (RT) and rapid manufacturing (RM). Nowadays, the direct fabrication of functional or structural end-use products made by layer manufacturing methods, i.e. RM, is the main trend. The present paper reports on the various research efforts deployed in the past decade or so towards the manufacture of metal components by different laser processing methods (e.g. selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and 3-D laser cladding) and different commercial machines (e.g. Sinterstation, EOSINT, TrumaForm, MCP, LUMEX 25, Lasform). The materials and applications suitable to RM of metal parts by these techniques are also discussed.
    • Rapid, regioselective living ring-opening metathesis polymerization of bio-derivable asymmetric tricyclic oxanorbornenes

      Naguib, Mohamed; Schiller, Tara L.; Keddie, Daniel J.; Polymer and Pigments Department; National Research Centre; Cairo 12622 Egypt; International Institute for Nanocomposites Manufacturing (IINM); WMG; University of Warwick; Coventry CV4 7AL UK; School of Biology; Chemistry and Forensic Science; Faculty of Science and Engineering; University of Wolverhampton; Wulfruna Street Wolverhampton WV1 1LY UK (Wiley, 2018-01-15)
      The synthesis of a range of alkyl esters (methyl, n-butyl, and n-decyl) prepared via Steglich esterification of the thermodynamically controlled exo, exo Diels–Alder adduct of furfuryl alcohol and maleic anhydride is reported. Subsequent ring-opening metathesis polymerization of these bio-derivable tricyclic oxanorbornene analogs delivers polymers with targeted molar mass and low molar mass dispersity. The polymerizations are rapid with complete monomer conversion achieved within 15 min. Significantly, the presence of the cyclic lactone at the bridgehead of these monomers leads to polymers with high regioregularity (>85% head-to-tail) and high stereoregularity (>75% trans). The resultant polymers display both high thermal stability and high glass transition temperatures. This new class of oxanorbornene monomer, accessed from bio-derivable furfuryl alcohol and maleic anhydride, may be further tailored to incorporate a range of functional moieties. Furthermore, the exceptional properties of the derived polymers indicate potential in a range of applications.
    • Re-examination of Hemidactylus tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895: Populations from Timor provide insight into the taxonomy of the H. brookii Gray, 1845 complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

      KATHRINER, ANDREW; O’SHEA, MARK; KAISER, HINRICH (Magnolia Press, 2014-11-27)
      Recent herpetofaunal investigations in Timor-Leste revealed populations similar to Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1845 in four of 13 districts. In order to properly identify these populations, we examined their relationships to other H. brookiicomplex populations, notably those from nearby Roti Island, Indonesia (to which the name H. tenkatei van Lidth de Jeude, 1895 has been applied) and topotypic Bornean samples. We evaluated both meristic and mensural data from a set of specimens that included the type material of H. brookii and H. tenkatei, and we generated nuclear (RAG1) and mitochondrial(ND2) DNA sequence data for Timor-Leste specimens and a topotypical Bornean specimen presumed to represent H. brookii sensu stricto. Morphologically, Timorese geckos are clearly distinct from H. brookii and identical to H. tenkatei. Our molecular data show that the Bornean specimen thought to be H. brookii is genetically congruent with Timor-Leste specimens, and this specimen is therefore identified as H. tenkatei. Our data also reveal that the Burmese species H. subtriedroides Annandale, 1905 is distinct from both H. tenkatei and H. brookii. While the current data do not allow us to determine with certainty whether H. tenkatei is the oldest available name for these widespread forms, it is the only name that can be reliably applied at this time.
    • Re: consumers report value of Glucosamine for rheumatoid arthritis

      Sanders, Marcus; Ball, Patrick A.; Morrissey, Hana; School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Health, Science and the Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers, 2017-08-29)
    • Real-Estate Resource Control: Policy Incentives and Investment for Development

      Hammond, Felix Nikoi (RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors), 2006)
      Real estate investments are increasingly seen as the cornerstone for prosperity and stable economies in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for real estates to play this role effectively depends on the scale of real estate investment opportunities that exists in the society in question. These investment opportunities at any rate depend on the nature of government policies that regulates real estate markets and the general investment environment. The African policy environments that have given birth to the current regime of real estate policies in Africa are highly monopolised. These have led ultimately to real estate policies that have vested in respective government’s enormous control over real estate resources. The broadly skewed real estate resource control configurations that have emerged as a result are definitely generating perverse investment incentives. These policies are difficult to remove because of the incentives they offer and the costs of doing so. It is unlikely that even well meaning governments would succeed in reforming them in any definable way. Perhaps the most plausible way to get round this albatross would be to employ incentives/disincentives of development aid conditionalities to compel these governments to hand back controls of these real estate resources to the market and private sector so that the distortions of the past policies can be corrected. (RICS)
    • Real-Time Refocusing using an FPGA-based Standard Plenoptic Camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljevic, Vladan (IEEE, 2018-03-22)
      Plenoptic cameras are receiving increasing attention in scientific and commercial applications because they capture the entire structure of light in a scene, enabling optical transforms (such as focusing) to be applied computationally after the fact, rather than once and for all at the time a picture is taken. In many settings, real-time interactive performance is also desired, which in turn requires significant computational power due to the large amount of data required to represent a plenoptic image. Although GPUs have been shown to provide acceptable performance for real-time plenoptic rendering, their cost and power requirements make them prohibitive for embedded uses (such as in-camera). On the other hand, the computation to accomplish plenoptic rendering is well-structured, suggesting the use of specialized hardware. Accordingly, this paper presents an array of switch-driven Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, implemented with FPGA to accomplish high-throughput spatial-domain rendering. The proposed architecture provides a power-efficient rendering hardware design suitable for full-video applications as required in broadcasting or cinematography. A benchmark assessment of the proposed hardware implementation shows that real-time performance can readily be achieved, with one order of magnitude performance improvement over a GPU implementation and three orders of magnitude performance improvement over a general-purpose CPU implementation.
    • Real-time traffic event detection using Twitter data

      Jones, Angelica Salas; Georgakis, Panagiotis; Petalas, Yannis; Suresh, Renukappa; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom (ICE Publishing, 2018-04-13)
      Incident detection is an important component of intelligent transport systems and plays a key role in urban traffic management and provision of traveller information services. Due to its importance, a wide number of researchers have developed different algorithms for real-time incident detection. However, the main limitation of existing techniques is that they do not work well in conditions where random factors could influence traffic flows. Twitter is a valuable source of information as its users post events as they happen or shortly after. Therefore, Twitter data have been used to predict a wide variety of real-time outcomes. This paper aims to present a methodology for a real-time traffic event detection using Twitter. Tweets are obtained through the Twitter streaming application programming interface in real time with a geolocation filter. Then, the author used natural language processing techniques to process the tweets before they are fed into a text classification algorithm that identifies if it is traffic related or not. The authors implemented their methodology in the West Midlands region in the UK and obtained an overall accuracy of 92·86%.