• Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for untreated myeloma

      Facon, Thierry; Kumar, Shaji; Plesner, Torben; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Moreau, Philippe; Bahlis, Nizar; Basu, Supratik; Nahi, Hareth; Hulin, Cyrille; Quach, Hang; et al. (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2019-05-30)
      Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society. Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone is a standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. We sought to determine whether the addition of daratumumab would significantly reduce the risk of disease progression or death in this population. METHODS We randomly assigned 737 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation to receive daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (daratumumab group) or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (control group). Treatment was to continue until the occurrence of disease progression or unacceptable side effects. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 28.0 months, disease progression or death had occurred in 240 patients (97 of 368 patients [26.4%] in the daratumumab group and 143 of 369 patients [38.8%] in the control group). The estimated percentage of patients who were alive without disease progression at 30 months was 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.0 to 75.4) in the daratumumab group and 55.6% (95% CI, 49.5 to 61.3) in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P<0.001). The percentage of patients with a complete response or better was 47.6% in the daratumumab group and 24.9% in the control group (P<0.001). A total of 24.2% of the patients in the daratumumab group, as compared with 7.3% of the patients in the control group, had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells) (P<0.001). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were neutropenia (50.0% in the daratumumab group vs. 35.3% in the control group), anemia (11.8% vs. 19.7%), lymphopenia (15.1% vs. 10.7%), and pneumonia (13.7% vs. 7.9%).
    • Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Frailty subgroup analysis of MAIA

      Facon, Thierry; Cook, Gordon; Usmani, Saad Z.; Hulin, Cyrille; Kumar, Shaji; Plesner, Torben; Touzeau, Cyrille; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Basu, Supratik; Nahi, Hareth; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022)
      In the phase 3 MAIA study of patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd). We present a subgroup analysis of MAIA by frailty status. Frailty assessment was performed retrospectively using age, Charlson comorbidity index, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score. Patients were classified as fit, intermediate, non-frail (fit+intermediate), or frail. Of the randomized patients (D-Rd, n=368; Rd, n=369), 396 patients were non-frail (D-Rd, 196 [53.3%]; Rd, 200 [54.2%]) and 341 patients were frail (172 [46.7%]; 169 [45.8%]). After 36.4-month median follow-up, non-frail patients had longer PFS than frail patients, but the PFS benefit of D-Rd versus Rd was maintained across subgroups: non-frail (median, not reached [NR] vs 41.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; P<0.0001) and frail (NR vs 30.4 months; HR, 0.62; P=0.003). Improved rates of complete response or better and minimal residual disease (10–5) negativity were observed for D-Rd across subgroups. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event in non-frail and frail patients was neutropenia (non-frail, 45.4% [D-Rd] and 37.2% [Rd]; frail, 57.7% and 33.1%). These findings support the clinical benefit of D-Rd in transplant-ineligible NDMM patients enrolled in MAIA, regardless of frailty status.
    • Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MAIA): overall survival results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

      Facon, Thierry; Kumar, Shaji; Plesner, Torben; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Moreau, Philippe; Bahlis, Nizar; Basu, Supratik; Nahi, Hareth; Hulin, Cyrille; Quach, Hang; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-10-13)
      Background At the primary analysis of the phase 3 MAIA study (median follow-up, 28·0 months), significant progression-free survival benefit was observed with daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (D-Rd) versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) alone in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. We report updated efficacy and safety results from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. Methods MAIA is an ongoing, multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial that enrolled patients between 18 March 2015 and 15 January 2017 at 176 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years, had newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0–2, and were ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation due to age (≥65 years) or comorbidities. Patients were randomised 1:1 by an interactive web response system to receive 28-day cycles of Rd with daratumumab (D-Rd group) or without (Rd group). Randomisation was stratified by International Staging System disease stage, geographic region, and age. Patients in both groups received oral lenalidomide (25 mg on days 1–21 of each cycle) and oral dexamethasone (40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of each cycle). The D-Rd group also received intravenous daratumumab (16 mg/kg, once weekly during cycles 1–2, once every 2 weeks in cycles 3–6, and once every 4 weeks thereafter). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, and a secondary endpoint was overall survival (both assessed in the intention-to-treat population). Results presented here are from a prespecified interim analysis for overall survival. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02252172. Findings At a median follow-up of 56·2 months (interquartile range, 52·7–59·9), a significant benefit in overall survival was observed for the D-Rd group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68; 95% CI 0·53–0·86; p=0·0013). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 60-month rate of overall survival was 66·3% (95% CI 60·8–71·3) in the D-Rd group and 53·1% (47·2–58·6) in the Rd group. Median progression-free survival in the D-Rd group versus the Rd group was not reached (95% CI 54·8–not reached) versus 34·4 months (95% CI 29·6–39·2; HR 0·53; 95% CI 0·43–0·66; p<0·0001). The most common (>15%) grade 3 or 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (197 [54%] patients in the D-Rd group and 135 [37%] patients in the Rd group), pneumonia (70 [19%] and 39 [11%]), anaemia (61 [17%] and 79 [22%]), and lymphopenia (60 [16%] and 41 [11%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 281 (77%) patients in the D-Rd group and 257 (70%) patients in the Rd group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 13 (4%) patients in the D-Rd group and 10 (3%) patients in the Rd group (all due to adverse events). Interpretation D-Rd prolonged overall survival and progression-free survival in patients ineligible for stem-cell transplantation with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. There were no new safety concerns.
    • Data citation and reuse practice in biodiversity - Challenges of adopting a standard citation model

