• A 140-year-old specimen from the southern Trans-Fly region of Papua New Guinea proves that the Eastern Brownsnake, Pseudonaja textilis, was not a wartime or post-war introduction (Serpentes, Elapidae, Hydrophiinae)

      O'Shea, Mark; Doria, Giuliano; Petri, Massimo; Kaiser, Hinrich (Museo Civico di Storia Naturelle, Genova, 2016-10-20)
      Abstract: The medically important Australian elapid Pseudonaja textilis was first documented for the island of New Guinea in the 1950s, when specimens from the northern coast of the Papuan Peninsula were collected and identified. It was initially believed that these snakes were from an invasive population that established post-World War II, a concept generally accepted over following decades. More recently molecular evidence and additional specimens, from West New Guinea and the southern coast of the Papuan Peninsula, have suggested that the New Guinea populations are indigenous. However, no pre-World War II specimens have been found to dismiss the human-mediated introduction argument. We here present the earliest known Papuan voucher specimen of P. textilis, a juvenile from collections housed in Genoa made by Luigi Maria D’Albertis in 1876 that pre-dates all other vouchers and the New Guinea Campaign (1942-1945) of World War II by 77 and 66 years, respectively. We also discuss the origins of P. textilis in New Guinea, the history of its discovery, and the Pleistocene routes of its invasion from Australia.
    • A 300-year record of sedimentation in a small tilled catena in Hungary based on δ13C, δ15N, and C/N distribution

      Jakab, Gergely; Hegyi, István; Fullen, Michael A.; Szabó, Judit; Zacháry, Dóra; Szalai, Zoltán (Springer, 2018-01-04)
      Purpose Soil erosion is one of the most serious hazards that endanger sustainable food production. Moreover, it has marked effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) with direct links to global warming. At the same time, soil organic matter (SOM) changes in composition and space could influence these processes. The aim of this study was to predict soil erosion and sedimentation volume and dynamics on a typical hilly cropland area of Hungary due to forest clearance in the early eighteenth century. Materials and methods Horizontal soil samples were taken along two parallel intensively cultivated complex convex-concave slopes from the eroded upper parts at mid-slope positions and from sedimentation in toe-slopes. Samples were measured for SOC, total nitrogen (TN) content, and SOMcompounds (δ13C, δ15N, and photometric indexes). They were compared to the horizons of an in situ non-eroded profile under continuous forest. On the depositional profile cores, soil depth prior to sedimentation was calculated by the determination of sediment thickness. Results and discussion Peaks of SOC in the sedimentation profiles indicated thicker initial profiles, while peaks in C/N ratio and δ13C distribution showed the original surface to be ~ 20 cm lower. Peaks of SOC were presumed to be the results of deposition of SOC-enriched soil from the upper slope transported by selective erosion of finer particles (silts and clays). Therefore, changes in δ13C values due to tillage and delivery would fingerprint the original surface much better under the sedimentation scenario than SOC content. Distribution of δ13C also suggests that the main sedimentation phase occurred immediately after forest clearance and before the start of intense cultivation with maize. Conclusions This highlights the role of relief in sheet erosion intensity compared to intensive cultivation. Patterns of δ13C indicate the original soil surface, even in profiles deposited as sediment centuries ago. The δ13C and C/N decrease in buried in situ profiles had the same tendency as recent forest soil, indicating constant SOM quality distribution after burial. Accordingly, microbiological activity, root uptake, and metabolism have not been effective enough to modify initial soil properties.
    • The Abject Dream of Neo-Capital: Capitalist Urbanism, Architecture and Endangered Liveability of the Middle East’s Modern Cities

