• N-Carbamate protected amino acid derived guanidine organocatalysts

      Al-Taie, Zahraa S; Anderson, Joseph M; Bischoff, Laura; Christensen, Jeppe; Coles, Simon J; Froom, Richard; Gibbard, Mari E; Jones, Leigh F; de Kleijne, FFJ; Murphy, Patrick J; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-04-02)
      We report the preparation of a range of N-protected amino acid derived guanidine organocatalysts and their application to the Michael addition of 2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone to β-nitrostyrene, achieving a maximum ee of 26%. Whilst these catalysts gave poor ees, the structural variation together with the X-ray crystallographic study of the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding reported suggest that the C2-symmetric catalyst are lead compounds for the further development of this methodology.
    • Nanocrystalline Mg2Ni for hydrogen storage

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Ramadan, Mohamad; Alaswad, Abed; Achour, Hussam; Abdelkareem, Mohammad A; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-12-14)
      Hydrogen continues to receive increased attention as the most promising energy carrier enabling sustainable and eco-friendly energy systems. Despite the various advantages of hydrogen fuel, storing hydrogen in a light-weight and compact form is the barrier towards the commercialization of the hydrogen technologies. Thus, the availability of a reliable, inexpensive, safe and efficient hydrogen storage technology is crucial to support and foster the transition to a hydrogen-powered world. Among the possible hydrogen storage solutions, storing hydrogen in the solid-state, such as metal hydrides, is the safest and most attractive method for on-board hydrogen storage. The metal hydrides can release highly pure hydrogen, via a low-pressure endothermic process, suitable to be used directly in the hydrogen fuel cell devices. This article presents an overview of using Mg and Mg2Ni-based alloys for solid-state hydrogen storage. A review of the hydrogen storage technologies is presented first and then the most recent developments on Mg and Mg2Ni-based hydrogen storage materials are highlighted.
    • Nanomaterials theory and applications

      Govindaraman, Loganathan T; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Ramadan, Mohamad; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2021-06-01)
      The behavior of matter at the nanoscale alters material properties in comparison to their bulk counterparts. Overall, materials at the nano-range demonstrate modified physical behaviors that offer favorable mechanical, thermodynamic, magnetic, optical, and biomedical properties for a range of applications. As such nanomaterials have their prominence in most scientific domains due to their ability to generate varied responses suitable for specific requirements. However, the implementation of nanomaterials in each situation requires a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the base materials, control parameters, and methods of fabrication. This paper introduces nanomaterials, their classification and measurement techniques followed by synthesis methods, common properties, applications, and prospects.
    • Natural and unnatural-parity contributions in electron-impact ionization of laser-aligned atoms

      Murray, A J; Colgan, J; Madison, D; Harvey, M; Sakaamini, A; Pursehouse, J; Nixon, Kate; Stauffer, A (IOP Publishing, 2017-11-30)
      Differential cross section measurements from laser-aligned Mg atoms are compared to theoretical calculations using both time dependent and time-independent formalisms. It is found that both natural and unnatural parity contributions to the calculated cross sections are required to emulate the data when the state is aligned out of the scattering plane.
    • The need for multi-LOD 4D simulations in construction projects

      Butkovic, Bogdan; Heesom, David; Oloke, David (Kungliga Tenkniska Hoegskolan/Royal Institute of Technology, 2019-06-30)
      The increasing application of BIM processes and technologies has facilitated an increase in the use of 4D (3D+Time) simulations of construction projects. Previous research has acknowledged the benefit of 4D models in the project planning and construction phases enhancing communication between construction teams and avoiding unforeseen conflicts during the build process. The development of BIM has spurred a deeper understanding of the issues surrounding Level of Development, Level of Information (LOI) and Level of Detail (LOD) pertaining to the graphical detail and non-graphical information of the static geometric design model. However, to date there is limited research thoroughly investigating the issue of LOD within 4D applications. This work presents an ongoing study to derive a framework for the development of more dynamic 4D simulations incorporating discrete forms of LOD. Level of graphical detail (LODg) corresponds to the graphical detail of the model geometry and also the ‘granularity’ of the geometry required for dynamic 4D production, whilst the temporal level of detail (LODti) relates to time period required between state changes in the model during the simulation. In order to support the development of the framework, an industry-based survey was conducted to assess the application of 4D, subsequent issues and use cases around levels of graphical and temporal details to improve dynamic 4D simulations. The work concludes with the development of a framework and schematic to support the specification of the LOD of a 4D simulation (LOD4d) throughout the various phases of a construction project.
    • Negative-mass effects in spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

