• Does the use of open, non-anonymous peer review in scholarly publishing introduce bias? Evidence from the F1000Research post-publication open peer review publishing model

      Allen, Liz; Papas, Eleanor-Rose; Nyakoojo, Zena; Weigert, Verena; Thelwall, Michael (SAGE, 2020-12-31)
      As part of moves towards open knowledge practices, making peer review open is cited as a way to enable fuller scrutiny and transparency of assessments around research. There are now many flavours of open peer review in use across scholarly publishing, including where reviews are fully attributable and the reviewer is named. This study examines whether there is any evidence of bias in two areas of common critique of open, non-anonymous (named) peer review – and used in the post-publication, peer review system operated by the open-access scholarly publishing platform F1000Research. First, is there evidence of potential bias where a reviewer based in a specific country assesses the work of an author also based in the same country? Second, are reviewers influenced by being able to see the comments and know the origins of a previous reviewer? Based on over 4 years’ of open peer review data, we found some evidence, albeit weak, that being based in the same country as an author may influence a reviewer’s decision, while there was insufficient evidence to conclude that being able to read an existing published review prior to submitting their review encourages conformity. Thus, whilst immediate publishing of peer review reports appears to be unproblematic, caution may be needed when selecting same-country reviewers in open systems if other studies confirm these results.
    • The conundrum of professionalising building surveying in Malaysia

      Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Rashid; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: To track the series of failed attempts by a few like-minded persons since the early 1980s to entrench building surveying as a profession in Malaysia. Design/ methodology/approach: Data were sourced from elite interviews with authoritative individuals who have been championing building surveying as a profession and supplemented by secondary sources. Findings: Established professional bodies became hostile to what they perceived as attempts to encroach into their professional jurisdictions. There was even a move to subjugate building surveyors to auxiliary role. The ultimate aim to obtain statutory ‘ring fence’ around the proposed building surveyeing profession did not find favour with lawmakers. Practical implications: Late-comers face an uphill challenge in negotiating for legitimacy from established professions and lawmakers alike in a situation when no new work demand avails. Building surveyors in Malaysia either wait for external changes which would allow their traditional role to be formally recognised, or take up new specialisations. Originality/ value: New empirical findings were uncovered. The main contribution lies in demonstrating the applicability of the various sociological perspectives for studies on professions in the construction industry.
    • Psychopharmacological management of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms. A review

      Mishriky, Raafat; Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Jishi, Abdul Sammad (Journalcmpr.com, 2020-12-31)
      Evidence based medicine suggest that implementations of a clinical protocol for the management of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms improves patient’s outcome. Clinical guidelines were developed by several institutions mainly to ensure high quality, person centered, and safe management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms with a large variation in the local practice especially in the management of unplanned alcohol withdrawal with regards to the regime, choice of benzodiazepines and appropriate vitamin supplementation. Various health organizations advise integration of training for alcohol withdrawal management. Timely assessments and staff education increase patient monitoring, create a safer and caring environment, reduce the risks including agitation to staff and other patients and enhance the quality of care. This review looked at the various National Health Services Hospitals with guidelines and protocols providing a comprehensive review for the acute management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
    • Optimising driver profiling through behaviour modelling of in-car sensor and global positioning system data

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pillai, Prashant (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Connected cars have a massive impact on the automotive sector, and whilst this catalyst and disruptor technology introduce threats, it brings opportunities to address existing vehicle-related crimes such as carjacking. Connected cars are fitted with sensors, and capable of sophisticated computational processing which can be used to model and differentiate drivers as means of layered security. We generate a dataset collecting 14 hours of driving in the city of London. The route was 8.1 miles long and included various road conditions such as roundabouts, traffic lights, and several speed zones. We identify and rank the features from the driving segments, classify our sample using Random Forest, and optimise the learning-based model with 98.84% accuracy (95% confidence) given a small 10 seconds driving window size. Differences in driving patterns were uncovered to distinguish between female and male drivers especially through variations in longitudinal acceleration, driving speed, torque and revolutions per minute.
    • Framework for sustainable risk management in the manufacturing sector

      Oduoza, Chike (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Risk management is a huge challenge for business managers especially in the manufacturing engineering sector, and if not proactively controlled can lead to under performance and sometimes cessation of activities for some companies. It is common knowledge that poorly managed risks can have an adverse effect on performance while proactive and systematic control of key risk variables in a business environment could generate successful outcomes. The work carried out here has developed a framework for risk management affordable and suitable for use especially by small and medium size enterprises in the manufacturing sector. Using a combination of Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) search algorithms, it was possible to search and identify key risk indicators that could undermine business performance (measured in terms of cost, time, quality and safety) from a system database, and thereby manage (monitor, identify, analyse, reduce, accept or reject their impact) them. The conclusion drawn from the study is that risk management for a manufacturing process can be successfully achieved if risk factors which have a negative impact on project cost, quality of delivery, lead cycle and takt time and health and safety of workers can be identified using BBN and minimised using the framework developed in this study.
    • Conceptual model for cloud computing adoption in upstream oil & gas sector