      Abdelmonem, Mohamed Gamal (Open House International, 2016-06-01)
      This article interrogates the notion of “New Capital” in the context of the hegemony of neoliberal urbanism in the Arab cities in the Middle East from historical, socio-economic and spatial perspectives. It reviews the historical narratives of new centres and districts in Cairo, Beirut and evolving capitalist urbanism and architecture in the Arabian Peninsula in search of elitist dream of neo-liberal urbanism. It offers a comprehensive analysis to the notions of neoLiberal ideology and urban policies, neoCapital city as catalyst for nation-building and neoCapitalist architecture as reproduction of clone structures of western models. The paper focuses its critical analysis on the aspects of liveability in the contemporary Arab City and its socio-spatial structures and everyday urban reality. It reports on urban narratives based on archival records, urban projects and investigation of governmental accounts to determine aspects of success and failure in projects of new capital cities and districts. It argues that cities are essentially social-spatial system in which hierarchy is a fundamental element, the lack of which determines abject failure of their anticipated vision.
    • An activity-based integrated land-use transport model for urban spatial distribution simulation

      Niu, Fangqu; Li, Jun (SAGE Publications, 2017-04-28)
      This research develops an activity-based integrated land use/transport interaction model based on the concepts – activities (mainly, households and employment activities), activity location and relocation for Chinese regions. It consists of a residential and employment location sub-model, a transport sub-model and an implicit real estate rent adjustment sub-model. The model is developed to model the urban activity distribution evolution, predict urban spatial development trends and examine various planning decision implications. It spatially distributes household and employment activity change of a study area by zone based on the current activity distribution, land use policies and the accessibilities of the zones. The model is subsequently calibrated to predict the distribution of households and employment activities in Beijing metropolitan area in 2025. Model results show that the resident and employment densities are still high in central Beijing in 2025, and most zones’ resident densities are higher than their employment densities. However, there is also significant population density increase along the 6th ring road, indicating the relocation trend of the residents and businesses to the outskirts. This is consistent with the government objectives to decentralize activities within the central urban area. The paper also suggests that the model should be used mainly in examining the possible differences arising from the adoption of different policies though predicting future of a city distribution proves feasible.
    • Adoption of BIM by architectural firms in India: technology–organization–environment perspective

      Ahuja, Ritu; Jain, Megha; Sawhney, Anil; Arif, Mohammed (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-25)
      Building information modelling (BIM) is being heralded as a remarkable innovation in the built environment sector with expectations of lofty sector-wide improvements. Some countries have shown remarkable levels of uptake of BIM, along the way documenting some evidence of benefits stemming from BIM. However, countries such as India and China are late entrants in the BIM adoption journey and are seeing a slower adoption rate. This study develops a model using the technology–organization–environment framework to study the factors influencing BIM adoption by architectural firms in India and reasons for this slow adoption. The proposed model of BIM adoption is tested using the partial least square method against responses collected from 184 industry professionals based in India. Findings reveal that the adoption of BIM by Indian architectural firms is at the ‘experimentation’ stage with variables such as expertise, trialability, and management support exhibiting a strong positive influence on BIM adoption. The study also explains the status of BIM adoption in India with the help of a multi-level social construct, which places the level of BIM adoption in India between the micro- and meso-levels of organizational scales. Similarities and dissimilarities with previous findings are discussed in the paper to highlight the findings of this study.
    • Adsorption of hydrocarbons from industrial wastewater onto a silica mesoporous material: Structural and thermal study

      Maretto, Moreno; Vignola, Rodolfo; Williams, Craig D.; Bagatin, Roberto; Latini, Alessandro; Petrangeli Papini, Marco (2015-02)
    • Agglomerated novel spray-dried lactose-leucine tailored as a carrier to enhance the aerosolization performance of salbutamol sulfate from DPI formulations

