• Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Induces a Spatial Bias in Whole-body Position Estimates

      Patel, Mitesh; Roberts, R. E.; Arshad, Qadeer; Ahmed, Maroof; Riyaz, Mohammed U.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (Elsevier, 2015-07-23)
      Peripheral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been shown to temporarily ameliorate left spatial neglect [ 1 ]. Specifically, anodal (facilitatory) stimulation over the left mastoid bone coupled with cathodal (inhibitory) over the right mastoid reduces visuospatial-neglect scores in line cancellation [ 2 ] and line bisection tasks [ 3 , 4 ]. This montage increases activity in the left vestibular nerve and suppresses activity in the right [ 5 ], which has been shown to focally activate vestibular networks that occupy visuospatial attention mechanisms, primarily in the non-dominant hemisphere [ 5 ]. Thus, it appears that electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system can shift visuospatial attention to the left side of space [ 4 ]. However, whether such a shift of spatial attention in normal subjects can influence perception of spatial position during whole-body spatial translations is unknown. We hypothesized that shifting attention to the left would result in participants underestimating spatial position estimates during rightward whole-body translations and overestimating spatial position estimates during leftward whole-body translations.
    • Gas to Liquid Technology: Its Technical, Economical & Environmental Impact!

      Ogan, Deinsam D. (Lambert Academic Publishing, 2012)
      This work discusses the importance of applying Gas to Liquid Technology (GTL) in the oil rich countries. It considers its economic, technical and environmental implications, while proposing that GTL can act as alternative to flaring of natural gas (associated or stranded gas). The research further shows that this technology will boost the world economy with the influx of green petrochemical products into the market and would technically reduce the carbon foot prints of these nations.
    • Gastric cooling and menthol cause an increase in cardiac parasympathetic efferent activity in healthy adult human volunteers

      Kazadi, Lubobo-Claude; Fletcher, Janine; Barrow, Paul A (Wiley, 2018-08-19)
      What is the central question of this study? How do gastric stretch and gastric cooling stimuli affect cardiac autonomic control? What is the main finding and its importance? Gastric stretch causes an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity. Stretch combined with cold stimulation result in an elimination of the sympathetic response to stretch and an increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity, in turn resulting in a reduction in heart rate. Gastric cold stimulation causes a shift in sympathovagal balance towards parasympathetic dominance. The cold-induced bradycardia has the potential to decrease cardiac workload, which might be significant in individuals with cardiovascular pathologies. Gastric distension increases blood pressure and heart rate in young, healthy humans, but little is known about the effect of gastric stretch combined with cooling. We used a randomized crossover study to assess the cardiovascular responses to drinking 300 ml of ispaghula husk solution at either 6 or 37°C in nine healthy humans (age 24.08 ± 9.36 years) to establish the effect of gastric stretch with and without cooling. The effect of consuming peppermint oil capsules to activate cold thermoreceptors was also investigated. The ECG, respiratory movements and continuous blood pressure were recorded during a 5 min baseline period, followed by a 115 min post-drink period, during which 5 min epochs of data were recorded. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed using time and frequency domain analyses of respiratory sinus arrhythmia to quantify parasympathetic autonomic activity, and corrected QT (QTc) interval analysis to quantify sympathetic autonomic activity. Gastric stretch only caused a significant reduction in QTc interval lasting up to 15 min, with a concomitant but non-significant increase in heart rate, indicating an increased sympathetic cardiac tone. The additional effect of gastric cold stimulation was significantly to reduce heart rate for up to 15 min, elevate indicators of cardiac parasympathetic tone and eliminate the reduction in QTc interval seen with gastric stretch only. Stimulation of gastric cold thermoreceptors with menthol also caused a significant reduction in heart rate and concomitant increase in the root mean square of successive differences. These findings indicate that gastric cold stimulation causes a shift in the sympathovagal balance of cardiac control towards a more parasympathetic dominant pattern.
    • Gehyra mutilata (Mutilated Gecko) Indonesia: Krakatau Islands

