• Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social behaviors

      Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano S. K; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F (Elsevier, 2017-08-18)
      Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills—particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty—in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders.
    • Health-related quality-of-life results from the phase 3 OPTIMISMM study: pomalidomide, bortezomib, and low-dose dexamethasone versus bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma

      Weisel, Katja; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Moreau, Philippe; Yagci, Munci; Larocca, Alessandra; Kanate, Abraham S; Vural, Filiz; Cascavilla, Nicola; Basu, Supratik; Johnson, Peter; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-01-01)
      In the randomized phase-3 OPTIMISMM study, the addition of pomalidomide to bortezomib and low-dose dexamethasone (PVd) resulted in significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) in lenalidomide-pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), including lenalidomide refractory patients. Here, we report health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results from this trial. Patients received PVd or Vd in 21-day cycles until disease progression or discontinuation. HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30, QLQ-MY20, and EQ-5D-3L instruments on day 1 of each treatment cycle. Mean score changes for global QoL, physical functioning, fatigue, side effects of treatment domains, and EQ-5D-3L index were generally stable over time across treatment arms. The proportion of patients who experienced clinically meaningful worsening in global QoL and other domains of interest was similar. These HRQoL results with PVd along with previously demonstrated improvement in PFS vs Vd continue to support its use in patients with RRMM.
    • Heavy metal removal using alkali activated kaolinite in the Cao-Al2O3-Sio2- H2O system

      Rios, Carlos A.; Williams, Craig D.; Fullen, Michael A. (MedCrave, 2017-11-30)
      The transformation of kaolinite was examined at 175°C for 24 h in the CaO-Al2O3- SiO2-H2O (CASH) system, which is important in cement science and especially in, cement chemistry and is closely related to the pozzolanic reaction, the CaO-aggregate reaction and the glass fibre reinforcement of hardened cement. The hydration products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and thermogravimetric analysis in order to elucidate their mineral chemistry and microstructure. Results reveal that several poorly crystalline phases were formed, with un-reacted Ca(OH)2 appearing at shorter reaction times. Hydrogarnet tends to form more rapidly than tobermorite. It was transformed into aluminium-substituted tobermorite with curing time. A batch experimental study confirmed that kaolinitebased calcium silicate hydrates are effective for the treatment of acid mine drainage, particularly in removing metal ions and ammonium
    • Heavy metal removals from industrial wastewater using modified zeolite: study the effect of pre-treatment

      Salih, Ali; Williams, Craig; Khanaqa, Polla (University of Garmian, 2019-07-01)
      Pre-treatment processes were performed in order to investigate the behavior of modified clinoptilolite (natural zeolite) as adsorbents and understand the removal mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. The pre-treatment of clinoptilolite is carried out to increase the metal removal efficiency from solution. For this purpose, both hydrothermal and chemical pre-treatment of clinoptilolite were carried out in order to investigate whether pre-treatment could increase the adsorption capacity of clinoptilolite. The zeolite samples were characterized by using different analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X – Ray Diffraction (XRD), X – Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometers (ICP-OES). The thermal pretreatment process of clinoptilolite was carried out by heating clinoptilolite samples in a furnace for 30 minutes under a slow heating rate of 200, 400 and 600°C. The chemical pre-treatment of the clinoptilolite were carried out by mixing clinoptilolite sample with 200 ml of 0.5M NaCl. Then 4g of modified clinoptilolite samples were in contact with 100 ml of multi- component solutions for 360 minutes. The data obtained from the kinetic adsorption tests the shows that the efficiency of Cu2+, Fe3+, Co2+ and Zn2+ metal ions removal was enhanced with the application of pre-treatments.
    • Hematolological manifestations of COVID-19: From cytopenia to coagulopathy