      Colas, David; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Davis, Matthew J. (APS, 2018-07-31)
      Negative effective masses can be realized by engineering the dispersion relation of a variety of quantum systems. A recent experiment with spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates has shown that a negative effective mass can halt the free expansion of the condensate and lead to fringes in the density [M. A. Khamehchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 155301 (2017)]. Here, we show that the underlying cause of these observations is the self-interference of the wave packet that arises when only one of the two effective mass parameters that characterize the dispersion of the system is negative. We show that spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates may access regimes where both mass parameters controlling the propagation and diffusion of the condensate are negative, which leads to the novel phenomenon of counterpropagating self-interfering packets.
    • Negotiating Responsibility for Project Change in Collaborative Working Environments

      Ndekugri, Issaka E.; Cheung, S. O. (Lexington, VA: Washington & Lee Law School, 2005)
      Disputes from project cost escalation and delays have exercised the attention of construction management researchers for a long time. Several developments suggest research towards development of conceptual and practical tools for negotiating away informal differences before they escalate into formal disputes requiring litigation or arbitration. Of these developments, the most pressing drive for negotiation is the increased use of procurement strategies requiring the stakeholders to work in collaboration. This article reviews the literature on negotiation of variations and claims. The findings of this review are that: (i) there is very little literature on the negotiation of variations and claims which resonates with general negotiation theories; and (ii) there is a need for research on negotiations models and tools which will reflect the volume of information scattered across different documents prepared for purposes other than negotiation and the multiplicity of relevant issues and stakeholders.
    • Neonatal ethics and the ANNP: Providing high quality practical support for neonatal intensive care teams

      Pillay, Thillagavathie; Kent, Sarah; McMahon, Robin (Elsevier, 2020-11-10)
    • Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

      Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; et al. (Nature, 2016-06-14)
      In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency.
    • Neonatal imitation predicts infant rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) social and anxiety-related behaviours at one year

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Paukner, Annika; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F. (Nature, 2016-10-11)
      The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns’ capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life. We then collected data on infants’ social interactions (aggression, grooming, and play) and self-scratching (a proxy indicator of anxiety) at 11–14 months when infants were transferred into a new enclosure with a large social group. Our results show that neonatal imitators exhibit more dominant behaviours, are less anxious, and, for males only, spend more time in play at one year old. These findings suggest that neonatal imitation may be an early predictor of infant sociality and may help identify infants at risk of neurodevelopmental social deficits.
    • Network Aware Composition for Internet of Thing Services

      Galadima Shehu, Umar; Ali Safdar, Ghazanfar; Epiphaniou, Gregory (2015-02-28)
      To enhance the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) philosophy for the internet, research into IoT service composition has gathered momentum. In a distributed IoT environment, identifying IoT service among a set of similar service offerings that meets both functional and performance requirements of an IoT application has become important. However, the performance of a service cannot be guaranteed. Therefore service’s QoS and network characteristics are required to aggregate IoT services. Most existing composition approaches only consider non-network related QoS properties at the application tier. However they do not consider the network parameters such as network latency at the application level in selection and composition of services. Therefore we propose two evolutionary algorithms for IoT service composition that consider not only QoS but also network latency at the IoT application layer. The algorithms are discussed and results of evaluation are presented. The results indicate that our algorithms are efficient in finding QoS optimal and low latency solutions.
    • A new algorithm for zero-modified models applied to citation counts