      O'Shea, Mark; Cook, Simon (Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2006-09-01)
      Coastal forest, east shore, Panjang Island (06°05'S, 105°25E). 2 April 2001. Mark O'Shea. Collected from under the bark of Casuarina tree. Rawlinson Krakatau Collection at Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, photographic voucher (NMV D 72413). Verified by Hidetoshi Ota.
    • Gender differences in citation impact for 27 fields and 6 English speaking countries 1996-2014

      Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-06-25)
      Initiatives addressing the lack of women in many academic fields, and the general lack of senior women, need to be informed about causes of any gender differences that may affect career progression, including citation impact. Previous research about gender differences in journal article citation impact has found the direction of any difference to vary by country and field but has usually avoided discussions of the magnitude and wider significance of any differences and has not been systematic in terms of fields and/or time. This study investigates differences in citation impact between male and female first-authored research for 27 broad fields and 6 large English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA) 1996-2014. The results show an overall female first author citation advantage, although in most broad fields it is reversed in all countries for some years. International differences include Medicine having a female first author citation advantage for all years in Australia but a male citation advantage for most years in Canada. There was no general trend for the gender difference to increase or decrease over time. The average effect size is small, however, and unlikely to have a substantial influence on overall gender differences in researcher careers.
    • Gender disparities in UK research publishing: Differences between fields, methods and topics

      Thelwall, Mike; Abdoli, Mahshid; Lebiedziewicz, Anna; Bailey, Carol (Ediciones Profesionales de la Informacion SL, 2020-07-21)
      Gender disparities persist in UK research, with female minorities in most science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects but female majorities in others. The nature of the gender disparity differences between subjects needs to be understood if effective remedial actions are to be targeted at STEM subjects suffering from a lack of women, in contrast to other subjects without shortages. Evidence from the USA suggests that women engage more in people-related subjects, qualitative methods, veterinary science and cell biology and men engage more in thing-related subjects, power/control fields, patient-related research, abstraction and quantitative methods, except surveys. This article investigates gender disparity differences in UK first authorship for journal articles in nearly all of science split into 26 broad and 308 narrow Scopus fields. The results largely replicate the USA but suggest that more life science topics may be female-associated in the UK and patient-related research might not be male-associated. UK STEM gender parity initiatives might therefore emphasise people-oriented, and perhaps socially positive, aspects of currently masculine STEM topics and approaches (e.g., abstraction, mathematical quantitative methods), and promote female-friendly topics, methods and goals within male-dominated fields in addition to tacking implicit and explicit sexism and providing a supportive working environment.
    • A gender equality paradox in academic publishing: Countries with a higher proportion of female first-authored journal articles have larger first author gender disparities between fields

      Thelwall, Michael; Mas-Bleda, Amalia (MIT Press, 2020-05-28)
      Current attempts to address the shortfall of female researchers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) have not yet succeeded despite other academic subjects having female majorities. This article investigates the extent to which gender disparities are subject-wide or nation-specific by a first author gender comparison of 30 million articles from all 27 Scopus broad fields within the 31 countries with the most Scopus-indexed articles 2014-18. The results show overall and geocultural patterns as well as individual national differences. Almost half of the subjects were always more male (7; e.g., Mathematics) or always more female (6; e.g., Immunology & Microbiology) than the national average. A strong overall trend (Spearman correlation 0.546) is for countries with a higher proportion of female first-authored research to also have larger differences in gender disparities between fields (correlation 0.314 for gender ratios). This confirms the international gender equality paradox previously found for degree subject choices: increased gender equality overall associates with moderately greater gender differentiation between subjects. This is consistent with previous USA-based claims that gender differences in academic careers are partly due to (socially constrained) gender differences in personal preferences. Radical solutions may therefore be needed for some STEM subjects to overcome gender disparities.
    • Gene Loss and Lineage-Specific Restriction-Modification Systems Associated with Niche Differentiation in the Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 403 Clonal Complex

