• Parameter estimation of the fractional-order Hammerstein–Wiener model using simplified refined instrumental variable fractional-order continuous time

      Allafi, Walid; Zajic, Ivan; Uddin, Kotub; Burnham, Keith J. (The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2017-07-05)
      This study proposes a direct parameter estimation approach from observed input–output data of a stochastic single-input–single-output fractional-order continuous-time Hammerstein–Wiener model by extending a well known iterative simplified refined instrumental variable method. The method is an extension of the simplified refined instrumental variable method developed for the linear fractional-order continuous-time system, denoted. The advantage of this novel extension, compared with published methods, is that the static output non-linearity of the Wiener model part does not need to be invertible. The input and output static non-linear functions are represented by a sum of the known basis functions. The proposed approach estimates the parameters of the linear fractional-order continuous-time subsystem and the input and output static non-linear functions from the sampled input–output data by considering the system to be a multi-input–single-output linear fractional-order continuous-time model. These extra inputs represent the basis functions of the static input and output non-linearity, where the output basis functions are simulated according to the previous estimates of the fractional-order linear subsystem and the static input non-linear function at every iteration. It is also possible to estimate the classical integer-order model counterparts as a special case. Subsequently, the proposed extension to the simplified refined instrumental variable method is considered in the classical integer-order continuous-time Hammerstein–Wiener case. In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation analysis is applied for demonstrating the performance of the proposed approach to estimate the parameters of a fractional-order Hammerstein–Wiener output model.
    • Parametric optimisation of high-velocity oxy-fuel nickel-chromium-silicon-boron and aluminium-oxide coating to improve erosion wear resistance

      Praveen, Ayyappan Susila; Arjunan, Arun (IOP Publishing, 2019-07-17)
      Nickel (Ni) based alloy coatings are gaining momentum due to its superior mechanical properties contributed by the dispersion of hard carbides and borides, which is substantially influenced by the processing technique. Accordingly, this work investigates High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying of Nickel-Chromium-Silicon-Boron (NiCrSiB) and Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) at a 60:40 (wt%) ratio on AISI304 stainless steel substrate. The influence of HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen, fuel, and powder feed rate in addition to standoff distance on the erosion resistance was studied. The parametric model identified the rate of powder feed and standoff distance as the two most significant parameters affecting the erosion behaviour. The optimum parametric values for oxygen, fuel and powder feed rate was identified as 260 lpm, 65 lpm and 28 g min−1 respectively at a standoff distance of 250 mm for the highest wear resistance. The results of this study show that that NiCrSiB-Al2O3 HVOF coating features a ductile erosion behaviour and offers 1.6 times more wear resistance at a 90° impact angle in comparison to 30°.
    • Parametric, equilibrium, and kinetic study of the removal of salt ions from Ghanaian seawater by adsorption onto zeolite X

      Kwakye-Awuah, Bright; Von-Kiti, Elizabeth; Nkrumah, Isaac; Erdoo Ikyreve, Rose; Radecka, Iza; Williams, C. (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-05)
    • Parent-carer education: reducing the risks for neonatal and infant mortality

      Pillay, Thillagavathie; Chubarova, Antonina (IntechOpen, 2019-01-21)
      In this chapter, the role of engaging parents, family members, partners, significant others and carers (subsequently referred to as parent-carers) as key partners in targeted strategies for reducing the risks associated with neonatal mortality is discussed, especially within the context of less resource-constrained environments. Parent-carer education, sharing information on regionally prevalent risk factors and associations with death in the first 28 days of life and in infancy, can be potentially impactful and could drive behavioural changes, while promoting acquisition of newer life-saving skills such as basic life support training. Such education can be considered participatory learning and action. It affords parent-carers the confidence and knowledge on measures to key risks in infancy, such as the risk of sudden infant death, and how to recognize when their baby may be ill, facilitating timely access to appropriate healthcare services. Potentially, these then empower parent-carers to work with health services proactively in measures to reduce the risks for neonatal mortality.
    • Parenteral provision of micronutrients to adult patients: an expert consensus paper

