• Next-generation sequencing showing potential leachate influence on bacterial communities around a landfill in China

      Rajasekar, Adharsh; Sekar, Raju; Medina-Roldán, Eduardo; Bridge, Jonathan; Moy, Charles K S; Wilkinson, Stephen (Canadian Science Publishing, 2018-04-10)
      The impact of contaminated leachate on groundwater from landfills is well known, but the specific effects on bacterial consortia are less well-studied. Bacterial communities in a landfill and an urban site located in Suzhou, China, were studied using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. A total of 153 944 good-quality reads were produced and sequences assigned to 6388 operational taxonomic units. Bacterial consortia consisted of up to 16 phyla, including Proteobacteria (31.9%-94.9% at landfill, 25.1%-43.3% at urban sites), Actinobacteria (0%-28.7% at landfill, 9.9%-34.3% at urban sites), Bacteroidetes (1.4%-25.6% at landfill, 5.6%-7.8% at urban sites), Chloroflexi (0.4%-26.5% at urban sites only), and unclassified bacteria. Pseudomonas was the dominant (67%-93%) genus in landfill leachate. Arsenic concentrations in landfill raw leachate (RL) (1.11 × 103 μg/L) and fresh leachate (FL2) (1.78 × 103 μg/L) and mercury concentrations in RL (10.9 μg/L) and FL2 (7.37 μg/L) exceeded Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration standards for leachate in landfills. The Shannon diversity index and Chao1 richness estimate showed RL and FL2 lacked richness and diversity when compared with other samples. This is consistent with stresses imposed by elevated arsenic and mercury and has implications for ecological site remediation by bioremediation or natural attenuation.
    • Reply to the discussion by Ganesh on “Analysis of passive earth pressure modification due to seepage flow effects"

      Hu, Z; Yang, Z.X.; Wilkinson, Stephen (Canadian Science Publishing, 2017-09-13)
      Using an assumed vertical retaining wall with a drainage system along the soil–structure interface, this paper analyses the effect of anisotropic seepage flow on the development of passive earth pressure. Extremely unfavourable seepage flow inside the backfill, perhaps due to heavy rainfall, will dramatically increase active earth pressure while reducing passive earth pressure, thus increasing the probability of instability of the retaining structure. A trial and error analysis based on limit equilibrium is applied to identify the optimum failure surface. The flow field is computed using Fourier series expansion, and the effective reaction force along the curved failure surface is obtained by solving a modified Kötter equation considering the effect of seepage flow. This approach correlates well with other existing results. For small values of both the internal friction angle and interface friction angle, the failure surface can be appropriately simplified with a planar approximation. A parametric study indicates that the degree of anisotropic seepage flow affects the resulting passive earth pressure. In addition, incremental increases in the effective friction angle and interface friction angle both lead to an increase in passive earth pressure.