• Detection of genetically modified DNA in processed maize and soybean products in Nigeria

      Andrew, Chibuzor Iloh; Paul, Chidozie Onyenekwe; Opeolu, Oyejide Ojo (Academic Journals, 2018-08-29)
      Cultivation and commercial utilization of genetically modified (GM) crops has significantly increased in many parts of the world and particularly in developing countries where food security is a challenge. Despite stringent regulations requiring that food made from GM foods should be properly labelled, evidence of unlabelled foods made from GM crops sold in local markets in many of these countries is increasing. This challenge provides the justification for the development of a reliable, accurate and effective screening method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of specific genes in GM crops is a common method used in many parts of the world. This study adapted a PCR-based technique to screen for the presence of specific DNA markers of genetic modification in finished maize and soya products collected from selected supermarkets and local markets across Nigeria. Results obtained indicated that 26.7% of samples tested contain GM specific genes. GM specific genes were also detected in some made-in-Nigeria processed food samples. The findings indicate that products made with GMO materials have entered the food chain in Nigeria at a modest scale and identifies the need for capacity building in techniques for GMO detection for regulatory agencies in Nigeria.
    • Extracts of Jatropha curcas L. exhibit significant insecticidal and grain protectant effects against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

      Jide-Ojo, C; Gungula, Daniel T.; Ojo, Opeolu O. (Academic Journals, 2013-10-31)
      Phytochemical composition of leaf extracts as well as biological effects of juice, leaf extracts and seed oil of Jatropha curcas against Sitophilus zeamis were examined. The study also investigated the inhibition of oviposition, progeny production and grain damage, insecticidal effects and mammalian toxicity of the extracts. Compared to other phytochemicals, the concentration of saponin and cardiac glycoside were higher in the leaf extract. All extracts of J. curcas (0 – 100 ppm) investigated showed a dose-dependent inhibition of ovisposition, progeny production and promote significant (P < 0.001) insect mortality. Grains pre-treated with seed oil produced the highest result for all the parameters. The seed oil (100 ppm) produced 93% (P < 0.001) protection against grain damage by Sitophilus zeamis. Observable physical deformities were observed in rats administered with graded doses of the seed oil as opposed to other extracts. Administration of a single dose of the extracts produced significant (P < 0.01) elevation of serum level of alanine (ALT) and aspartic (AST) transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in rats.