      Lawan, Mahmud; Oduoza, Chike; Buckley, Kevan (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Cloud computing is a paradigm which offers IT services such as storage, network and processing power via the internet. The technology has gained popularity in recent years with adoption in different sectors due to the numerous benefits it offers such as scalability, flexibility and cost reduction. Although some are quick adopters, others are considered cautious adaptors. The upstream oil and gas industry fall under the latter category due to some challenges with regards to adoption decision. Migrating to a cloud platform depends on a number of factors. A clear understanding of these factors is necessary to enable decision makers in the industry to be more proactive and appropriately guided in their plan towards adoption. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors that may influence cloud adoption in the industry. A literature review was conducted in order to propose an integrated model, which is a combination of the Technology environment organisation (TOE) framework, institutional theory, and diffusion of innovation. The model groups the factors into three fundamental categories. In addition, the study reports benefits of the cloud technology in the upstream oil and gas sector, challenges hindering adoption, as well as approaches by earlier researchers to support cloud migration in the industry.
    • A systems thinking approach for incremental reduction of non-physical waste

      Omotayo, Temitope; Olanipekun, A; Obi, Lovelin; Boateng, P (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: Continual cost reduction of overhead costs of building projects can realign the concept of post-contract cost control towards value driven construction projects and stakeholders satisfaction. This study synthesized and analysed the viable continuous improvement measures critical for waste reduction during the execution phase of a building project. Design/Methodology/approach: A review of existing literature facilitated a list of continuous improvement measures. This literature review findings enabled a Likert scale questionnaire which was administered to two-hundred and fifty (250) small and medium scale construction companies (SMSCC) in Nigeria. Multiple linear regression statistical tests deduced the significant cost reduction measure from which a causal loop diagram was designed to indicate continuous improvement measures during the execution phase of a building project. Findings: Cogent construction activities associated with overhead costs were deduced from the statistical tests as being payment of suppliers and subcontractors; and purchase orders. An all-inclusive casual loop model for cost reduction through waste minimisation in construction projects as a viable oriented mechanism for meeting clients’ requirements was developed. Practical implications: The causal loop continuous improvement model recognised external and internal factors which are crucial for SMSCC to focus on for their organisational growth and performance enhancement. Originality or value: A focus on non-physical waste in construction organisations potentially addresses behavioural challenges for continuous improvement.
    • Developments in the United Kingdom road transport from a smart cities perspective

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Jallow, Haddy (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: Smart city is a city which functions in a sustainable and intelligent way, by integrating all of its infrastructures and services in a cohesive way using intelligent devices for monitoring and control, to ensure efficiency and better quality of life for its citizens. As other countries globally, UK is keen for economic development and investment in smart city missions to create interest in monetary environment and inward investment. This paper explores the driving forces of smart road transport transformation and implementation in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved interviews with sixteen professionals from the UK road transport sector. A semi-structured interview technique was used to collect experts’ perception, which was then examined using content analysis. Findings: The results of the study revealed that the technological advancement is a key driver. The main challenges faced for the implementation of smart city elements in the UK road network are: lack of investment; maintenance; state of readiness and the awareness of the smart road transport concept. The study concludes that an understanding of the concept of smart cities from a road transport perspective is very important to create awareness of the benefits and the way it works. A wider collaboration between every sector is crucial to create a successful smart city. Originality/value: The study contributes to the field of digitalisation of road transport sector. This paper reveals the key driving forces of smart road transport transformation, the current status of smart road transport implementation in UK and challenges of the smart road transport development in the UK.
    • Pot, kettle: Nonliteral titles aren’t (natural) science

      Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-12-31)
      Researchers may be tempted to attract attention through poetic titles for their publications, but would this be mistaken in some fields? Whilst poetic titles are known to be common in medicine, it is not clear whether the practice is widespread elsewhere. This article investigates the prevalence of poetic expressions in journal article titles 1996-2019 in 3.3 million articles from all 27 Scopus broad fields. Expressions were identified by manually checking all phrases with at least 5 words that occurred at least 25 times, finding 149 stock phrases, idioms, sayings, literary allusions, film names and song titles or lyrics. The expressions found are most common in the social sciences and the humanities. They are also relatively common in medicine, but almost absent from engineering and the natural and formal sciences. The differences may reflect the less hierarchical and more varied nature of the social sciences and humanities, where interesting titles may attract an audience. In engineering, natural science and formal science fields, authors should take extra care with poetic expressions, in case their choice is judged inappropriate. This includes interdisciplinary research overlapping these areas. Conversely, reviewers of interdisciplinary research involving the social sciences should be more tolerant of poetic license
    • Iron deficiency, immunology and colorectal cancer