      Khan, N; Thelwall, M; Kousha, K (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2019-08-06)
      © 2015 American Institute of Physics Inc.. All rights reserved. Openly available research data promotes reproducibility in science and results in higher citation rates for articles published with data in biological and social sciences. Even though biodiversity is one of the fields where data is frequently reused, information about how data is reused and cited is not often openly accessible from research data repositories. This study explores data citation and reuse practices in biodiversity by using openly available metadata for 43,802 datasets indexed in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Quantitative analysis of dataset types and citation counts suggests that the number of studies making use of openly available biodiversity data has been increasing in a steady manner. Citation rates vary for different types of datasets based on the quality of data, and similarly to articles, it takes 2-3 years to accrue most citations for datasets. Content analysis of a random sample of unique citing articles (n=101) for 437 cited datasets in a random sample of 1000 datasets suggests that best practice for data citation is yet to be established. 26.7% of articles are mentioned the dataset in references, 12.9% are mentioned in data access statements in addition to the methods section, and only 2% are mentioned in all three sections, which is important for automatic extraction of citation information. Citation practice was inconsistent especially when a large number of subsets (12—50) were used. This calls for adoption of a standard citation model for this field to provide proper attribution when using subsets of data.
    • Data in brief: Can a mega-journal for data be useful?

      Thelwall, Michael (Springer Nature, 2020-04-07)
      As part of the current move towards open science, there is increasing pressure for scientists to share their research data. In support of this, several journals only publish descriptions of data generated from research: data papers. It is not clear whether this service encourages data reuse, however. This article assesses the prevalence and impact of the largest such journal, Data in Brief, comparing it with 24 other general or specialist data journals. The results show that Data in Brief became the largest data journal in 2016 and that its papers attracted over five Mendeley readers each, within a year of publication, as well as a non-trivial amount of citations. Its papers have been cited for relevance or facts contained in them in addition to acknowledging the reuse of associated datasets in about 1% of cases. Some papers describe electronic dataset whereas other papers embedded the tables or images that formed the shared data. Overall, the journal seems to make a positive contribution to science by enabling access to multiple types of data, even though its papers rarely lead to data reuse.
    • Data stream ensemble in a new health application for stress management at work: the case of Streblo

      Chinyio, Ezekiel; Riva, Silvia (International Conference on Digital Health, 2019-04-25)
      The negative effects of stress at work in terms of emotional disorders and organisational difficulties have pressed the need for new solutions and especially direct-to-user tools such as mobile applications. While new technology can support the architecture of such tools, adaptive coping behaviours have also been identified as an important factor for promoting new strategies for coping effectively with stress at work. A study being reported in this paper investigates how technology can be used to influence adaptive coping behaviours. The study is synthesizing the key aspects of personality and behavior into a conceptual model for creating a new mobile application. The overall goal of this application (aka Streblo) is to detect: 1) Early signs of stress; that is the mental (personality) and physical state resulting when the resources of the individual are inadequate to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation, 2) Stress consequences that can undermine the achievement of goals; and 3) Propose innovative solutions to cope with stress. A literature review concerning coping behaviours and use of technology was conducted to gather evidence for the foundation of the conceptual model. Primary data is being collected and the empirical findings of the research will be tested and verified using the WEKA software (fig. 1) against the theoretical framework consisting of the ‘Big 5 Theory of Personality, ‘Stress & Coping Theory’ and the concept of ‘Gamification’. Particularly, the following aspects of the theoretical framework are being used to design Streblo: customization to the user, use of relevant and tailored information and feedback and, uses of positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions. Meanwhile, the conceptual model provides further knowledge of key aspects to be considered when developing persuasive tools that aim to encourage more efficient ways of coping with stressful events.
    • DcAGP1, a secreted arabinogalactan protein, is related to a family of basic proline-rich proteins.