      Molina, Carlos; Kaialy, Waseem; Chen, Qiao; Commandeur, Daniel; Nokhodchi, Ali (Springer, 2017-12-19)
      Spray-drying allows to modify the physicochemical/mechanical properties of particles along with their morphology. In the present study, L-leucine with varying concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% w/v) were incorporated into lactose monohydrate solution for spray-drying to enhance the aerosolization performance of dry powder inhalers containing spray-dried lactoseleucine and salbutamol sulfate. The prepared spray-dried lactose-leucine carriers were analyzed using laser diffraction (particle size), differential scanning calorimetry (thermal behavior), scanning electron microscopy (morphology), powder X-ray diffraction (crystallinity), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (interaction at molecular level), and in vitro aerosolization performance (deposition). The results showed that the efficacy of salbutamol sulfate’s aerosolization performance was, in part, due to the introduction of L-leucine in the carrier, prior to being spray-dried, accounting for an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of salbutamol sulfate from spray-dried lactose-leucine (0.5% leucine) in comparison to all other carriers. It was shown that all of the spray-dried carriers were spherical in their morphology with some agglomerates and contained a mixture of amorphous, α- lactose, and β-lactose. It was also interesting to note that spray-dried lactose-leucine particles were agglomerated during the spray-drying process to make coarse particles (volume mean diameter of 79 to 87 μm) suitable as a carrier in DPI formulations.
    • Application of Hilbert-Huang decomposition to temperature and currents data in the Réunion island

      Kbaier Ben Ismail, Dhouha; Lazure, Pascal; Puillat, Ingrid (MTS/IEEE, 2016-09)
    • Application of Open Pore Cellular Foam for air breathing PEM fuel cell

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Carton, J.G.; Stokes, J.; Olabi, A.G. (Elsevier, 2017-06)
      Open Pore Cellular Foam (OPCF) has received increased attention for use in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a flow plate due to some advantages offered by the material, including better gas flow, lower pressure drop and low electrical resistance. In the present study, a novel design for an air-breathing PEM (ABPEM) fuel cell, which allows air convection from the surrounding atmosphere, using OPCF as a flow distributor has been developed. The developed fuel cell has been compared with one that uses a normal serpentine flow plate, demonstrating better performance. A comparative analysis of the performance of an ABPEM and pressurised air PEM (PAPEM) fuel cell is conducted and poor water management behaviour was observed for the ABPEM design. Thereafter, a PTFE coating has been applied to the OPCF with contact angle and electrochemical polarisation tests conducted to assess the capability of the coating to enhance the hydrophobicity and corrosion protection of metallic OPCF in the PEM fuel cell environment. The results showed that the ABPEM fuel cell with PTFE coated OPCF had a better performance than that with uncoated OPCF. Finally, OPCF was employed to build an ABPEM fuel cell stack where the performance, advantages and limitations of this stack are discussed in this paper.
    • An approach to engineer paracetamol crystals by antisolvent crystallization technique in presence of various additives for direct compression.

      Kaialy, Waseem; Larhrib, Hassan; Chikwanha, Brian; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali (2014-04-10)
      Paracetamol is a popular over-the-counter analgesic and a challenging model drug due to its poor technological and biopharmaceutical properties such as flowability, compressibility, compactibility and wettability. This work was aimed to alter the crystal habit of paracetamol from elongated to polyhedral-angular via particle engineering whilst maintaining the stable polymorphic form (form I: monoclinic form). The engineered paracetamol crystals obtained in the present investigation showed better technological and biopharmaceutical properties in comparison to the commercial paracetamol. Engineered paracetamol crystals were obtained using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1%, w/w) of additives, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Avicel PH 102 (microcrystalline cellulose), Brij 58, methylcellulose (MC) and polyethylene glycol having different molecular weights (PEGs 1500, 6000 and 8000). Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of Avicel (or physically mixed with Avicel), Brij 58 and PEG 6000 demonstrated the best compactibility over a range of compaction pressures. Brij-crystallized paracetamol provided the fastest dissolution rate among all the paracetamol batches. Paracetamols crystallized in the presence of PVA or Avicel, or physically mixed with Avicel demonstrated a reduced degree of crystallinity in comparison to the other paracetamols. This study showed that the type, the grade and the concentration of additives could influence the physical stability such as flow, crystallinity and polymorphic transformation of paracetamol, the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of paracetamol. Stable polymorphic form of paracetamol with optimal tableting characteristics can be achieved through particle engineering.
    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) root colonization dynamics of Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench. in grasslands and post-industrial sites

