• IAgent: a real time intelligent agent animation toolkit

      Wen, Zhigang; Mehdi, Qasim; Gough, Norman (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2004)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of IAgent: a real time intelligent agent animation toolkit on a PC platform. The animation system consists of 5 main components, namely environment, perception, behaviours, motion generator and rendering. The intelligent agent in the system is represented as a 3D human-like avatar that has a complex underlying structure with multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The agent relies on a fast virtual perception system to capture information from its environment and a behaviours system to determine what actions should be taken. A novel motion generation architecture and animation blending system have been developed to produce non-repetitive behaviours for the intelligent agent based on its momentary goal, internal and emotional states. The proposed system has been implemented in DirectX. Experiments have been carried out using the toolkit and the results have clearly demonstrated that the method produces convincing real time behaviours for a 3D virtual human agent.
    • Identification and characterization of GONST1, a golgi-localized GDP-mannose transporter in Arabidopsis.

      Baldwin, Timothy C.; Handford, Michael G.; Yuseff, Maria-Isabel; Orellana, Ariel; Dupree, Paul (American Society of Plant Biologists, 2001)
      Transport of nucleotide sugars across the Golgi apparatus membrane is required for the luminal synthesis of a variety of plant cell surface components. We identified an Arabidopsis gene encoding a nucleotide sugar transporter (designated GONST1) that we have shown by transient gene expression to be localized to the Golgi. GONST1 complemented a GDP-mannose transport-defective yeast mutant (vrg4-2), and Golgi-rich vesicles from the complemented strain displayed increased GDP-mannose transport activity. GONST1 promoter
    • Identification and molecular mechanisms of the rapid tonicity-induced relocalization of the aquaporin 4 channel

      Kitchen, P; Day, RE; Taylor, LHJ; Salman, MM; Bill, RM; Conner, Matthew T.; Conner, Alex C.; From the Molecular Organisation and Assembly in Cells Doctoral Training Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL. (American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2015-05-26)
      © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Background: The water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) controls water permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Results: Hypotonicity induces rapid relocalization of AQP4 in a calcium-, calmodulin-, and kinase-dependent manner. Conclusion: AQP4 can be relocalized between the cell membrane and intracellular compartments. Significance: Pharmacological modulation of AQP4 membrane localization could provide a new approach to treating brain edema.
    • Identification and multi-environment validation of resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba

      Sillero, JC; Rojas-Molina, MM; Emeran, AA; Kharrat, M; Winkler, J; Khan, HR; Flores, F; Rubiales, D (CSIRO Publishing, 2017-08-01)
      A germplasm collection of 484 accessions of Vicia faba was screened for resistance to rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) under field conditions. Accessions varied in the levels of rust infection, although no complete resistance was identified. Stability of resistance of the 39 most-resistant accessions was tested in a multi-location experiment in Austria, Egypt, Tunisia, United Kingdom and Spain over three additional field seasons. Genotype×environment interaction accounted for 43% of the sum of squares of the multi-environment evaluation, revealing instability of the phenotypic expression across environments. This might hamper the efficiency of selection suggesting the need for selection in different environments. Three possible mega-environments were discerned in the studied area, Mediterranean (Spain, Tunisia and Egypt), Oceanic (UK) and Continental (Austria). Córdoba (Spain) and Kafr El-Sheik (Egypt) showed as ideal environments for rust resistance screenings within Mediterranean environment. Several accessions (300, 303, 311, 313, 720, 1196 and 1271) were grouped as moderately to highly resistant in the three defined mega-environments. These accessions showed clear differences both in terms of reduced disease severity and high stability, which make them good candidates for international faba bean breeding programmes. Concerning each mega-environment, accessions 300 and 311 were the most resistant and stable ones across the Mediterranean one, followed by accessions 720, 1022, 1272, 1320 and BPL261. On the contrary other accessions (313, 452, 481 and 1196) were the most resistant in Oceanic and Continental environments. However, 452 and 481 were susceptible in the Mediterranean mega-environment. This contrasting performance across the environments was also supported by contradictory performance of the checks BPL261 and Baraca in Oceanic and Continental environments, suggesting differential virulence in rust populations, which deserves further attention.
    • Identification of aspirin analogues that repress NF-κB signalling and demonstrate anti-proliferative activity towards colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo

      Claudius, AK; Kankipati, CS; Kilari, RS; Hassan, S; Guest, K; Russell, ST; Perry, CJ; Stark, LA; Nicholl, ID; Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre and MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. (Spandidos Publications, 2014-07-31)
      Substantial evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have potential as chemopreventative/therapeutic agents. However, these agents cannot be universally recommended for prevention purposes due to their potential side-effect profiles. Here, we compared the growth inhibitory and mechanistic activity of aspirin to two novel analogues, diaspirin (DiA) and fumaryl diaspirin (F-DiA). We found that the aspirin analogues inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells at significantly lower doses than aspirin. Similar to aspirin, we found that an early response to the analogues was a reduction in levels of cyclin D1 and stimulation of the NF-κB pathway. This stimulation was associated with a significant reduction in basal levels of NF-κB transcriptional activity, in keeping with previous data for aspirin. However, in contrast to aspirin, DiA and F-DiA activity was not associated with nucleolar accumulation of RelA. For all assays, F-DiA had a more rapid and significant effect than DiA, identifying this agent as particularly active against colorectal cancer. Using a syngeneic colorectal tumour model in mice, we found that, while both agents significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo, this effect was particularly pronounced for F-DiA. These data identify two compounds that are active against colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo. They also identify a potential mechanism of action of these agents and shed light on the chemical structures that may be important for the antitumour effects of aspirin.
    • Identification of candidate tumour suppressor genes frequently methylated in renal cell carcinoma

      Morris, MR; Ricketts, C; Gentle, D; Abdulrahman, M; Clarke, N; Brown, M; Kishida, T; Yao, M; Latif, F; Maher, ER; et al. (Springer Nature, 2010-02-15)
      Promoter region hyermethylation and transcriptional silencing is a frequent cause of tumour suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation in many types of human cancers. Functional epigenetic studies, in which gene expression is induced by treatment with demethylating agents, may identify novel genes with tumour-specific methylation. We used high-density gene expression microarrays in a functional epigenetic study of 11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. Twenty-eight genes were then selected for analysis of promoter methylation status in cell lines and primary RCC. Eight genes (BNC1, PDLIM4, RPRM, CST6, SFRP1, GREM1, COL14A1 and COL15A1) showed frequent (30% of RCC tested) tumour-specific promoter region methylation. Hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing. Re-expression of BNC1, CST6, RPRM and SFRP1 suppressed the growth of RCC cell lines and RNA interference knock-down of BNC1, SFRP1 and COL14A1 increased the growth of RCC cell lines. Methylation of BNC1 or COL14A1 was associated with a poorer prognosis independent of tumour size, stage or grade. The identification of these epigenetically inactivated candidate RCC TSGs can provide insights into renal tumourigenesis and a basis for developing novel therapies and biomarkers for prognosis and detection. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    • Identifying breast-to-brain metastasis-associated gene mutations by whole exome sequencing

      Morris, Mark; Olivares, Ivonne; Dawson, Timothy; Ashton, Kate; Davis, Charles; Jenkinson, Michael; Brodbelt, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel; Warr, Tracy (Springer Nature, 2018-11-08)
    • Identifying critical dimensions for project success in R&D public sector using Delphi study and validation techniques

      Hanif, Huma; Hanif, Aamer; Ahsan, Ali; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyedali; Alkazemi, Basem (IEEE, 2021-09-13)
      In the current century, organizations face ever increasing dynamic ecosystems and are constantly devising strategies to meet their challenges. These include the implementation of the right organizational structure and avoid project schedule delays to achieve projects’ success. Unfortunately, the classification of significant project success dimensions in the R&D public sector environment is still an elusive concept. This study adopts a multi-dimensional qualitative and quantitative approach to explore the critical dimensions of organizational structure and schedule management that enhance or hinder the project success in R&D of public sector organizations. In Phase 1, a Delphi Study is conducted, and results of reliability and other tests are the input of Phase 2. On the basis of these tests, variables have been selected for the next phase or final questionnaire. In Phase 2, through a survey of 285 responses in a public sector R&D environment, the proposed framework is validated by conducting face, content and construct validity. The results indicated that formalization, specialization, differentiation, coordination mechanism, decentralization and authority of managers have a significant effect on the schedule management and successful execution of R&D projects; whereas, centralization and departmentalization do not correlate strongly. The results also imply that decentralized organizational structures (organic) are more preferable than centralized structures (mechanistic) for the execution of R&D projects when proposed timelines are to be met timely. The proposed framework will act as a supporting mechanism for engineering managers to deal with organizational structure and schedule management factors in a highly uncertain R&D environment where projects deviate frequently from their anticipated timeline.
    • Identifying data sharing and reuse with Scholix: potentials and limitations