      Morley, Laura; McNally, Alan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Corander, Jukka; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Blom, Jochen; Manning, Georgina (American Society of Microbiology, 2015-05-05)
      ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse species of bacteria commonly associated with infectious intestinal disease of humans and zoonotic carriage in poultry, cattle, pigs, and other animals. The species contains a large number of distinct clonal complexes that vary from host generalist lineages commonly found in poultry, livestock, and human disease cases to host-adapted specialized lineages primarily associated with livestock or poultry. Here, we present novel data on the ST403 clonal complex of C. jejuni , a lineage that has not been reported in avian hosts. Our data show that the lineage exhibits a distinctive pattern of intralineage recombination that is accompanied by the presence of lineage-specific restriction-modification systems. Furthermore, we show that the ST403 complex has undergone gene decay at a number of loci. Our data provide a putative link between the lack of association with avian hosts of C. jejuni ST403 and both gene gain and gene loss through nonsense mutations in coding sequences of genes, resulting in pseudogene formation.
    • General patterns of tag usage among university groups in Flickr

      Angus, E; Thelwall, M; Stuart, D (Emerald, 2008-03-10)
      Purpose - The purpose of this research is to investigate general patterns of tag usage and determines the usefulness of the tags used within university image groups to the wider Flickr community. There has been a significant rise in the use of Web 2.0 social network web sites and online applications in recent years. One of the most popular is Flickr, an online image management application. Design/methodology/approach - This study uses a webometric data collection, classification and informetric analysis. Findings - The results show that members of university image groups tend to tag in a manner that is of use to users of the system as a whole rather than merely for the tag creator. Originality/value - This paper gives a valuable insight into the tagging practices of image groups in Flickr.
    • Generative BIM workspace for AEC conceptual design automation: prototype development

      Abrishami, S; Goulding, J; Rahimian, F (Emerald, 2020-07-10)
      Purpose: The integration and automation of the whole design and implementation process have become a pivotal factor in construction projects. Problems of process integration, particularly at the conceptual design stage, often manifest through a number of significant areas, from design representation, cognition and translation to process fragmentation and loss of design integrity. Whilst building information modelling (BIM) applications can be used to support design automation, particularly through the modelling, amendment and management stages, they do not explicitly provide whole design integration. This is a significant challenge. However, advances in generative design now offer significant potential for enhancing the design experience to mitigate this challenge. Design/methodology/approach: The approach outlined in this paper specifically addresses BIM deficiencies at the conceptual design stage, where the core drivers and indicators of BIM and generative design are identified and mapped into a generative BIM (G-BIM) framework and subsequently embedded into a G-BIM prototype. This actively engages generative design methods into a single dynamic BIM environment to support the early conceptual design process. The developed prototype followed the CIFE “horseshoe” methodology of aligning theoretical research with scientific methods to procure architecture, construction and engineering (AEC)-based solutions. This G-BIM prototype was also tested and validated through a focus group workshop engaging five AEC domain experts. Findings: The G-BIM prototype presents a valuable set of rubrics to support the conceptual design stage using generative design. It benefits from the advanced features of BIM tools in relation to illustration and collaboration (coupled with BIM's parametric change management features). Research limitations/implications: This prototype has been evaluated through multiple projects and scenarios. However, additional test data is needed to further improve system veracity using conventional and non-standard real-life design settings (and contexts). This will be reported in later works. Originality/value: Originality and value rest with addressing the shortcomings of previous research on automation during the design process. It also addresses novel computational issues relating to the implementation of generative design systems, where, for example, instead of engaging static and formal description of the domain concepts, G-BIM actively enhances the applicability of BIM during the early design stages to generate optimised (and more purposeful) design solutions.
    • Genetic analyses of undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma identifies a novel sarcoma subtype with a recurrent CRTC1-SS18 gene fusion

      Alholle, Abdullah; Karanian, Marie; Brini, Anna T; Morris, Mark R.; Kannappan, Vinodh; Niada, Stefania; Niblett, Angela; Ranchère-Vince, Dominique; Pissaloux, Daniel; Delfour, Christophe; et al. (Wiley, 2018-04-16)
      In recent years, undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas (USRCSs) have been divided into a variety of new, rare, sarcoma subtypes, including the group of Ewing-like sarcomas, which have the morphological appearance of Ewing sarcomas, but carry CIC-DUX4, BCOR-CCNB3 and other gene fusions different from the classic EWSR1-ETS gene fusion. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses, we identified a novel recurrent gene fusion, CRTC1-SS18, in two cases of USRCS that lacked any known translocation. RNA-seq results were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, long-range polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In vitro, we showed that the cells expressing the gene fusion were morphologically distinct and had enhanced oncogenic potential as compared with control cells. Expression profile comparisons with tumours of other sarcoma subtypes demonstrated that both cases clustered close to EWSR1-CREB1-positive tumours. Moreover, these analyses indicated enhanced NTRK1 expression in CRTC1-SS18-positive tumours. We conclude that the novel gene fusion identified in this study adds a new subtype to the USRCSs with unique gene signatures, and may be of therapeutic relevance. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    • Genetic analysis of historical human remains – what ancient bones can tell if one asks the right questions…