      Bąba, Wojciech; Błońska, Agnieszka; Kompała-Bąba, Agnieszka; Małkowski, Łukasz; Ziemer, Barbara; Sierka, Edyta; Nowak, Teresa; Woźniak, Gabriela; Besenyei, Lynn (Elsevier, 2016-10)
      The aims of this studies were: (i) to examine the influence of heavy metal content (Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Cu) and other physico-chemical soil parameters on the level of root colonization of Molinia caerulea and (ii) to relate root colonisation parameters and soil variables to Molinia caerulea abundance in two contrasting habitats (grasslands and heavy metal contaminated sites). The sites differ significantly in terms of bio-available heavy metal contents, particularly Zn (34 times more than grasslands), soil texture, CaCO3, organic matter (LOI%), Mg and nitrate content. Principal Component Analysis showed the strong negative correlations between frequency of mycorrhization (F), arbuscular abundance (A%) and intensity of root cortex colonisation (M%) and concentration of bio-available Zn and Cd. Moreover, no positive correlation between root colonization of Molinia and its abundance was found. The frequency of mycorrhization of root fragments (F%) was only slightly different between these two habitats, whereas the intensity of root cortex colonisation (M%) and relative arbuscular abundance (A%) were significantly lower (3 and 4 times respectively) on the post-industrial sites. The bioavailable Zn content in the substratum of post-industrial sites was strongly negatively correlated with species richness, Shannon diversity index and Evenness. In contrast, these relationships were not statistically significant in grasslands. Based on obtained results we could draw a model of possible relationships between root colonization of Molinia, HM content and Molinia abundance on grasslands and post-industrial sites. Bioavailable Zn content in the soil is a one of main factors influencing the Molinia community diversity. In the grasslands, lower amounts of bioavailable Zn, resulted in higher species richness (R) and species diversity (H) which in turn lead to higher root colonization. On the other hand, on the post-industrial sites, the elevated bioavailable Zn content strongly decreases the plant species richness (R) and species diversity (H) and this caused the decline in root colonization parameters. The low species richness on Zn-polluted sites allowed Molinia to reach higher abundance since the competition with other species is reduced.

      Zawahir, Shukry; Hettiarachchi, Chathurangani; Morrissey, Hana (Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd, 2017-11-01)
      Objective: Anti-microbial resistance has become a global problem especially in developing countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of socio-demographic predictors amongst final year pharmacy undergraduates in Sri Lanka on their knowledge, perception and attitudes regarding antibiotic use.Methods: A questionnaire-based study involved final year pharmacy students from four public universities in Sri Lanka. Data on knowledge, attitudes and perception about the appropriate use of antibiotics were analysed. Ethics approval was granted by the university of Ruhuna Sri Lanka.Results: There was good general knowledge of antibiotics (mean=15.57), however, 46% said metronidazole is not an antibiotic, 82% said that the use of antibiotics speed-up the recovery from the common cold. Perception (p=0.033) and attitudes (p=0.028) of respondents from urban area were significantly higher than that of those from rural area.Conclusion: Clinical education for pharmacy undergraduates should have an in-depth focus on the rational of antibiotics use in Sri Lanka.
    • Assessment of bioavailability of some potential toxic metals in mining-affected soils using EDTA extraction and principle component analysis (PCA) approach, Derbyshire, UK

      Zahid, O, Alibrahim; Williams, Craig D. (Interdisciplinary Journal of Chemistry, 2016-12)
      The current study area has long mining history for copper, lead, and zinc. As a result, these metals may have elevated levels and pose a potential risk to the surrounding area. This area is currently being used for agriculture and sheep rearing, therefore, the bioavailable fraction of some selected heavy metals namely (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, and V) has been evaluated using 0.01 M EDTA procedure, as this would help for better understanding of the risk that these heavy metals can pose to living organisms. A total of 51 samples of topsoils, floodplain soils, and stream sediment soils were collected and analysed for their total concentrations using ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) optical emission spectroscopy. Results show that, depending on the bioavailable ratio, soil samples have the biggest EDTA extractable amount for all studied metals, except for Mn and Cr for which highest levels were found in the floodplain samples. However, based on national bioavailable mean amount in England and Wales, the amount of EDTA metal extractable for all selected metals from soil samples are exceeded the national average amounts of England and Wales, except for Mn and Ni, whereas in floodplain and stream sediment samples, all EDTA metals extractions are lower than the national mean levels, except Cu and Zn for flood plan samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) technique was performed to investigate how the bioavailable fractions of studied metals and factors namely (organic matter contents, soil pH, and different granulometric ranges) are correlated. Results show that both organic matter amounts and fine fractions (clay and silt) were the master factors controlling the bioavailable portion in all soil types.
    • An assessment of triboelectrification effects on co-ground solid dispersions of carbamazepine