      Agbuduwe, Charles; Basu, Supratik (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-07-14)
      Emerging data from the management of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) suggests multisystemic involvement, including the hemopoietic system. The hematological manifestations of COVID‐19 include blood count anomalies notably lymphopenia and neutrophilia which are of prognostic significance. Hyperferritinemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase have also been associated with increased mortality. Furthermore, there is considerable evidence of a distinct coagulopathy associated with COVID‐19 characterised by elevated D‐dimers and an increased risk of thrombotic events. This comprehensive review summarises the latest evidence from published studies and discusses the implications of the various hematological manifestations of COVID‐19 with a view to guiding clinical management and risk stratification in this rapidly evolving pandemic.
    • Herpetological Diversity of Timor-Leste: Updates and a Review of Species Distributions

      O'Shea, Mark; Sanchez, Caitlin; Kathriner, Andrew; Mecke, Sven; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ribeiro, Agrivedo Valela; Soares, Zito Afranio; Araujo, Luis Lemos de; Kaiser, Hinrich (Asiatic Herpetological Research Society, 2015-06-15)
      We report the results of five herpetological surveys during 2011–2013 that included visits to all districts of Timor-Leste (Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro, Dili, Covalima, Ermera, Lautém, Liquiça, Manatuto, Manufahi, Viqueque) except the Oecusse exclave. Our fieldwork culminated in the discovery of one putative new frog species (genus Kaloula), at least five putative new lizard species (genera Cyrtodactylus, Cryptoblepharus, and Sphenomorphus), and two putative new snake species (genera Stegonotus and Indotyphlops). In addition, we present new distribution records of amphibians and reptiles for 11 of the country’s 12 contiguous districts, along with additional natural history data. Results from our surveys increase the number of amphibian and reptiles known to occur in Timor-Leste from 22 species before our surveys began to over 60, including over 20 as yet undescribed species.
    • Heuristic-based journey planner for mobility as a service (Maas)

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G (MDPI, 2020-12-04)
      The continuing growth of urbanisation poses a real threat to the operation of transportation services in large metropolitan areas around the world. As a response, several initiatives that promote public transport and active travelling have emerged in the last few years. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one such initiative with the main goal being the provision of a holistic urban mobility solution through a single interface, the MaaS operator. The successful implementation of MaaS requires the support of a technology platform for travellers to fully benefit from the offered transport services. A central component of such a platform is a journey planner with the ability to provide trip options that efficiently integrate the different modes included in a MaaS scheme. This paper presents a heuristic that implements a scenario-based journey planner for users of MaaS. The proposed heuristic provides routes composed of different modes including private cars, public transport, bike-sharing, car-sharing and ride-hailing. The methodological approach for the generation of journeys is explained and its implementation using a microservices architecture is presented. The implemented system was trialled in two European cities and the analysis of user satisfaction results reveal good overall performance.
    • Heuristics, Bias and Personality Traits Attribution: The Cognitive Side of Gender Career Inequalities in a Male-dominated Work Sector

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Hampton, Paul (European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2018-09-05)
      Background: We have witnessed significant work-life policy advancements designed to help men and women combine employment with career opportunities more equally, yet gender inequality persists. This is particular evident in some industry sectors that are traditionally male-predominant. A study was thus aimed at exploring gender career opportunities using the perspective of the Implicit Personality and the social cognitive theory in a particularly male-dominated work sector: the Construction Industry (CI). Methods: This study is based on a qualitative approach by using ethnographic observations and interviews in 10 Construction sites in the West Midlands, UK in a frame-time period of 6 months. The great part of the data collection period was structured in observation ranged between 2 and 4 hr per day, 1 to 3 days per week. In each site, observations involved activities by 5 to 20 people. Results: The research was able to clarify different aspects related with career opportunities for male and female Construction workers. While they enjoyed working in the environment, there was an obvious gender-lopsided workforce with most leadership positions being held by men while women work in mainly softer roles. These gender differences were markedly perpetuated by different social cognitive biases and implicit personality heuristics. Conclusion: The Implicit Personality and the social cognitive paradigm represent an excellent framework to explain gender imbalance in construction. An understanding of how women view the construction workplace will contribute to attracting and retaining them in an industry that is in a constant growth but with a persistent gender imbalance.
    • The hidden burden of community enteral feeding on the emergency department

