• Crotalus oreganus concolor: Envenomation Case with Venom Analysis and a Diagnostic Conundrum of Myoneurologic Symptoms

      Keyler, Daniel E; Saini, Vinay; O'Shea, Mark; Gee, Jeff; Smith, Cara F; Mackessy, Stephen P; Department of Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address: keyle001@umn.edu. (Elsevier, 2020-03-12)
      A case of midget-faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) envenomation of an adult male professional herpetologist occurred in a rural setting and resulted in an array of venom induced myoneurologic symptoms. The patient experienced blurry vision, total body paresthesia, dyspnea, chest tightness, and waves of spastic muscle movements of the hands and feet that resembled tetany. It was not apparent whether these symptoms were potentially venom induced or were related to stress-induced physiologic responses. Local envenomation effects were minimal, and coagulation parameters remained within normal limits. Antivenom was not administered per patient concerns related to a history of acute allergic reactions to antivenom. Venom was collected from the Crotalus oreganus concolor responsible for the bite, and analysis revealed the presence of high levels of myotoxins (SR calcium pump antagonists) and concolor toxin, a presynaptic neurotoxin that can have myotoxic effects and cause respiratory paralysis; several serine proteinases associated with coagulopathies were also present in the venom profile.