      Hunt, Emilia; Clemson, Emms; Rice, David; Schmerer, Wera Margarete (2016-03-14)
    • Genetic import and phenotype specific alleles associated with hyper-invasion in Campylobacter jejuni

      Baig, Abiyad; McNally, Alan; Dunn, Steven; Paszkiewicz, Konrad H.; Corander, Jukka; Manning, Georgina (BioMed Central, 2015-10-24)
      Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen, causing gastroenteritis in humans. Invasion is an important pathogenesis trait by which C. jejuni causes disease. Here we report the genomic analysis of 134 strains to identify traits unique to hyperinvasive isolates. Methods A total of 134 C. jejuni genomes were used to create a phylogenetic tree to position the hyperinvasive strains. Comparative genomics lead to the identification of mosaic capsule regions. A pan genome approach led to the discovery of unique loci, or loci with unique alleles, to the hyperinvasive strains. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed that the hyper-invasive phenotype is a generalist trait. Despite the fact that hyperinvasive strains are only distantly related based on the whole genome phylogeny, they all possess genes within the capsule region with high identity to capsule genes from C. jejuni subsp. doylei and C. lari. In addition there were genes unique to the hyper-invasive strains with identity to non-C. jejuni genes, as well as allelic variants of mainly pathogenesis related genes already known in the other C. jejuni. In particular, the sequence of flagella genes, flgD-E and flgL were highly conserved amongst the hyper-invasive strains and divergent from sequences in other C. jejuni. A novel cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) operon was also identified as present in all hyper-invasive strains in addition to the classic cdt operon present in other C. jejuni. Conclusions Overall, the hyper-invasive phenotype is strongly linked to the presence of orthologous genes from other Campylobacter species in their genomes, notably within the capsule region, in addition to the observed association with unique allelic variants in flagellar genes and the secondary cdt operon which is unlikely under random sharing of accessory alleles in separate lineages.
    • Genome-based infection tracking reveals dynamics of Clostridium difficile transmission and disease recurrence

      Kumar, Nitin; Miyajima, Fabio; He, Miao; Roberts, Paul; Swale, Andrew; Ellison, Louise; Pickard, Derek; Smith, Godfrey; Molyneux, Rebecca; Dougan, Gordon; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2015-12-18)
      Background. Accurate tracking of Clostridium difficile transmission within healthcare settings is key to its containment but is hindered by the lack of discriminatory power of standard genotyping methods. We describe a whole-genome phylogenetic-based method to track the transmission of individual clones in infected hospital patients from the epidemic C. difficile 027/ST1 lineage, and to distinguish between the 2 causes of recurrent disease, relapse (same strain), or reinfection (different strain). Methods. We monitored patients with C. difficile infection in a UK hospital over a 2-year period. We performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 108 strains isolated from symptomatic patients. High-resolution phylogeny was integrated with in-hospital transfers and contact data to create an infection network linking individual patients and specific hospital wards. Results. Epidemic C. difficile 027/ST1 caused the majority of infections during our sampling period. Integration of whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phylogenetic analysis, which accurately discriminated between 27 distinct SNP genotypes, with patient movement and contact data identified 32 plausible transmission events, including ward-based contamination (66%) or direct donor–recipient contact (34%). Highly contagious donors were identified who contributed to the persistence of clones within distinct hospital wards and the spread of clones between wards, especially in areas of intense turnover. Recurrent cases were identified between 4 and 26 weeks, highlighting the limitation of the standard <8-week cutoff used for patient diagnosis and management. Conclusions. Genome-based infection tracking to monitor the persistence and spread of C. difficile within healthcare facilities could inform infection control and patient management.
    • Genomic epidemiology of clinical Campylobacter spp. at a single health trust site

