• The cellular pathways and potential therapeutics of polycystic kidney disease

      Richards, T; Modarage, K; Malik, SA; Goggolidou, P; Department of Biomedical Science and Physiology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, U.K. (Portland Press, 2021-06-22)
      Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) refers to a group of disorders, driven by the formation of cysts in renal tubular cells and is currently one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. The range of symptoms observed in PKD is due to mutations in cilia-localising genes, resulting in changes in cellular signalling. As such, compounds that are currently in preclinical and clinical trials target some of these signalling pathways that are dysregulated in PKD. In this review, we highlight these pathways including cAMP, EGF and AMPK signalling and drugs that target them and may show promise in lessening the disease burden of PKD patients. At present, tolvaptan is the only approved therapy for ADPKD, however, it carries several adverse side effects whilst comparatively, no pharmacological drug is approved for ARPKD treatment. Aside from this, drugs that have been the subject of multiple clinical trials such as metformin, which targets AMPK signalling and somatostatins, which target cAMP signalling have shown great promise in reducing cyst formation and cellular proliferation. This review also discusses other potential and novel targets that can be used for future interventions, such as β-catenin and TAZ, where research has shown that a reduction in the overexpression of these signalling components results in amelioration of disease phenotype. Thus, it becomes apparent that welldesigned preclinical investigations and future clinical trials into these pathways and other potential signalling targets are crucial in bettering disease prognosis for PKD patients and could lead to personalised therapy approaches.
    • Novel biomarkers in kidney disease: roles for cilia, Wnt signalling and ATMIN in polycystic kidney disease

      Goggolidou, P.; Wilson, P.D. (Portland Press Ltd, 2016-12-16)
      Biomarkers, the measurable indicators of biological conditions, are fast becoming a popular approach in providing information to track disease processes that could lead to novel therapeutic interventions for chronic conditions. Inherited, chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and although pharmacological treatments exist for some conditions, there are still patients whose only option is kidney dialysis and kidney transplantation. In the past 10 years, certain chronic kidney diseases have been reclassified as ciliopathies. Cilia in the kidney are antenna-like, sensory organelles that are required for signal transduction. One of the signalling pathways that requires the primary cilium in the kidney is Wnt signalling and it has three components such as canonical Wnt, non-canonical Wnt/planar cell olarity (PCP) and non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signalling. Identification of the novel role of ATM INteractor (ATMIN) as an effector molecule in the non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway has intrigued us to investigate its potential role in chronic kidney disease. ATMIN could thus be an important biomarker in disease prognosis and treatment that might lighten the burden of chronic kidney disease and also affect on its progression.