      Barrett, D; Li, V; Merrick, S; Murugananthan, A; Steed, Helen (Wiley, 2020-10-05)
      Abstract Background Enteral feeding tubes are associated with their most serious complications in the days and weeks after insertion, but there is limited published data in the literature on late complications and the implications for the healthcare service. Methods Retrospective observational study of attendances to a UK hospital emergency department with enteral tube complications as the primary reason for attendance. Results Over 24 months 139 attendances were recorded. Dislodged tubes and blocked tubes accounted for the majority of complications and subsequent admissions, with a mixture of enteral tube types being associated with both. Thirty-five percent were admitted and the average healthcare cost per attendance was $1071. Conclusions Enteral tube complications can place a hidden burden on the patient, on ED and on healthcare costs. More work on education and supporting carers to resolve problems themselves could reduce the burden on busy emergency departments.
    • The hidden endoscopic burden of sleeve gastrectomy and its comparison with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

      Arndtz, Katherine; Steed, Helen; Hodson, James; Manjunath, Srikantaiah; Gastroenterology Department, Walsall Manor Hospital (Katherine Arndtz, Srikantaiah Manjunath). (Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology, 2016-01-08)
      BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess the endoscopic burden of bariatric surgical procedures at our trust. This is an enhanced parallel study to "The Hidden Endoscopic burden of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass" published in Frontline Gastroenterology in 2013 incorporating the data for sleeve gastrectomy and comparison with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS:This is a retrospective study that included 211 patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy over a 34-month period. We utilized previously collected data for the RYGB patient cohort which included 553 patients over a 29-month period. We searched our hospital endoscopic database for patients who underwent post-operative endoscopy for indications related to their surgery. RESULTS:16.6% of the sleeve gastrectomy patients required post-operative endoscopy, of whom 11.4% underwent therapeutic procedures. This compares to 20.4% of the RYGB cohort of whom 50.4% needed therapeutic procedures (P<0.001). 1.9% of sleeve gastrectomy patients encountered a post-operative staple line leak and collectively required 29 endoscopic procedures. One patient also developed stricturing (0.47%) requiring 18 pneumatic dilatations. 11.4% of the RYGB cohort developed an anastomotic stricture requiring 57 balloon dilatation procedures. To date, these procedures have accumulated an equivalent cost of €159,898 in endoscopy tariffs, or €177 per RYGB and €373 per sleeve gastrectomy performed. CONCLUSIONS:Bariatric surgery can have significant implications in terms of patient morbidity and financial cost. Having a local bariatric surgery service increases the demand for endoscopic procedures in our hospital, both in investigating for and dealing with post-operative complications. Provision of extra resources and expertise needs to be taken into account.
    • Hiding in plain sight: a new species of bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from West Timor, collected by Malcolm Smith in 1924

      We describe a new species of bent-toed gecko from a single specimen initially collected in 1924 by Malcolm Smith on Timor Island in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago of Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus celatus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: small adult size; without spinose tubercles on the ventrolateral body fold and along the lateral margin of the tail; 16 longitudinal rows of tubercles at midbody; 42 ventral scales between the ventrolateral folds at midbody; no transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales; 17 subdigital lamellae (seven basal + ten distal) under the fourth toe; no abrupt transition between postfemoral and ventral femoral scale series. The specimen is the earliest confirmed record of the genus Cyrtodactylus for Timor, and it is the first putatively endemic gecko species described from this island.
    • High Level Architecture For Distributed Agent Simulation In Computer Games

      Kumar, Pawan; Mehdi, Qasim; Gough, Norman (University of Wolverhampton, School of Computing and Information Technology, 2005)
      Multi Agent System (MAS) have been in existence for quite a long time and have been a focused area of research in different paradigms over the years. As a result, several test beds and simulation tools exist for their deployment in software engineering problems. However, these test beds are suited for specific agents types and environments and lack support for interoperating with other agent architectures and environments. Further, they do not exploit the power of modern distributed and parallel computing environments. Here at RIATec, there is a powerful escience Beowulf cluster that provides ample resources for distributed simulation of MAS. Such simulation has several possible target applications such as in computer games and training virtual environments and therefore it is important that such simulation is reused. Moreover, good visualization, rendering and interactive tools are needed for evaluating, testing and interacting with the system. In this paper, a proposal for a reusable architecture and visualization test bed based on Highlevel architecture (HLA) and Unreal technology is provided for a high performance MAS simulator.
    • High nuclearity Ni(ii) cages from hydroxamate ligands