      Dunn, S.J.; Pascoe, B.; Turton, J.; Fleming, V.; Diggle, M.; Sheppard, S.K.; McNally, A.; Manning, G. (2018-10-11)
      Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in the developed world, and infections with the organism are largely sporadic in nature. Links between sporadic cases have not been established, with the majority of infections thought to be caused by genetically distinct isolates. Using a read-mapping approach, 158 clinical isolates collected during 2014 from the greater Nottinghamshire area were analysed to assess the local population structure and investigate potential case linkages between sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis. Four instances (2.5 %) of case linkage were observed across the dataset. This study demonstrates that case linkage does occur between sporadic Campylobacter infections, and provides evidence that a dual multi-locus sequence typing/within-lineage single nucleotide polymorphism typing approach to Campylobacter genomic epidemiology provides a benefit to public-health investigations.
    • Geochemical characterization of banana, buriti palm, jute and coir fibres for use as biogeotextiles for erosion control

      Egbujuo, Charles, Izuchukwu; Fullen, Michael A.; Guerra, Antonio J.T.; Opara, Alexander Iheanyi (VGTU Press, 2018-10-09)
      Geochemical analysis of selected plant fibres used as geotextiles for erosion control was conducted to evaluate their geochemical composition and to determine the elements that could potentially be nutrients for plants or cause heavy metal contamination in soils. Analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Results revealed that potassium concentrations varied from 3.63% in jute-mat (India)-50.73% in banana-leaf (São Romão, Brazil), with a mean of 27.17%. Similarly, calcium concentrations varied from 0.09% in banana-leaf (São Romão) –37.0% in banana-leaf/stem (Oleo, Brazil). Iron concentrations varied from 0.15% in banana-leaf/stem samples (Oleo) –4.47% in jute-cloth (India). Since banana-leaf/stem had the highest concentration of macro-nutrients, it is therefore proposed that banana-leaf has the highest potential for adding nutrients to the soil system when biodegraded. In addition, heavy metal analysis of the samples revealed that none of the fibres have high concentrations that may contaminate the soil upon decomposition.
    • Geographical forwarding algorithm based video content delivery scheme for internet of vehicles (IoV)

      Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Ke, Chih-Heng (IEEE, 2020-07-31)
      An evolved form of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) has recently emerged as the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Though, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed in support IoV applications. The objective of this research is to achieve an efficient video content transmission over vehicular networks. We propose a balanced video-forwarding algorithm for delivering video-based content delivery scheme. The available neighboring vehicles will be ranked to the vehicle in forwarding progress before transmitting the video frames using proposed multi-score function. Considering the current beacon reception rate, forwarding progress and direction to destination, in addition to residual buffer length; the proposed algorithm can elect the best candidate to forward the video frames to the next highest ranked vehicles in a balanced way taking in account their residual buffer lengths. To facilitate the proposed video content delivery scheme, an approach of H.264/SVC was improvised to divide video packets into various segments, to be delivered into three defined groups. These created segments can be encoded and decoded independently and integrated back to produce the original packet sent by source vehicle. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed algorithm in improving the perceived video quality compared with other approaches
    • Geosynthetics in Civil Engineering

      Sarsby, Robert W. (Abington: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ALSO: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group), 2007)
      Discusses the fundamentals of geosynthetics. Examines various applications in areas such as filters, separators, landfills and foundation materials. Reviews quality assurance and the service life of geosynthetics. Geosynthetics are man-made polymer-based materials which facilitate cost effective building, environmental, transportation and other construction projects. Given their versatility, geosynthetics are a vital material in all aspects of civil engineering. The first section of the book covers the fundamentals of geosynthetics. Chapters discuss the design and durability of geosynthetics together with their material properties and international standards governing their use. Building on these foundations, Part 2 examines the various applications of geosynthetics in areas such as filters, separators, landfills, barriers and foundation materials. The book concludes by reviewing methods of quality assurance and the service life of geosynthetics. Written by an international team of contributors, Geosynthetics in civil engineering is an essential reference to all those involved in civil engineering. (Woodhead Publishing)