      Baldwin, Timothy C.; Domingo, Concha; Schindler, Thomas; Seetharaman, Gouri; Stacey, Nicola; Roberts, Keith (Springer Verlag, 2001)
      A cDNA corresponding to the core protein of an immunoaffinity-purified arabinogalactan protein (AGP) secreted aucus carota (carrot) cells in liquid culture was isolated. This cDNA, DcAGP1, encodes a new class of non-classical' AGP with strong similarity to a family of basic proline-rich proteins. The protein is rich in proline (17%), alanine (10%) and lysine (11%) and contains four distinct domains: a signal peptide, a proline-rich domain, a histidine-rich basic domain and a cysteine-containing 'PAC' domain that is found in a range of other cell wall proteins. The protein contains several sequence motifs found in otherwise unrelated cell wall proteins, but also displays some unique features. Northern blot analyses show that while the DcAGP1 transcript is abundant in the suspension-culture cells from which the AGP was obtained; in carrot seedlings the gene is only expressed at low levels in the roots and it is neither wound- nor stress-inducible. Furthermore, northern and western blot analyses demonstrate that the core polypeptide of DcAGP1 is differentially glycosylated in two different carrot suspension cultures. The unusual features of the protein sequence suggest that the DcAGP1 protein is a member of a family of basic proline-rich proteins defined by the C-terminal PAC domain, and the possible function(s) of the DcAGP1 protein is considered in the light of current views on AGP structure and function.
    • Deadness and how to disprove liveness in hybrid dynamical systems

      Navarro-López, EM; Carter, R (Elsevier, 2016-06-16)
      What if we designed a tool to automatically prove the dynamical properties of systems for which analytic proof is difficult or impossible to obtain? Such a tool would represent a significant advance in the understanding of complex dynamical systems with nonlinearities. This is precisely what this paper offers: a solution to the problem of automatically proving some dynamic stability properties of complex systems with multiple discontinuities and modes of operation modelled as hybrid dynamical systems. For this purpose, we propose a reinterpretation of some stability properties from a computational viewpoint, chiefly by using the computer science concepts of safety and liveness. However, these concepts need to be redefined within the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. In computer science terms, here, we consider the problem of automatically disproving the liveness properties of nonlinear hybrid dynamical systems. For this purpose, we define a new property, which we call deadness. This is a dynamically-aware property of a hybrid system which, if true, disproves the liveness property by means of a finite execution. We formally define this property, and give an algorithm which can derive deadness properties automatically for a type of liveness property called inevitability. We show how this algorithm works for three different examples that represent three classes of hybrid systems with complex behaviours.
    • Death of the alpha: within-community lethal violence among chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park

      Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Sana, Inoue; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E. (Wiley, 2013-06-25)
      Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are capable of extreme violence. They engage in inter‐group, sometimes lethal, aggression that provides the winners with an opportunity to enlarge their territory, increase their food supply and, potentially, attract more mates. Lethal violence between adult males also occurs within groups but this is rare; to date, only four cases (three observed and one inferred) have been recorded despite decades of observation. In consequence, the reasons for within‐group lethal violence in chimpanzees remain unclear. Such aggression may be rare due to the importance of coalitions between males during inter‐group encounters; cooperation between males is also thought to be key in the defense or advancement of social rank within the group. Previous accounts of within‐group lethal violence concern victims who were low‐ranking males; here we provide the first account of the killing of an incumbent alpha male by a coalition of adult males from the same community. We found no clear evidence that the alpha male's position was under threat during the months before the lethal attack: the male dominance hierarchy was highly stable, with low rates of male–male aggression, and there were no significant changes in social interactions (i.e. grooming and aggression) between the alpha male and the other adult males. Two of the four attackers were former alpha males and were the individuals with whom the victim appeared, in the period preceding his death, to be most strongly affiliated: his most frequent grooming partners and those with whom he spent most time in proximity. The lethal attack triggered a period of instability in the male hierarchy and was likely an opportunistic attempt to seize alpha status by the third‐ranking male.
    • Decreased postural control in adolescents born with extremely low birth weight

