• A review of photovoltaic module technologies for increased performance in tropical climate

      Ogbomo, Osarumen O.; Amalu, Emeka H.; Ekere, N.N.; Olagbegi, P.O. (Elsevier, 2016-11-23)
      The global adoption and use of photovoltaic modules (PVMs) as the main source of energy is the key to realising the UN Millennium Development Goals on Green Energy. The technology – projected to contribute about 20% of world energy supply by 2050, over 60% by 2100 and leading to 50% reduction in global CO2 emissions – is threatened by its poor performance in tropical climate. Such performance discourages its regional acceptance. The magnitude of crucial module performance influencing factors (cell temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) reach critical values of 90 °C, 0.2 m/s and 85%, respectively in tropical climates which negatively impact module performance indices which include power output (PO), power conversion efficiency (PCE) and energy payback time (EPBT). This investigation reviews PVM technologies which include cell, contact and interconnection technologies. It identifies critical technology route(s) with potential to increase operational reliability of PVMs in the tropics when adopted. The cell performance is measured by PO, PCE and EPBT while contacts and interconnections performance is measured by the degree of recombination, shading losses and also the rate of thermo-mechanical degradation. It is found that the mono-crystalline cell has the best PCE of 25% while the Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) cell has the lowest EPBT of 8-months. Results show that the poly-crystalline cell has the largest market share amounting to 54%. The CdTe cell exhibits 0% drop in PCE at high-temperatures and low irradiance operations – demonstrating least affected PO by the conditions. Further results establish that back contacts and back-to-back interconnection technologies produce the least recombination losses and demonstrate absence of shading in addition to possessing longest interconnection fatigue life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a PVM comprising CdTe cell, back contacts and back-to-back interconnection technologies as the technology with latent capacity to produce improved performance in tropical climates.
    • A state of the art of required techniques for employing activated carbon in renewable energy powered adsorption applications

      Elsayed, Ahmed M.; Askalany, Ahmed A.; Shea, Andrew D.; Dakkama, Hassan J.; Mahmoud, Saad; Al-Dadah, Raya; Kaialy, Waseem (Elsevier, 2017-05-24)
      This paper reviews, for the first time, the measurement adsorption characteristics techniques to facilitate optimal testing of the validity of adsorbent materials in adsorption applications. Thermo-physical properties, adsorption characteristics and modelling techniques are presented. The characterisation of material thermo-physical properties includes true and bulk densities, specific heat capacity, surface area, pore volume distribution and thermal conductivity. The adsorption characteristics were categorized into adsorption isotherms and kinetics including experimental and theoretical equations. A range of models used in the simulation of adsorption cooling systems is presented and discussed. The paper highlights the conditions for which each measurement technique is most suitable and the limitations of modelling techniques, which is a vital element in the robust assessment of the performance of adsorption cooling units.
    • Comprehensive investigation on hydrogen and fuel cell technology in the aviation and aerospace sectors

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Wilberforce, Tabbi; Ramadan, Mohamad; Olabi, Abdul G. (Elsevier, 2019-02-27)
      The world energy consumption is greatly influenced by the aviation industry with a total energy consumption ranging between 2.5% and 5%. Currently, liquid fossil fuel, which releases various types of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, is the main fuel in the aviation industry. As the aviation industry grows rapidly to meet the requirements of the increased world population, the demand for environmentally friendly power technology for various applications in the aviation sector has been increased sharply in recent years. Among the various clean power sources, energy obtained from hydrogen is considered the future for energy generation in the aviation industry due to its cleanness and abundance. This paper aims to give an overview of the potential aviation applications where hydrogen and fuel cell technology can be used. Also, the major challenges that limit the wide adoption of hydrogen technology in aviation are highlighted and future research prospects are identified.
    • Operation and planning of distribution networks with integration of renewable distributed generators considering uncertainties: A review

      Zubo, RHA; Mokryani, G; Rajamani, HS; Aghaei, J; Niknam, T; Pillai, P (Elsevier BV, 2016-10-29)
      © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Distributed generators (DGs) are a reliable solution to supply economic and reliable electricity to customers. It is the last stage in delivery of electric power which can be defined as an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer site. It is necessary to allocate DGs optimally (size, placement and the type) to obtain commercial, technical, environmental and regulatory advantages of power systems. In this context, a comprehensive literature review of uncertainty modeling methods used for modeling uncertain parameters related to renewable DGs as well as methodologies used for the planning and operation of DGs integration into distribution network. The authors strongly recommend this review to researchers, scientists and engineers who are working in this field of research work.