• A comparative study of three-dimensional printing directions: The degradation and toxicological profile of a PLA/PHA blend

      Gonzalez Ausejo, Jennifer; Rydz, Joanna; Musioł, Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Sobota, Michał; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Adamus, Grażyna; Janeczek, Henryk; Kwiecień, Iwona; Hercog, Anna; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-04-17)
      The use of biobased plastics is of great importance for many applications. Blending thermoplastic polylactide (PLA) with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) enables the formulation of a more mechanically powerful material and this enables tailored biodegradation properties. In this study we demonstrate the 3D printing of a PLA/PHA blend as a potential candidate for biocompatible material applications. The filament for 3D printing consisted of PHA, which contains predominantly 3-hydroxybutyrate units and a small amount of 3-hydroxyvalerate units, as revealed by multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). This research found that the properties of 3D printed species before and during abiotic degradation are dependent on printing orientation. Furthermore, the 3D printed specimens exhibited good biocompatibility with HEK293 cells, indicating real promise as biological scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
    • Three-dimensional printing of PLA and PLA/PHA dumbbell-shaped specimens of crisscross and transverse patterns as promising materials in emerging application areas: Prediction study

      Gonzalez Ausejo, Jennifer; Rydz, Joanna; Musioł , Marta; Sikorska, Wanda; Janeczek, Henryk; Sobata, Michał; Włodarczyk, Jakub; Szeluga, Urszula; Hercog, Anna; Kowalczuk , Marek (Elsevier, 2018-08-18)
      This paper presents ex-ante examination of advanced polymer materials to detect defects and define and minimize the potential failure of novel polymer products before they arise. The effect of build directions on the properties of dumbbell-shaped specimens obtained by three-dimensional printing from polylactide and polylactide/polyhydroxyalkanoate commercial filaments was investigated, as well as the hydrolytic degradation of these specimens at 50 ºC and 70 ºC. Taking into account previous studies, we have found further dependences of the properties of 3D printed species before and during abiotic degradation from the orientation of printing. The initial assumption that only the contact time with the 3D printer platform leads to an increase in the crystalline phase during printing turned out to be insufficient. Further investigations of individual parts of the dumbbell-shaped specimens showed that the size of the specimens’ surface in contact with the platform also affected the structural ordering of the material.