      McDonald, C; Sanz, S; Brechin, EK; Singh, MK; Rajaraman, G; Gaynor, D; Jones, LF (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2014-08-13)
      The synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of a family of Ni(ii) cages built from hydroxamate ligands is presented. Two pentanuclear 12-MCNi(ii)-4 metallacrowns [Ni5(L1) 4(MeOH)4](ClO4)2·2MeOH (1) and [Ni5(L1)4(py)5](ClO 4)2·H2O (2) (where L1H 2 = 2-(dimethylamino)phenylhydroxamic acid) share analogous, near-planar {Ni5(L1)4}2+ cores, but differ in the number and nature of the ligands located at the axial Ni(ii) sites; the addition of pyridine converting square planar Ni(ii) ions to square-based pyramidal and octahedral Ni(ii) ions, introducing extra paramagnetic metal centres which 'switch on' additional magnetic superexchange pathways. Subtle variations in the reaction scheme used to produce complexes 1 and 2 result in both a change of topology and an increase in nuclearity, through isolation of the hepta- and nonametallic complexes [Ni7(L 1H)8(L1)2(H2O) 6](SO4)·15H2O (3), [Ni 9(μ-H2O)2(L2)6(L 2H)4(H2O)2](SO4) ·29H2O (4) and [Ni9(μ-H2O) 2(L2)6(L2H)4(H 2O)2](ClO4)2·2MeOH· 18H2O (5) (where L2H2 = 2-(amino) phenylhydroxamic acid). Complementary dc magnetic susceptibility studies and DFT analysis indicate dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in 1, 2, 4 and 5, but competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic exchange in 3. © the Partner Organisations 2014.
    • High selectivity and affinity of Linde type F towards NH+4 on application as a soil amendment for maize growth

      Jakkula, Vijay S.; Williams, Craig D.; Hocking, Trevor J.; Fullen, Michael A. (Elsevier, 2006)
      Linde type F (LTF) the synthetic form of edingtonite (EDI) was synthesised in K form and ion exchanged with NH4NO3. Zeolite was then characterised before and after ion exchange by XRD, XRF, TGA and SEM. Ammonium exchanged LTF was introduced as a soil amendment (1%, 2% and 4% zeolite to soil loadings) to look at growth of maize plant (Zea mays) and compared with a control comprising of NPK fertiliser added soil. Results showed LTF had a very high selectivity upon ion exchange and high affinity when introduced as a soil amendment towards NH+4. Results were promising for ion exchange reactions in a zeolite–soil system, whereby cations present in soil exchanged for K+ more freely than NH+4 present in the LTF framework.
    • High selectivity and affinity of synthetic Phillipsite compared with natural Phillipsite towards ammonium (NH4+) and its potential as a slow release fertilizer

      Jakkula, Vijay S.; Williams, Craig D.; Hocking, Trevor J.; Fullen, Michael A. (Taylor & Francis, 2011)
      Phillipsite (PHI) was synthesized in Na-K form, ion exchanged with NH4NO3 and compared with its natural counterpart. Zeolites were then characterized before and after ion exchange by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Ammonium exchanged Phillipsites were introduced as a soil amendment (2, 4 and 8% zeolite to soil loadings) to study the growth of maize (Zea mays) and compared with a control comprising NPK fertilizer added to soil. The affinity of the zeolite mineral Phillipsite for NH4+ in the presence of other cations is demonstrated by soil nutrient status. Results demonstrated that synthetic Phillipsite had a very high affinity towards NH4+ when introduced as a soil amendment, compared with its natural counterpart. Results were promising for ion exchange reactions in a zeolite-soil system, whereby cations present in soil exchanged for K+ more freely than NH4+ present in the synthetic Phillipsite framework.
    • High temperature (HT) polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) A review