      Blaauw, Renée; Osland, Emma; Krishnan, Sriram; Ali, Azmat; Allard, Johane P.; Ball, Patrick; Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Jurewitsch, Brian; Coughlin, Kathleen Logan; Manzanares, William; et al. (Wiley, 2019-02-27)
      Background:Micronutrients, an umbrella term used to collectively describe vitamins and trace elements, are essential componentsof nutrition. Those requiring alternative forms of nutrition support are dependent on the prescribed nutrition regimen for theirmicronutrient provision. The purpose of this paper is to assist clinicians to bridge the gap between the available guidelines’recommendations and their practical application in the provision of micronutrients via the parenteral route to adult patients.Methods:Based on the available evidenced-based literature and existing guidelines, a panel of multidisciplinary healthcareprofessionals with significant experience in the provision of parenteral nutrition (PN) and intravenous micronutrients developedthis international consensus paper.Results:The paper addresses 14 clinically relevant questions regarding the importance and use ofmicronutrients in various clinical conditions. Practical orientation on how micronutrients should be prescribed, administered, andmonitored is provided.Conclusion:Micronutrients are a critical component to nutrition provision and PN provided without thempose a considerable risk to nutrition status. Obstacles to their daily provision—including voluntary omission, partial provision, andsupply issues—must be overcome to allow safe and responsible nutrition practice.
    • Parenteral provision of micronutrients to pediatric patients: an international expert consensus paper

      Hardy, Gil; Wong, Theodoric; Morrissey, Hana; Anderson, Collin; Moltu, Sissel J; Poindexter, Brenda; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Ball, Patrick A; Ipanema Research Trust, Auckland, New Zealand. (Wiley, 2020-08-07)
      INTRODUCTION:Micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) are essential to all nutrition. For children and neonates who are dependent upon nutrition support therapies for growth and development, the prescribed regimen must supply all essential components. This paper aims to facilitate interpretation of existing clinical guidelines into practical approaches for the provision of micronutrients in pediatric parenteral nutrition. METHODS:An international, interdisciplinary expert panel was convened to review recent evidence-based guidelines and published literature to develop consensus- based recommendation on practical micronutrient provision in pediatric parenteral nutrition. RESULTS:The guidelines and evidence have been interpreted as answers to 10 commonly asked questions around the practical principles for provision and monitoring of micronutrients in pediatric patients CONCLUSION: Micronutrients are an essential part of all parenteral nutrition and should be included in the pediatric nutrition therapy care plan.
    • Pathways of association between maternal haemoglobin and stillbirth: Path-analysis of maternity data from two hospitals in England

      Nair, Manisha; Knight, Marian; Robinson, Susan; Nelson-Piercy, Cathy; Stanworth, Simon J; Churchill, David; National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (NPEU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. (BMJ, 2018-04-07)
      © 2018 Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article). Objective To investigate the mechanisms that link maternal haemoglobin concentration with stillbirth. Design A retrospective cohort analysis using anonymised maternity data from two hospitals in England. Setting The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust. Study population 12 636 women with singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks of gestation giving birth in the two hospitals during 2013-2015. Method A conceptual framework of hypothesised pathways through birth weight-for-gestational age and maternal infection including potential confounders and other risk factors was developed and examined using path-analysis. Path-analysis was performed by fitting a set of regression equations using weighted least squares adjusted for mean and variance. Goodness-of-fit indices were estimated. Main outcome measures Coefficient of association (β) for relationship between each parameter, and direct, indirect and total effects via the postulated pathways. Results The path-model showed a significant adjusted indirect negative effect of maternal haemoglobin on stillbirth mediated via birth weight-for-gestational age (standardised estimate (SE)=-0.01; 95% CI=-0.01 to-0.001; P=0.028). The effect through maternal infection was not significant at P<0.05 (SE=0.001; 95% CI=-0.004 to 0.01; P=0.610). There was a residual direct negative effect of maternal haemoglobin on stillbirth (SE=-0.12; 95% CI-0.23 to-0.02; P=0.020) after accounting for the two pathways. Total indirect SE=-0.004; 95% CI-0.01 to 0.003; P=0.267; total direct and indirect SE=-0.13; 95% CI-0.23 to-0.02; P=0.016. The goodness-of-fit indices showed a good fit between the model and the data. Conclusion While some of the influence on risk of stillbirth acts through low birth weight-for-gestational age, the majority does not. Several new mechanisms have been suggested for how haemoglobin may be exerting its influence on the risk of stillbirth possibly involving genetic, epigenetic and/or alternative obstetric and nutritional pathologies, but much more research is needed.
    • Patients with chronic dizziness following traumatic head injury typically have multiple diagnoses involving combined peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction

      Arshad, Qadeer; Roberts, Ed; Ahmad, Hena; Lobo, Rhannon; Patel, Mitesh; Ham, Timothy; Sharp, David J.; Seemungal, Barry M. (Elsevier, 2017-02-07)
      Objective We hypothesised that chronic vestibular symptoms (CVS) of imbalance and dizziness post-traumatic head injury (THI) may relate to: (i) the occurrence of multiple simultaneous vestibular diagnoses including both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction in individual patients increasing the chance of missed diagnoses and suboptimal treatment; (ii) an impaired response to vestibular rehabilitation since the central mechanisms that mediate rehabilitation related brain plasticity may themselves be disrupted. Methods We report the results of a retrospective analysis of both the comprehensive clinical and vestibular laboratory testing of 20 consecutive THI patients with prominent and persisting vestibular symptoms still present at least 6 months post THI. Results Individual THI patients typically had multiple vestibular diagnoses and unique to this group of vestibular patients, often displayed both peripheral and central vestibular dysfunction. Despite expert neuro-otological management, at two years 20% of patients still had persisting vestibular symptoms. Conclusion In summary, chronic vestibular dysfunction in THI could relate to: (i) the presence of multiple vestibular diagnoses, increasing the risk of ‘missed’ vestibular diagnoses leading to persisting symptoms; (ii) the impact of brain trauma which may impair brain plasticity mediated repair mechanisms. Apart from alerting physicians to the potential for multiple vestibular diagnoses in THI, future work to identify the specific deficits in brain function mediating poor recovery from post-THI vestibular dysfunction could provide the rationale for developing new therapy for head injury patients whose vestibular symptoms are resistant to treatment.
    • Patients with gastrointestinal irritability after TGN1412-induced cytokine 2 storm displayed selective expansion of gut-homing αβ and γδ T-cells

      McCarthy, Neil; Stagg, Andrew; Price, Claire; Mann, Elizabeth; Gellatly, Nichola; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Knight, Stella; Panoskaltsis, Nicki (Springer Nature, 2020-10-13)
      Following infusion of the anti-CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody TGN1412, three of six previously healthy, young male recipients developed gastrointestinal irritability associated with increased expression of ‘gut-homing’ integrin β7 on peripheral blood αβT-cells. This subset of patients with intestinal symptoms also displayed a striking and persistent expansion of putative Vδ2+ 7 γδT-cells in the circulation which declined over a two-year period following drug infusion, concordant with subsiding gut symptoms. These data demonstrate that TGN1412-induced gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with dysregulation of the ‘gut-homing’ pool of blood αβ and γδT11 cells, induced directly by the antibody and/or arising from the subsequent cytokine storm.
    • PDBe: improved findability of macromolecularstructure data in the PDB

      Clark, Alice; Armstrong, David; Berrisford, John; Conroy, Matthew; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Anyango, Stephen; Choudhary, Preeti; Dana, Jose; Haslam, Pauline; Koca, Jaroslav; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2019-11-06)
      The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), a founding member of the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB), actively participates in the deposition, curation, validation, archiving and dissemination of macromolecular structure data. PDBe supports diverse research communities in their use of macromolecular structures by enriching the PDB data and by providing advanced tools and services for effective data access, visualization and analysis. This paper details the enrichment of data at PDBe, including mapping of RNA structures to Rfam, and identification of molecules that act as cofactors. PDBe has developed an advanced search facility with ∼100 data categories and sequence searches. New features have been included in the LiteMol viewer at PDBe, with updated visualization of carbohydrates and nucleic acids. Small molecules are now mapped more extensively to external databases and their visual representation has been enhanced. These advances help users to more easily find and interpret macromolecular structure data in order to solve scientific problems.
    • PDBe: towards reusable data delivery infrastructure at protein data bank in Europe