      Khan, Nushrat; Pink, Catherine J.; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2020-04-10)
      The Scholexplorer API, based on the Scholix (Scholarly Link eXchange) framework, aims to identify links between articles and supporting data. This quantitative case study demonstrates that the API vastly expanded the number of datasets previously known to be affiliated with University of Bath outputs, allowing improved monitoring of compliance with funder mandates by identifying peer-reviewed articles linked to at least one unique dataset. Availability of author names for research outputs increased from 2.4% to 89.2%, which enabled identification of ten articles reusing non-Bath-affiliated datasets published in external repositories in the first phase, giving valuable evidence of data reuse and impact for data producers. Of these, only three were formally cited in the references. Further enhancement of the Scholix schema and enrichment of Scholexplorer metadata using controlled vocabularies would be beneficial. The adoption of standardized data citations by journals will be critical to creating links in a more systematic manner.
    • IGR Report: The Virtual Construction Site: A Decision Support System for Construction Planning (Award Numbers GR/N 00890; 00876; 00906)

      Dawood, N.; Heesom, David; Winch, G.; Penn, A. (EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council), 2002)
      The software was a direct outcome of the collaborative EPSRC 'Virtual Construction Site - VirCon' project involving UCL, UMIST, Teesside and Wolverhampton Universities and several industrial collaborators. The software provides a platform for current research and knowledge transfer activities through the West Midlands Centre for Construction Excellence and has directly informed the development of the '3-Centre' collaborative visualisation system which provides support to numerous construction companies.
    • Iloperidone - new second generation antipsychotic: Pharmacological aspects and schizophrenia clinical management

      Reyad, Ayman Antoun; Mishriky, Raafat (Villupuram : journalcmpr, 2018-07-02)
      Iloperidone is a new atypical antipsychotic drug approved by FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia. In this article, we searched the published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and other literature to review the efficacy and safety of iloperidone using the following database (Science Direct, PubMed) and illustrate its role in the management of schizophrenia. Iloperidone showed efficacy by causing significant improvements in psychiatric scales such as Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS) and clinical global impressions (CGI). Iloperidone was associated with a number of common side effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular side effects. This review illustrated that iloperidone was well tolerated with significant improvements in disease severity and symptom intensity control in patients suffering with schizophrenia, however, iloperidone was associated with a significantly higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular side effects with minimal extrapyramidal side effects. These findings would guide psychiatrists and pharmacists in their clinical role for supporting the care of psychiatric patients.
    • Immune reconstitution and clinical recovery following anti-CD28 antibody (TGN1412)-induced cytokine storm

      Panoskaltsis, N; McCarthy, NE; Stagg, AJ; Mummery, CJ; Husni, M; Arebi, N; Greenstein, D; Price, CL; Al-Hassi, HO; Koutinas, M; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-08)
      © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. Cytokine storm can result from cancer immunotherapy or certain infections, including COVID-19. Though short-term immune-related adverse events are routinely described, longer-term immune consequences and sequential immune monitoring are not as well defined. In 2006, six healthy volunteers received TGN1412, a CD28 superagonist antibody, in a first-in-man clinical trial and suffered from cytokine storm. After the initial cytokine release, antibody effect-specific immune monitoring started on Day + 10 and consisted mainly of evaluation of dendritic cell and T-cell subsets and 15 serum cytokines at 21 time-points over 2 years. All patients developed problems with concentration and memory; three patients were diagnosed with mild-to-moderate depression. Mild neutropenia and autoantibody production was observed intermittently. One patient suffered from peripheral dry gangrene, required amputations, and had persistent Raynaud’s phenomenon. Gastrointestinal irritability was noted in three patients and coincided with elevated γδT-cells. One had pruritus associated with elevated IgE levels, also found in three other asymptomatic patients. Dendritic cells, initially undetectable, rose to normal within a month. Naïve CD8+ T-cells were maintained at high levels, whereas naïve CD4+ and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells started high but declined over 2 years. T-regulatory cells cycled circannually and were normal in number. Cytokine dysregulation was especially noted in one patient with systemic symptoms. Over a 2-year follow-up, cognitive deficits were observed in all patients following TGN1412 infusion. Some also had signs or symptoms of psychological, mucosal or immune dysregulation. These observations may discern immunopathology, treatment targets, and long-term monitoring strategies for other patients undergoing immunotherapy or with cytokine storm.
    • Impact of anthropogenic factors on affiliative behaviors among bonnet macaques