      Shahmandi Hounejani, Marzieh; Wilson, Paul; Thelwall, Michael (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2019-08-31)
      Finding statistical models for citation count data is important for those seeking to understand the citing process or when using regression to identify factors that associate with citation rates. As sets of citation counts often include more or less zeros (uncited articles) than would be expected under the base distribution, it is essential to deal appropriately with them. This article proposes a new algorithm to fit zero-modified versions of discretised log-normal, hooked power-law and Weibull models to citation count data from 23 different Scopus categories from 2012. The new algorithm allows the standard errors of all parameter estimates to be calculated, and hence also confidence intervals and p-values. This algorithm can also estimate negative zero-modification parameters corresponding to zero-deflation (fewer uncited articles than expected). The results find no universal best model for the 23 categories and a given dataset may be zero-inflated relative to one model, but zero-deflated relative to another
    • A new algorithm for zero-modified models applied to citation counts

      Shahmandi, Marzieh; Wilson, Paul; Thelwall, Michael (Springer Nature, 2020-08-17)
      Finding statistical models for citation count data is important for those seeking to understand the citing process or when using regression to identify factors that associate with citation rates. As sets of citation counts often include more or less zeros (uncited articles) than would be expected under the base distribution, it is essential to deal appropriately with them. This article proposes a new algorithm to fit zero-modified versions of discretised lognormal, hooked power-law and Weibull models to citation count data from 23 different Scopus categories from 2012. The new algorithm allows the standard errors of all parameter estimates to be calculated, and hence also confidence intervals and p-values. This algorithm can also estimate negative zero-modification parameters corresponding to zero-deflation (fewer uncited articles than expected). The results find no universal best model for the 23 categories. A given dataset may be zero-inflated relative to one model, but zero-deflated relative to another. We suggest circumstances in which one of the models under consideration may be the best fitting model.
    • A new biology of cell penetrating peptides

      Howl, John; Jones, Sarah (Wiley, 2020-03-05)
      As pharmacokinetic modifiers, cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have proven utility for the delivery of otherwise impermeable cargoes into the discrete intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. Methods for the molecular optimisation of CPP sequences can significantly increase the performance of novel vectors matched to a specific delivery function. Moreover, the ‘information rich’ composition and inherent molecular flexibility of many CPPs can also facilitate their interaction with intracellular proteins and other cellular structures. This proteomimetic property of CPPs has been exploited in the design of bioportides, bioactive CPPs that regulate cellular functions often by binding relatively flat PPI interfaces to achieve a dominant negative action. This new biology of CPPs is rapidly gathering momentum through the design and synthesis of a bewildering variety of peptides that may be, in whole or part, linear, helical, cyclic and/or chimeric in nature. A particular emphasis of contemporary CPP‐centred drug discovery is the unmet medical need of cancer, though the biomedical scope of bioportide applications is impressively broad including cellular signalling and reprogramming. We are hopeful that one or more of the fascinating studies described herein will translate into the clinic to establish bioportide technologies as a viable option for drug discovery.
    • New chemical engineering provision: Quality in diversity

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Campbell, Grant; Belton, Daniel; Triñanes, Pablo Garcia; Cox, Phil; Brown, David (Elsevier, 2019-03-05)
      Recent growth in chemical engineering student numbers has driven an increase in the number of UK universities offering the subject. The implications of this growth are described, along with the different challenges facing new providers in the UK compared with established departments. The approaches taken by the various new entrants are reviewed, with reference to recruitment strategies, infrastructure, the use of external facilities, and the particular flavours of chemical engineering being offered by the new providers. Information about the differentiating features of the large number of chemical engineering degree courses now available is somewhat indistinct: this should be rectified in the interests both of prospective students and of employers. Dilemmas facing new providers include the need to address the fundamentals of the subject as well as moving into more novel research-led areas; enabling students to develop the competencies to sustain them for a whole career as well as meeting immediate employer needs; and providing sufficient industry understanding when academics may lack substantial industrial experience. The central importance of practical provision and of the design project, and the approaches taken by new providers to deliver these components, are reviewed, together with the role of software tools in chemical engineering education, and measures to facilitate industry input into courses. As long as it is not used prescriptively or to inhibit innovation, the accreditation process provides constructive guidance and leverage for universities developing new chemical engineering programmes.
    • A new conceptual framework for analyzing the social capital of construction project teams