      Mir, Saqib; Alhroub, Younes; Anyango, Stephen; Armstrong, David R; Berrisford, John M; Clark, Alice R; Conroy, Matthew J; Dana, Jose M; Deshpande, Mandar; Gupta, Deepti; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2017-11-06)
      The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe, pdbe.org) is actively engaged in the deposition, annotation, remediation, enrichment and dissemination of macromolecular structure data. This paper describes new developments and improvements at PDBe addressing three challenging areas: data enrichment, data dissemination and functional reusability. New features of the PDBe Web site are discussed, including a context dependent menu providing links to raw experimental data and improved presentation of structures solved by hybrid methods. The paper also summarizes the features of the LiteMol suite, which is a set of services enabling fast and interactive 3D visualization of structures, with associated experimental maps, annotations and quality assessment information. We introduce a library of Web components which can be easily reused to port data and functionality available at PDBe to other services. We also introduce updates to the SIFTS resource which maps PDB data to other bioinformatics resources, and the PDBe REST API.
    • Pedodiversity of three experimental stations in Estonia

      Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia; Fullen, Michael A. (Elsevier, 2016-05-20)
      The soil cover composition and properties of three experimental stations of Estonia - Jõgeva (JEA), Kuusiku (KEA) and Olustvere (OEA) - were analysed in detail (by soil type subdivisions - species and varieties) in relation to soil forming ecology and land management practices. The arable soil covers' pedodiversity and taxonomical conversion of Estonian Soil Classification into the World Reference Base for Soil Resources system were analysed on the basis of seven arable land parcels. The soil cover of JEA was relatively homogenous by soil species. The soil cover of KEA was much more heterogeneous, with five contrasting soil species in terms of soil genesis and with four stages in soil moisture regimes. OEA's soil cover consisted predominantly from Glossic Retisols with topsoils' texture - sandy loam. The texture of JEA is predominantly loamy and has, therefore, optimal agronomical properties. The texture of OEA is of a lower quality, by approximately one stage. The texture of KEA varies considerably (from sand to loam). Clay-rich textures are absent in all three EAs. In terms of soil species and properties, JEA is a representative of Central Estonian, OEA of South Estonian and KEA of North Estonian pedo-ecological conditions. All three field experimental areas are representative of the arable soils of the eastern part of the North European plain. The detailed research on soil cover is a good base for further researches on soils' humus and agrochemical status, productivity and suitability for crops, and for the evaluation of soils' environmental protection ability.
    • Peer marking of formative assignments

      Coleman, Iain (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      A first year module within the Biomedical Sciences Module portfolio, BM1119 Human Physiology serves as a core module to introduce students to the key concepts of this discipline as a prelude to later more advanced studies in physiology. As part of the delivery of the topic, students are required to undertake four items of practical work in Human Physiology, which serve to address practical skills in human physiological investigation as well as to underpin theoretical content of the module. Of these four items, the first exercise is assessed formatively and the remaining three are assessed summatively, thereby contributing to the module assessment. The current practice is that all work is marked by the staff. The module has a heterogenous population of approximately 200 students. In consequence, there is heavy workload on staff, which slows turnaround time and delays important feedback to students. This compounds the problem of students over-exaggerating the value of the practical report in this module and spending excessive amounts of time on the practical report to the detriment (in the module team’s view) of other work on the module. This project sought to improve feedback on practical reports by enhancing the students’ comprehension of the assessment process and the feedback applied to an assignment. Improvement in subsequent practical reports was one anticipated and immediate consequence of the project. A secondary outcome was an overall improvement in module overall pass rate. Saving of staff time and acceleration of turnaround time were also anticipated.
    • PEMFC poly-generation systems: developments, merits, and challenges

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Robinson, John; Wilberforce, Tabbi; Abdelkareem, Mohammad Ali; Olabi, Abdul Ghani (MDPI, 2021-10-22)
      Significant research efforts are directed towards finding new ways to reduce the cost, increase efficiency, and decrease the environmental impact of power-generation systems. The poly-generation concept is a promising strategy that enables the development of a sustainable power system. Over the past few years, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell-based Poly-Generation Systems (PEMFC-PGSs) have received accelerated developments due to the low-temperature operation, high efficiency, and low environmental impact. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main PEMFC-PGSs, including Combined Heat and Power (CHP) co-generation systems, Combined Cooling and Power (CCP) co-generation systems, Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power (CCHP) tri-generation systems, and Combined Water and Power (CWP) co-generation systems. First, the main technologies used in PEMFC-PGSs, such as those related to hydrogen production, energy storage, and Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), etc., are detailed. Then, the research progresses on the economic, energy, and environmental performance of the different PEMFC-PGSs are presented. Also, the recent commercialization activities on these systems are highlighted focusing on the leading countries in this field. Furthermore, the remaining economic and technical obstacles of these systems along with the future research directions to mitigate them are discussed. The review reveals the potential of the PEMFC-PGS in securing a sustainable future of the power systems. However, many economic and technical issues, particularly those related to high cost and degradation rate, still need to be addressed before unlocking the full benefits of such systems.
    • Perception of university students on gender issues in the industry