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Marty, Pascal R; Arlet, Małgorzata E; Beisner, Brianne A; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kodandaramaijah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-02-16)
      Objectives: In primates, allogrooming and other affiliative behaviors confer many benefits and may be influenced by many socioecological factors. Of these, the impact of anthropogenic factors remain relatively understudied. Here we ask whether interactions with humans decreased macaques’ affiliative behaviors by imposing time-constraints, or increased these behaviors on account of more free-/available-time due to macaques’ consumption of high-energy human foods. Materials and Methods: In Southern India, we collected data on human-macaque and macaque-macaque interactions using focal-animal sampling on two groups of semi-urban bonnet macaques for 11 months. For each macaque within each climatic season, we calculated frequencies of human-macaque interactions, rates of monitoring human activity and foraging on anthropogenic food, dominance ranks, grooming duration, number of unique grooming partners, and frequencies of other affiliative interactions. Results: We found strong evidence for time-constraints on grooming. Macaques that monitored humans more groomed for shorter durations and groomed fewer partners, independent of their group membership, sex, dominance rank, and season. However, monitoring humans had no impact on other affiliative interactions. We found no evidence for the free-time hypothesis foraging on anthropogenic food was unrelated to grooming and other affiliation. Discussion: Our results are consistent with recent findings on other urban-dwellingspecies/populations. Macaques in such environments may be especially reliant on other forms of affiliation that are of short duration (e.g. coalitionary support, lip-smacking) and unaffected by time-constraints. We stress on the importance of evaluating human impact on inter-individual differences in primate/wildlife behavior for conservation efforts.
    • The impact of coronavirus on businesses and workers: Written evidence submitted by Haddy Jallow, Dr Suresh Renukappa, Dr Subashini Suresh, and Nisha Shetty, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton (COV0174)

      Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Shetty, Nisha (U.K. Parliment, 2020-07-23)
      COVID-9 has changed the way in which the whole world has been working and has forced the implementation of Working from Home. Industry 4.0 strategies and applications have aided in this change, as we are mainly dependent on technology in order to be working efficiently and to be able to carry on being productive. Despite working from home creating productivity and efficiency in the way in which we work, mental health and well-being of the public has had an impact as families with children or people living alone resulting in social isolation.  The UK went into Lockdown during the last week of March 2020 where the rules involved everyone one to be homebound and only leave for essential trips. These rules introduced came with a lot of uncertainty, as COVID-19 is an uncertain virus, this has made these rules be in unknown territory as is it unclear as to when the pandemic will be over. This has forced organisations worldwide to think about the future of their working ways with the factoring of the mental health and wellbeing of their workers with this change in the way we work.
    • The impact of coronavirus on businesses and workers: Written evidence submitted by Wahiba Erriadi, Suresh Renukappa, Subashini Suresh, Wala Abdalla, and Redouane Sarrakh, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton (COV0173)

      Erriadi, Wahiba; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdalla, Wala; Sarrakh, Redouane (U.K Parliment, 2020-07-23)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our daily life brining unprecedented changes. This outbreak has shifted many families’ life mainly the ones with children. Balancing between working from home, being responsible for children’s care, and home-schooling, as well as doing the housework have been very difficult. In addition, the mental health and well-being of children are a priority to every single mother besides taking care of her own.
    • The impact of Covid-19 on the UK construction industry

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Stride, Mark (Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee, U.K Parliament, 2020-06-09)
      This written evidence provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of the impact of Covid-19 and the changes that the UK construction industry has had to undertake in order to adhere to the lockdown rules while being productive. This written evidence contributes towards informing policymakers on some lessons learned from the management of the Covid-19 from the construction industry perspective.  In total, 13 semi-structured interviews from 10 construction organisations were conducted to collect evidence, which was then analysed for conclusion and recommendations.  Five C’s (i.e. create culture, control systems, courageous decisions, and combat mental health and care for employees) are recommended that have been recognised and should be implemented to help employers and employees safely adapt to workplace during and post-Covid-19 outbreak.
    • Impact of COVID-19 on UK energy sector