      Fang, Yanqing; Li, Shuquan; Daniel, Emmanuel Itodo (Springer, 2021-10-12)
      Team social capital plays a key role in positively affecting team performance. The construction project team is established temporarily to better achieve project targets, and the establishment and acquisition of its social capital became difficult in the process of construction because of the temporary characteristics. In the early stage of project construction, the construction project team often has a lot of implicit social capital which cannot be effectively utilized. Based on the Johari Window model in the cognitive psychology field, we propose a new model of construction project team’s social capital and divide the dimensions of a construction team’s social capital from a dynamic perspective, namely explicit social capital, private social capital, unknown social capital, and blind social capital. This paper explains the connotation of each type of social capital of the construction teams and discusses the strategies to transform the implicit social capital to explicit social capital, to provide the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for the establishment and cultivation of social capital in actual construction projects.
    • New look on relay selection strategies for full-duplex multiple-relay NOMA over Nakagami-m fading channels

      Thi Nguyen, Tu-Trinh; Do, Dinh-Thuan; Chen, Yeong-Chin; So-In, Chakchai; Rahman, Md Arafatur (Springer, 2021-07-07)
      By removing the orthogonal use of radio-resources, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been introduced to improve the spectral efficiency of fifth generation (5G) and beyond networks. This paper studies the system performance in a dual-hop multi-relay NOMA using decode-and-forward (DF) scheme over Nakagami-m fading channels. A group of NOMA users is considered, i.e. the near and far users which are decided by how strong these related channels are. Specifically, we obtain a closed-form expression of the outage probability of the near/far NOMA users when the several relay selection schemes are adopted for selecting the best among M intermediate relays. As main finding, this paper introduces three strategies including two-stage relay selection, max-min and power allocation based relay selection schemes. As main benefit, the NOMA users are considered to employ selection combining technique in order to improve signal transmissions for an increased reliability in the context of massive connections in 5G wireless communications. By conducting numerical simulations, we evaluate the impact of the number of intermediate relays, the NOMA power allocation factor, and the Nakagami-m fading severity parameter on the outage performance of the NOMA users. Finally, the outage probability along with throughout in delay-limited transmission mode are provided via numerical results and the necessary comparisons are provided.
    • New offsite production and business models in construction: priorities for the future research agenda

      Goulding, J.S.; Pour Rahimian, F.; Arif, M.; Sharp, M.D. (Taylor and Francis, 2014-03-11)
    • New pharmacist role in diabetes education in Sri Lanka: A cross-sectional descriptive randomized step-up study

      Bulathsinghalage Poornima Reshamie, Cooray; Hana, Morrissey; Eisha Indumani, Waidyarathne; Patrick Anthony, Ball; Manilka, Sumanathilake (International Journal of Diabetes and Clinical Research, 2018-04-23)
      Introduction The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is globally on the rise, in both developed and developing countries. Type 2 diabetes is a major public health issue in Sri Lanka. This study aims to investigate the effect of structured self-management health education intervention based on 'PITS model' (Pathophysiology, Indications, Treatment and Specifics) would result in a clinically significant improvement in glycaemic control of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods Patients who were diagnosed with T2DM at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka, comply with the selection criteria were enrolled to the study. The intervention consisted with two repeated one to one education sessions followed up in six and twelve months. HbA1c, lipid profiles, waist circumference, BMI and other biomedical measurements were done in both groups. Analysis of covariance between groups were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Results Mean HbA1c level in both intervention and usual care group was 8.6% with deviation from their target glycaemic level (6.5%,48 mmol/mol) at baseline. At six months, there was a significant reduction (P < 0.001; size of effect = 0.69) in HbA1c between the intervention and the usual care group controlling the baseline values. Conclusion The results demonstrate the effectiveness of one to one diabetes self-management intervention among the adults with T2DM.