      Omar, Hafid; Phipps, Oliver; Brookes, Matthew (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-31)
      Excessive gut luminal iron contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence suggests that reduced iron intake and low systemic iron levels are also associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. This is important because patients with colorectal cancer often present with iron deficiency. Iron is necessary for appropriate immunological functions; hence, iron deficiency may hinder cancer immunosurveillance and potentially modify the tumor immune microenvironment, both of which may assist cancer development. This is supported by studies showing that patients with colorectal cancer with iron deficiency have inferior outcomes and reduced response to therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the immunological consequences of iron deficiency and suggest ensuring adequate iron therapy to limit these outcomes.
    • Developing a collaborative HBIM to integrate tangible and intangible cultural heritage

      Heesom, David; Boden, Paul; Hatfield, Anthony; Rooble, Sagal; Andrews, Katie; Berwari, Hadar (Emerald, 2020-12-01)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a collaborative Heritage BIM (HBIM) of a 19th Century multi-building industrial site in the UK. The buildings were Grade II listed by Historic England for architectural and structural features. The buildings were also a key element of the industrial heritage and folklore of the surrounding area. As the site was due to undergo major renovation work, this project was initiated to develop a HBIM of the site that encapsulated both tangible and intangible heritage data. Design/methodology/approach: The design of the research in this study combined multiple research methods. Building on an analysis of secondary data surrounding HBIM, a Community of Practice (CoP) was established to shape the development of a Heritage BIM Execution Plan (HBEP) and underpin the collaborative BIM development. The tangible HBIM geometry was predominantly developed using a scan to BIM methodology, whereas intangible heritage data was undertaken using unstructured interviews and a focus group used to inform the presentation approach of the HBIM data. Findings: The project produced a collaboratively generated multi-building Heritage BIM. The study identified the need for a dedicated HBEP which varies from prevailing BEPs on construction projects. Tangible geometry of the buildings were modelled to LOD3 of the Historic England guidelines. Notably, the work identified the fluid nature of intangible data and the need to include this in a HBIM to fully support design, construction and operation of the building after renovation. A methodology was implemented to categorise intangible heritage data within a BIM context and an approach to interrogate this data from within existing BIM software tools. Originality/Value: The work has presented an approach to the development of HBIM for large sites containing multiple buildings/assets. The framework implemented for a HBEP can be reproduced by future researchers and practitioners wishing to undertake similar projects. The method for identifying and categorising intangible heritage information through the developed Level of Intangible Cultural Heritage (LOICH), was presented as new knowledge. The development of HBIM to bring together tangible and intangible data has the potential to provide a model for future work in the field and augment existing BIM data sets used during the asset lifecycle.
    • Fluoxetine in the management of major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

      Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Plaha, Kiran; Girgis, Eriny; Mishriky, Raafat (Thomas Land Publishers Inc., 2020-12-01)
      Fluoxetine is a serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant and is the only approved pharmacological treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescent. We searched the published randomized controlled-trials (RCT) to review fluoxetine efficacy and tolerability using the databases PubMed, EUDRACT, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for fluoxetine role in managing MDD in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis was conducted using the identified 7 clinical trials to assess efficacy using the outcomes: Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), Clinical Global Impressions – Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impressions – Improvement (CGI-I) response rate. The risk of discontinuation due to adverse effects and common side effects were examined. The mean difference in change from baseline for CDRS-R was -2.72 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) -3.96, -1.48] favouring fluoxetine treatment (p<0.001). Similarly, mean difference for CGI-S was -0.21 [95% CI -0.36, -0.06]. The risk ratio (RR) of discontinuing due to adverse events was 0.98 [95% CI 0.54, 1.83], with RR for headache side effects 1.34 [95% CI 1.03, 1.74] and rash 2.6 [95% CI 1.32, 5.14]. Fluoxetine demonstrates significant improvements in symptom intensity control in young patients suffering from MDD and is considered well-tolerated with similar rates of trials discontinuation; however, fluoxetine was associated with a higher risk of headache and rash side effects. These findings will guide psychiatrists and pharmacists in their clinical role for supporting the care of young mental health patients.
    • Risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (Ckdu) in North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka: An analysis of evidence to date