      Bangura, Alhaji; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al-Janabi, Razan (British Academy of Management, 2021-09-01)
      The truth is that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the UK economy. This has prompted policy makers, scientists and academicians to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK economy at large. The UK economy is sustained by intertwining network of economic models of which the energy sector plays a vital role. This study has examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK energy sector. The study has attested to the fact that the energy sector is large and diverse and comprises of primary and secondary energy resources. Therefore, it will be limited to the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the UK secondary energy resources. A desk-based study approached was favoured and adopted to analyze pertinent data and documents that are deemed relevant to the study. The study has confirmed that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic varies on different energy models of the UK economy. An improvised energy supply chain for the study has revealed that the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the UK energy sector could be seen on the consumer phase of the energy supply chain. The lockdown and stay at home strategy that was implemented by the UK government puts additional burden on low-level income family. For this reason, low level income family were unable to meet their energy bills during the lockdown and this affect the energy supplier's ability in the long run to provide sustainable secondary energy supply to the consumers.
    • Impact of Covid-19 on water sector projects and practices

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Kamunda, Andrew (Elsevier, 2021-03-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected world economies. The water industry was adversely affected, with unprecedented slow down and changes to ways of working. However, the pandemic also accelerated positive digital transformation. A qualitative research approach was adopted to analyze data collected from 12 interviewees representing six water sector organizations. The paper provides insight into the impact of COVID-19 on the delivery of water sector projects and how organizational practices have adapted from business as usual.
    • The impact of Covid-19 outbreak on United Kingdom infrastructure sector

      Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020-06-25)
      Purpose: In December 2019, news broke out from the World Health Organisation (WHO), with the first outbreak of Covid-19 in Wuhan China. On March 11 2020, the WHO declared Covid-19 to officially be a pandemic. The UK was put under lockdown on the 23rd of March 2020 by the Prime Minister Boris Johnson, the lockdown introduced strict measures put into place including the restriction for unnecessary working from offices, and only leaving houses if it is deemed essential. Therefore, this paper focuses on the changes that the infrastructure sector has had to undertake in order to adhere to the Covid-19 lockdown rules while being productive. Design/methodology/approach: Given the new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research methodology was adopted. In total, five semi-structured interviews from three infrastructure sector organisations were conducted to collect data, which was then analysed using thematic analysis for inference and conclusion. Findings: The results indicate that the lockdown is proving to be difficult to manage projects as staff members are working from home. This leads to delays on a project activities as many staff cannot physically go on site and conduct works. The managers are finding difficult to manage their teams. However, technological tools such as video chat and meetings via online platforms have proven to be most effective in communications with project teams. The Building Information Modelling (BIM)/Design has been useful as the 3D design models helps to visualise the project within team meetings in order to comply with the Covid-19 rules and follow social distancing guidelines while still carrying on works. However, induction to any new starter is proving to be difficult to manage with the pandemic and lockdown as it involves a drugs and alcohol test prior to commencing work of that project. Originality/value: This paper provides a rich insight into the understanding and awareness of the impact of Covid-19 and the changes that the infrastructure sector has had to undertake in order to adhere to the lockdown rules while being productive. This study contributes towards informing policymakers on some lessons learned from the management of the Covid-19 from an infrastructure sector perspective. Furthermore, twelve key implications are drawn for decision makers within the infrastructure sector business to rethink and act to deal with the pandemic crisis.
    • Impact of detuning and dephasing on a laser-corrected subnatural-linewidth single-photon source

      López Carreño, Juan Camilo; Zubizarreta Casalengua, E.; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Valle, Elena del (IOP Publishing, 2019-01-08)
      The elastic scattering peak of a resonantly driven two-level system has been argued to provide narrow-linewidth antibunched photons. Although independent measurements of spectral width on the one hand and antibunching, on the other hand, do seem to show that this is the case, a joint measurement reveals that only one or the other of these attributes can be realised in the direct emission. We discuss a scheme which interferes the emission with a laser to produce simultaneously single photons of subnatural linewidth. In particular, we consider the effect of dephasing and of the detuning between the driving laser and/or the detector with the emitter. We find that our scheme brings such considerable improvement as compared to the standard schemes as to make it the best single-photon source in terms of all-order multi-photon suppression by several orders of magnitudes. While the scheme is particularly fragile to dephasing, its superiority holds even for subnatural-linewidth emission down to a third of the radiative lifetime.