      Kaialy, Waseem; Adebisi, Adeola O.; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R.; Asare-Addo, Kofi (Elsevier, 2016-05)
      One of strategies adopted to improve the dissolution rates of poorly soluble drugs is by co-grinding the drug with a hydrophilic carrier. However, the introduction of mechanical forces during the grinding process can lead to changes in the physicochemical characteristics as well as an increase in the surface free energy of the ground particles, which causes an alteration in the electrostatic properties of these particles. The solid state characteristics of glucosamine hydrochloride (GLU) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and their co-ground mixtures were studied using DSC, XRPD and SEM. These revealed that polymorphic transformations occurred due to the grinding process. The influence of grinding time on the triboelectrification properties of the formulations was also studied. Both pure CBZ and GLU powders were predominantly electro-positively charged and their charging properties increased with increasing grinding time. CBZ:GLU physical mixtures exhibited complicated bipolar charging behaviour, however, when subjected to grinding, these mixtures demonstrated mainly electronegative charge properties. The influence of both grinding time and CBZ content within CBZ:GLU mixtures was examined. The value of net-electronegative-charge density of CBZ:GLU mixtures was shown to increase with grinding time and/or when increasing the percentage proportion of CBZ up to 30% w:w. This study helps to provide information about the handling of these formulations and gives a formulator tools to ascertain appropriate ratios for handling and possible simultaneous dissolution improvements.
    • Bacterial-Derived Polymer Poly-y-Glutamic Acid (y-PGA)-Based Micro/Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Antimicrobials and Other Biomedical Applications

      Khalil, Ibrahim; Burns, Alan; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Khalaf, Tamara; Adamus, Grazyna; Johnston, Brian; Khechara, Martin (2017-02-02)
      Abstract: In the past decade, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-based micro/nanoparticles have garnered remarkable attention as antimicrobial agents and for drug delivery, owing to their controlled and sustained-release properties, low toxicity, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. γ-PGA is a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by several gram-positive bacteria that, due to its biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic properties, has been used successfully in the medical, food and wastewater industries. Moreover, its carboxylic group on the side chains can offer an attachment point to conjugate antimicrobial and various therapeutic agents, or to chemically modify the solubility of the biopolymer. The unique characteristics of γ-PGA have a promising future for medical and pharmaceutical applications. In the present review, the structure, properties and micro/nanoparticle preparation methods of γ-PGA and its derivatives are covered. Also, we have highlighted the impact of micro/nanoencapsulation or immobilisation of antimicrobial agents and various disease-related drugs on biodegradable γ-PGA micro/nanoparticles.
    • Barriers to early detection of cognitive impairment in the elderly despite the availability of simple cognitive screening tools and the pharmacist’s role in early detection and referral

      Abed, H; Ball, Patrick; Morrissey, Hana (Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia available via Wiley Online Library, 2017-07)
      Aim The aim of this review is to identify a suitable cognitive screening tool that can be used by the pharmacist during home medication review in addition to calculating the medications’ total anticholinergic burden (ACB). Data sources A search of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Medline and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant studies using the following keywords: ‘cognitive impairment’, ‘cognitive impairment AND diagnosis’, ‘cognitive scales’, ‘dementia’, ‘delirium’, ‘pharmacist role’, ‘mini-mental state examination (MMSE)’, ‘the Rowland dementia assessment scale (RUDAS)’, ‘the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognition (ADAS-Cog)’ and ‘barriers and problems’. Only informational websites, clinical trials and review articles were included. Results The MMSE, RUDAS, ADAS-Cog, Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale (PAS) and Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA-Cog) require specialist training. The anxiety and depression checklist (K10) and ‘worried about your memory’ (WAYM) can be self-administered without prior training. The ACB scoring system can also be used to determine the total medications ACB. Conclusion The K10 and WAYM can be used by the pharmacist during medication reviews to detect cognitive impairment early and refer the elderly for further medical care supported by the calculated score for the patient‘s total medications‘ ACB.
    • Barriers to MNEs green business models in the UK construction sector: An ISM analysis