      Petersen, Hannes; Tulinius, Arnar-Thor; Georgsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Einarsson, Einar-Jon; Patel, Mitesh; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2015-03-14)
      The survival rates of infants born preterm with extremely low birth weight (ELBW ≤ 1000 g) have gradually improved over the last decades. However, these infants risk to sustain long-term disorders related to poor neurodevelopment. The objective was to determine whether adolescents born with ELBW have decreased postural control and stability adaptation. Twenty-nine ELBW subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing by repeated calf vibration. Their results were compared with twenty-one age- and gender-matched controls born after full-term pregnancy. The ELBW group had significantly decreased stability compared with controls in anteroposterior direction, both during the easier quiet stance posturography (p = 0.007) and during balance perturbations (p = 0.007). The ELBW group had similar stability decrease in lateral direction during balance perturbations (p = 0.013). Statistically, the stability decreases were similar with eyes closed and open, but proportionally larger with eyes open in both directions. Both groups manifested significant adaptation (p ≤ 0.023) to the balance perturbations in anteroposterior direction, though this adaptation process could not compensate for the general stability deficits caused by ELBW on postural control. Hence, adolescent survivors of ELBW commonly suffer long-term deficits in postural control, manifested as use of substantially more recorded energy on performing stability regulating high-frequency movements and declined stability with closed and open eyes both in anteroposterior and lateral direction. The determined relationship between premature birth and long-term functional deficits advocates that interventions should be developed to provide preventive care in neonatal care units and later on in life.
    • Decreased postural control in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy

      Einarsson, Einar-Jón; Patel, Mitesh; Petersen, Hannes; Wiebe, Thomas; Fransson, Per-Anders; Magnusson, Måns; Moëll, Christian (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2016-11-10)
      The objective of cancer treatment is to secure survival. However, as chemotherapeutic agents can affect the central and peripheral nervous systems, patients must undergo a process of central compensation. We explored the effectiveness of this compensation process by measuring postural behaviour in adult survivors of childhood cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTS). We recruited sixteen adults treated with chemotherapy in childhood for malignant solid (non-CNS) tumours and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Subjects performed posturography with eyes open and closed during quiet and perturbed standing. Repeated balance perturbations through calf vibrations were used to study postural adaptation. Subjects were stratified into two groups (treatment before or from 12 years of age) to determine age at treatment effects. Both quiet (p = 0.040) and perturbed standing (p ≤ 0.009) were significantly poorer in CTS compared to controls, particularly with eyes open and among those treated younger. Moreover, CTS had reduced levels of adaptation compared to controls, both with eyes closed and open. Hence, adults treated with chemotherapy for childhood cancer may suffer late effects of poorer postural control manifested as reduced contribution of vision and as reduced adaptation skills. These findings advocate development of chemotherapeutic agents that cause fewer long-term side effects when used for treating children.
    • Deep Cognitive Neural Network (DCNN)

      Howard, Newton; Adeel, Ahsan; Gogate, Mandar; Hussain, Amir (US Patent and Trademark Office, 2019-05-23)
      Embodiments of the present systems and methods may provide a more efficient and low-powered cognitive computational platform utilizing a deep cognitive neural network (DCNN), incorporating an architecture that integrates convolutional feedforward and recurrent networks , and replaces multi - layer perceptron (MLP) based sigmoidal neural structures with a queuing theory-driven design. For example, in an embodiment, a circuit may comprise a plurality of layers of neural network circuitry, each layer comprising a plurality of neuron circuits, each neuron comprising a plurality of computational circuits, and each neuron connected to a plurality of other neurons in the same layer by synapse circuitry, wherein the plurality of layers of neural network circuitry are adapted to process symbolic and conceptual information.
    • Deep learning-based classification model for botnet attack detection