      Suresh, Subashini; Abdul Aziz, Amal Hj; Stride, Mark; Hampton, Paul; Renukappa, Suresh (Springer, 2019-11-29)
      The UK construction industry is currently suffering from a skills shortage. There are many reasons and issues that surround this, however Office of National Statistics data shows only 13% of the construction industry is employed by females. This research study will discuss the perception of the construction industry by students studying construction subjects. The research within this study involved literature review and 12 qualitative interviews. The results revealed that there are campaigns to encourage women to join the constructions industry however there is still a stigma attached that the industry is scarred by discrimination harassment, pay equality and stereo typing that are deterring females from offering greater diversity, new ideas and a solution to the skills shortage from joining the industry. On this basis, a culture change and new legislation clearing up the major issues within the construction industry needs to be completed prior to remarketing the image of the industry campaigning enabling females to join the sector
    • Perforated steel stud to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John (MDPI, 2021-11-09)
      Steel studs are an inevitable part of drywall construction as they are lightweight and offer the required structural stability. However, the studs act as sound bridges between the plasterboards, reducing the overall sound insulation of the wall. Overcoming this often calls for wider cavity walls and complex stud decoupling fixtures that increase the installation cost while reducing the floor area. As an alternative approach, this research reveals the potential of perforated studs to improve the acoustic insulation of drywall partitions. The acoustic and structural performance is characterized using a validated finite element model that acted as a prediction tool in reducing the number of physical tests required. The results established that an acoustic numerical model featuring fluid-structure-interaction can predict the weighted sound reduction index of a stud wall assembly at an accuracy of ±1 dB. The model was used to analyze six perforated stud designs and found them to outperform the sound insulation of non-perforated drywall partitions by reducing the sound bridging. Overall, the best performing perforated stud design was found to offer improvements in acoustic insulation of up to 4 dB, while being structurally compliant.
    • Performance evaluation of analytical methods for parameters extraction of photovoltaic generators

      Anani, Nader; Ibrahim, Haider (MDPI AG, 2020-09-15)
      This paper presents a succinct exploration of several analytical methods for extracting the parameters of the single-diode model (SDM) of a photovoltaic (PV) module under standard test conditions (STC). The paper investigates six methods and presents the detailed mathematical analysis leading to the development of each method. To evaluate the performance of these methods, MATLAB-based software has been devised and deployed to generate the results of each method when used to extract the SDM parameters of various PV test modules of different PV technologies. Similar software has also been developed to extract the same parameters using well-established numerical and iterative techniques. A comparison is subsequently made between the synthesized results and those obtained using numerical and iterative methods. The comparison indicates that although analytical methods may involve a significant amount of approximations, their accuracy can be comparable to that of their numerical and iterative counterparts, with the added advantage of a significant reduction in computational complexity, and without the initialization and convergence difficulties, which are normally associated with numerical methods.
    • Performance measurement of the upgraded Microcab-H4 with academic drive cycle

      Rais, Luthfi; Fisher, Peter; Dhir, Aman; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert (Communications in Science and Technology, 2016-05-31)
      The original Microcab-H4, a hybrid fuel cell car, was tested with Academic drive cycle. After several years, the car was upgraded and tested with the ECE 15 drive cycle. The result showed the car has higher energy efficiency. However, the result could not be compared to the original car due to different drive cycle test. This research was done to measure the performance and energy efficiency of the Upgraded Microcab-H4 with Academic drive cycle. The measure of car energy efficiency was done through four tests: Run on battery, run on battery and Ballard fuel cell, and run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cell. The energy efficiency was calculated based on the hydrogen consumption after 5 cycles. The lowest energy efficiency was run on battery and Ballard fuel cell with (1.01 km/MJ). The highest energy efficiency was run on battery, Ballard, and Horizon fuel cells (1.10 km/MJ), which is higher than previous tests.