      Abuzeinab, Amal; Arif, Mohammed; Qadri, Mohammad Asim (Elsevier, 2017-09)
      The environmental and economic benefits of green business models (GBMs) are considerable if current barriers can be identified and ways of overcoming them developed. In this study, barriers to GBMs are identified by conducting a qualitative study. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected UK construction sector experts from academia and industry and the results were obtained by applying thematic analysis. Five major categories of barriers emerged: government constraints; financial constraints; sector constraints; company constraints; and lack of demand. To understand the collective impact of these barriers, the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) method was used. The ISM-based model showed that government constraints are driving the rest of the barriers followed by financial and construction sector constraints equally then the by company constraints. Surprisingly, lack of demand appeared to have the least significance in hindering GBM transformation compared to the rest of the barriers. The results present a clear picture of the green construction market relevant to multinational enterprises (MNEs) intending to enter the UK. MNEs are therefore influenced by the government on strategic planning and capability building for GBMs. Effective engagement with the government will generate institutional advantages resulting in legitimacy and trust for MNEs in the UK markets.
    • Baseline and Triangulation Geometry in a Standard Plenoptic Camera

      Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Fiebig, Susanne; Pesch, Matthias (Springer, 2017-08-20)
      In this paper, we demonstrate light field triangulation to determine depth distances and baselines in a plenoptic camera. Advances in micro lenses and image sensors have enabled plenoptic cameras to capture a scene from different viewpoints with sufficient spatial resolution. While object distances can be inferred from disparities in a stereo viewpoint pair using triangulation, this concept remains ambiguous when applied in the case of plenoptic cameras. We present a geometrical light field model allowing the triangulation to be applied to a plenoptic camera in order to predict object distances or specify baselines as desired. It is shown that distance estimates from our novel method match those of real objects placed in front of the camera. Additional benchmark tests with an optical design software further validate the model’s accuracy with deviations of less than ±0.33% for several main lens types and focus settings. A variety of applications in the automotive and robotics field can benefit from this estimation model.
    • Behaviour and design of hexagonal concrete-filled steel tubular short columns under axial compression

      Hassanein, Mostafa Fahmi; Patel, Vipul Ishvarbhai; Bock, Marina (Elsevier, 2017-12)
      Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns have frequently been utilised in the construction of mid-rise and high-rise buildings as they offer smaller cross-sectional size to load carrying capacity ratio than ordinary reinforced concrete or steel solutions. The steel tube component of CFST columns can be shaped into different forms to further increase its strength and this article focuses on hexagonal CFST short columns in compression. Firstly, the literature is revised and it was found that the available experiments on the hexagonal columns cover relatively limited hexagonal dimensions and material properties. Additionally, existing design models were observed to be inaccurate for certain diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratios of the columns. Accordingly, this paper intends to widen the available pool of data and proposes a new design model to design hexagonal CFST short columns in compression. This is made herein through comprehensive finite element (FE) models by using Abaqus software, carefully validated against experimental results and subsequent parametric studies covering a wide range of hexagonal dimensions of regular cross-section (circular-like). The effect of various D/t ratios, material steel grades and concrete compressive strengths (fc′) on both the behaviour and strength of the hexagonal CFST short columns is investigated. Based on observations made and conclusions drawn upon analysing numerical data generated, a new design model is presented which provides better strengths compared with available design models and with accurate predictions for the full range of D/t ratios.