      Ahmed, Abdulghani Ali; Jabbar, Waheb A; Al-Shakarchi, Ali; Patel, Hiran (Springer Nature, 2020-03-09)
      Botnets are vectors through which hackers can seize control of multiple systems and conduct malicious activities. Researchers have proposed multiple solutions to detect and identify botnets in real time. However, these proposed solutions have difficulties in keeping pace with the rapid evolution of botnets. This paper proposes a model for detecting botnets using deep learning to identify zero-day botnet attacks in real time. The proposed model is trained and evaluated on a CTU-13 dataset with multiple neural network designs and hidden layers. Results demonstrate that the deep-learning artificial neural network model can accurately and efficiently identify botnets.
    • Defining lean construction capability from an ambidextrous perspective

      Yanquing, Fang; Daniel, Emmanuel Itodo (International Group for Lean Construction, 2021-07-01)
      Lean construction (LC) is widely used to eliminate waste in the construction industry. However, research on LC capability is lagging relative to other works in the LC field. By exploring relevant literature on the rigid and flexible characteristics of LC, this study proposes for the first time that LC capability is an ambidextrous capability from a paradoxical lens. The investigation reveals that the concept of LC capability has no clear definition and puts forward the view that LC capability is an ambidextrous capability. The study established that LC ambidextrous capability is a paradox which consist of two dimensions—namely LC exploitative capability and LC exploratory capability. LC ambidextrous capability emphasizes striving for a balance between the two capabilities. This study contributes to current knowledge and future application of organizational ambidexterity theory to LC capability development. Regarding contribution to practice, this research would enable LC project practitioners to understand the paradoxical tensions in LC projects, and to how to deal with them. Additionally, this study brings new insight and opens a new debate on how LC ambidextrous capability could develop in the construction field.
    • Deformation and energy absorption of additively manufactured functionally graded thickness thin-walled circular tubes under lateral crushing

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Stanford, Mark; Robinson, John; Olabi, Abdul Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-10-10)
      Functionally graded thickness (FGT) is an innovative concept to create light-weight structures with better material distribution and promising energy absorption characteristics suitable for vehicle crashworthiness applications. Accordingly, this paper suggests innovative circular tubes with in-plane thickness gradient along their perimeter and assesses their crashworthiness behaviour under lateral loading. Three different designs of circular tubes with thickness gradient were considered in which the locations of maximum and minimum thicknesses are varied. Selective laser melting method of additive manufacturing was used to manufacture the different tubes. Two different bulk powders including titanium (Ti6Al4V) and aluminium (AlSi10Mg) were used in the manufacturing process. Quasi-static crush experiments were conducted on the laser melted tubes to investigate their crushing and energy absorption behaviour. The energy absorption characteristics of the different FGT tubes were calculated and compared against a uniform thickness design. The results revealed that the best crashworthiness metrics were offered by FGT titanium tube in which the maximum thickness regions were along the horizontal and vertical directions while the minimum thickness regions were at an angle of 45° with respect to the loading direction. The aforementioned tube was found to absorb 79% greater energy per unit mass than its uniform thickness counterpart. Finally, with the aid of numerical simulations and surrogate modelling techniques, multi-objective optimisation and parametric analysis were conducted on the best FGT tube. The influences of the geometrical parameters on the crashworthiness responses of the best FGT structure were explored and the optimal thickness gradient parameters were determined. The results reported in this paper provide valuable guidance on the design of FGT energy absorption tubes for lateral deformation.
    • Degradability of cross-linked polyurethanes based on synthetic polyhydroxybutyrate and modified with polylactide

      Brzeska, Joanna; Morawska, Magda; Sikorska, Wanda; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Marek; Rutkowska, Maria (Springer, 2017-06-14)
      In many areas of application of conventional non-degradable cross-linked polyurethanes (PUR), there is a need for their degradation under the influence of specific environmental factors. It is practiced by incorporation of sensitive to degradation compounds (usually of natural origin) into the polyurethane structure, or by mixing them with polyurethanes. Cross-linked polyurethanes (with 10 and 30%wt amount of synthetic poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (R,S-PHB) in soft segments) and their physical blends with poly([d,l]-lactide) (PDLLA) were investigated and then degraded under hydrolytic (phosphate buffer solution) and oxidative (CoCl2/H2O2) conditions. The rate of degradation was monitored by changes of samples mass, morphology of surface and their thermal properties. Despite the small weight losses of samples, the changes of thermal properties of polymers and topography of their surface indicated that they were susceptible to gradual degradation under oxidative and hydrolytic conditions. Blends of PDLLA and polyurethane with 30 wt% of R,S-PHB in soft segments and PUR/PDLLA blends absorbed more water and degraded faster than polyurethane with low amount of R,S-PHB.
    • Degradability of cross-linked polyurethanes/chitosan composites