      Chandan, Amrit; Hattenberger, Mariska; El-kharouf, Ahmad; Du, Shangfeng; Dhir, Aman; Self, Valerie; Pollet, Bruno G; Ingram, Andrew; Bujalski, Waldemar (Elsevier, 2013-01-28)
      One possible solution of combating issues posed by climate change is the use of the High Temperature (HT) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell (FC) in some applications. The typical HT-PEMFC operating temperatures are in the range of 100–200 °C which allows for co-generation of heat and power, high tolerance to fuel impurities and simpler system design. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the HT-PEMFC, ranging from cell materials to stack and stack testing. Only acid doped PBI membranes meet the US DOE (Department of Energy) targets for high temperature membranes operating under no humidification on both anode and cathode sides (barring the durability). This eliminates the stringent requirement for humidity however, they have many potential drawbacks including increased degradation, leaching of acid and incompatibility with current state-of-the-art fuel cell materials. In this type of fuel cell, the choice of membrane material determines the other fuel cell component material composition, for example when using an acid doped system, the flow field plate material must be carefully selected to take into account the advanced degradation. Novel research is required in all aspects of the fuel cell components in order to ensure that they meet stringent durability requirements for mobile applications.
    • High-temperature oxidation and erosion of HVOF sprayed NiCrSiB/Al2O3 and NiCrSiB/WC Co coatings

      Praveen, Ayyappan Susila; Arjunan, Arun (Elsevier, 2021-11-02)
      Material deterioration due to erosion and oxidation in high-temperature environments is a major cause of wear in power plants, aircraft engines and petrochemical industries. NiCrSiB based surface coatings using thermal spray techniques such as High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) offer a cost-effective route to improve the tribological properties for a range of substrate materials. The study investigates the high-temperature oxidation and erosion resistance of HVOF coated NiCrSiB reinforced with Al2O3 and WC single bond Co on SS304 stainless steel substrate. The oxidation kinetics and erosion responses of the coatings at 750 °C were evaluated for a period of 160 hrs and the coating microstructure, morphology and chemical compositions characterised. A total of three coating compositions were studied namely: NiCrSiB/Al2O3, NiCrSiB/n-Al2O3 and NiCrSiB/WC single bond Co where the results indicate a superior oxidation and erosion resistance in all cases in comparison to uncoated SS304. However, it was found that the NiCrSiB reinforced with micro-structured Al2O3 outperformed all the other coatings in terms of oxidation resistance. When it comes to erosion resistance, NiCrSiB/WC single bond Co was found to demonstrate the highest performance.
    • High-throughput screening platforms in the discovery of novel drugs for neurodegenerative diseases

      Aldewachi, H; Al-Zidan, RN; Conner, MT; Salman, MM (MDPI, 2021-02-23)
      Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration and/or death of nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Identification of viable therapeutic targets and new treatments for CNS disorders and in particular, for NDDs is a major challenge in the field of drug discovery. These difficulties can be attributed to the diversity of cells involved, extreme complexity of the neural circuits, the limited capacity for tissue regeneration, and our incomplete understanding of the underlying pathological processes. Drug discovery is a complex and multidisciplinary process. The screening attrition rate in current drug discovery protocols mean that only one viable drug may arise from millions of screened compounds resulting in the need to improve discovery technologies and protocols to address the multiple causes of attrition. This has identified the need to screen larger libraries where the use of efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) becomes key in the discovery process. HTS can investigate hun-dreds of thousands of compounds per day. However, if fewer compounds could be screened without compromising the probability of success, the cost and time would be largely reduced. To that end, recent advances in computer-aided design, in silico libraries, and molecular docking software combined with the upscaling of cell-based platforms have evolved to improve screening efficiency with higher predictability and clinical applicability. We review, here, the increasing role of HTS in contemporary drug discovery processes, in particular for NDDs, and evaluate the criteria underlying its successful application. We also discuss the requirement of HTS for novel NDD therapies and examine the major current challenges in validating new drug targets and developing new treatments for NDDs.