      Brzeska, Joanna; Morawska, Magda; Heimowska, Aleksandra; Sikorska, Wanda; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Marek; Rutkowska, Maria (IChP Warsaw, 2017-07)
      Polyurethanes with synthetic poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) in the soft segment and with polycaprolactone triol as cross-linker were blended with chitosan and degraded in hydrolytic and oxidative solutions. Progress of the degradation of the samples was evaluated by changes in their weight, surface topography and thermal properties. Increasing the poly([R,S]-3-hydroxybutyrate) content in soft segment as well as blending with chitosan resulted in an increase in degradability of cross-linked polyurethanes in both solutions.
    • Dengue virus in Sri Lanka: an observational study from 2014-2018

      Aslam, Fahim (Scientific Research & Community, 2020-10-23)
      Dengue virus is one of major public heath burden in several countries, it is described to be “a fast-emerging pandemic prone viral disease” by the WHO and is one of the most common form of vector borne diseases worldwide. The disease is transmitted through the female Aedes mosquito and most commonly found in tropical countries. A reported 400 million reported dengue cases occur yearly and an estimated 3 billion people could be affected by the disease in the upcoming decade making it a global crisis. The disease is caused by four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV1-4) making it difficult for the treatment to work on the patients due to its different virulent mechanism. Using the data available from the Ministry of Health, Epidemiology Unit in Sri Lanka the dengue reported cases from 2014 to 2018 are analyzed over the five years to identify the trends and occurrence patterns.
    • Depression and state anxiety scores during assisted reproductive treatment are associated with outcome: a meta-analysis

      Purewal, Satvinder; Chapman, Sarah; van den Akker, O. B. A; University of Wolverhampton (2018-03-26)
      This meta-analysis investigated whether state anxiety and depression scores during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and changes in state anxiety and depression scores between baseline and during ART treatment are associated with treatment outcomes. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for studies to include in the meta-analysis. Meta-analytic data were analysed using random effects models to estimate standardised mean differences. 11 studies (2202 patients) were included. Women who achieved a pregnancy had significantly lower depression scores during treatment than women who did not become pregnant -0.302 (95% CI: -0.551 - -0.054, z = -2.387, p = 0.017; I2= 77.142%, p = 0.001). State anxiety scores were also lower in women who became pregnant -0.335 (95% CI: -0.582 - -0.087: z=-2.649, p=0.008; I2 =81.339%, p = 0.001). However, changes in state anxiety (d=-0.056; 95% CI: -0.195 - 0.082, z = -0.794; I2= 0.00%) and depression scores (d=-0.106; 95% CI: -0.296 - 0.085, z = -1.088; I2= 0.00%) from baseline to treatment were not associated with ART outcomes. Clinics should aim to promote better psychosocial care for patients to help them manage the psychological and physical demands ART treatment, giving realistic expectations.
    • Desert reclamation using Yellow River irrigation water in Ningxia, China

      Fullen, Michael A.; Fearnehough, W.; Mitchell, D.J.; Trueman, I.C. (Wiley, 1995-06)
      The effects of silt-laden Yellow River irrigation water on the properties of reclaimed dune sands were investigated at the Shapotou Research Station in Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. The practice resulted in distinct and rapid improvements in the physical and chemical properties of reclaimed desert soils. Irrigation led to the development of sandy loam topsoils, with up to 39 cm accumulating over 25 years of treatment. These topsoils had improved structure, greater soil organic matter contents and smaller bulk densities than buried desert sands. Geochemical analyses suggested river silt and sheep manure were making distinctive contributions to the improved soil fertility, with older topsoils having progressively greater concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn and Zn. Soil Cr concentrations are increasing and it seems appropriate that changes in heavy metal concentrations in irrigated soils are monitored.