      Aslam, Fahim (Acquaint Publications, 2020-12-01)
      Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is a global burden among the agricultural communities, this is a non-communicable disease (NCD) which is asymptomatic and irreversible until latter stages of the disease. The disease has no common features unlike chronic kidney diseases (CKD’s) making early detection impossible in the patients. The most recent form of CKDu was reported in India, known as the Indian CKDu in late 2010’s. In Sri Lanka, CKDu is highly prevalent in the north central province of the country with nearly15.1%-22.9% presented with the disease. This region is a dry-zone in which agricultural and farming activities are carried out as the main occupation. Several studies have been carried out linking CKDu to various factors such as heavy metals in water, agrochemicals, heat, dehydration and socio-demographics in NCP. Despite several researches being conducted none of them were able to prove the root cause and causative factors of the disease. Using the available articles online, studies from countries such as India, Nicaragua, Sri Lanka and South America were chosen in which heat stress, dehydration, heavy metal involvement, agrochemicals were common causative factors reported in these geographical locations. Several studies analyzed indicate that the affected CKDu population were part of the agricultural community in rural areas with less or no proper high school education and family history with CKDu. Recent findings do suggest that a combination study involving socio-demographical data and geographical data will help to end the CKDu debate worldwide and provide new insights into early diagnosis.
    • Data in brief: Can a mega-journal for data be useful?

      Thelwall, Michael (Springer Nature, 2020-12-01)
      As part of the current move towards open science, there is increasing pressure for scientists to share their research data. In support of this, several journals only publish descriptions of data generated from research: data papers. It is not clear whether this service encourages data reuse, however. This article assesses the prevalence and impact of the largest such journal, Data in Brief, comparing it with 24 other general or specialist data journals. The results show that Data in Brief became the largest data journal in 2016 and that its papers attracted over five Mendeley readers each, within a year of publication, as well as a non-trivial amount of citations. Its papers have been cited for relevance or facts contained in them in addition to acknowledging the reuse of associated datasets in about 1% of cases. Some papers describe electronic dataset whereas other papers embedded the tables or images that formed the shared data. Overall, the journal seems to make a positive contribution to science by enabling access to multiple types of data, even though its papers rarely lead to data reuse.
    • Google Books, Scopus, Microsoft Academic and Mendeley for impact assessment of doctoral dissertations: A multidisciplinary analysis of the UK

      Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Mike (MIT Press, 2020-12-01)
      A research doctorate normally culminates in publishing a dissertation reporting a substantial body of novel work. In the absence of a suitable citation index, this article explores the relative merits of alternative methods for the large-scale assessment of dissertation impact, using 150,740 UK doctoral dissertations from 2009-2018. Systematic methods for this were designed for Google Books, Scopus, Microsoft Academic, and Mendeley. Less than 1 in 8 UK doctoral dissertations had at least one Scopus (12%), Microsoft Academic (11%) or Google Books citation (9%), or at least one Mendeley reader (5%). These percentages varied substantially by subject area and publication year. Google Books citations were more common in the Arts and Humanities (18%), whereas Scopus and Microsoft Academic citations were more numerous in Engineering (24%). In the Social Sciences, Google Books (13%) and Scopus (12%) citations were important and in Medical Sciences, Scopus and Microsoft Academic citations to dissertations were rare (6%). Few dissertations had Mendeley readers (from 3% in Science to 8% in the Social Sciences) and further analysis suggests that Google Scholar finds more citations but does not report information about all dissertations within a repository and is not a practical tool for large-scale impact assessment.
    • How common are explicit research questions in journal articles?

      Thelwall, Michael; Mas-Bleda, Amalia (MIT Press, 2020-12-01)
      Although explicitly labelled research questions seem to be central to some fields, others do not need them. This may confuse authors, editors, readers and reviewers of multidisciplinary research. This article assesses the extent to which research questions are explicitly mentioned in 17 out of 22 areas of scholarship from 2000 to 2018 by searching over a million full-text open access journal articles. Research questions were almost never explicitly mentioned (under 2%) by articles in engineering, physical, life and medical sciences, and were the exception (always under 20%) for the broad fields in which they were least rare: computing, philosophy, theology and social sciences. Nevertheless, research questions were increasingly mentioned explicitly in all fields investigated, despite a rate of 1.8% overall (1.1% after correcting for irrelevant matches). Other terminology for an article’s purpose may be more widely used instead, including aims, objectives, goals, hypotheses, and purposes, although no terminology occurs in a majority of articles in any broad field tested. Authors, editors, readers and reviewers should therefore be aware that the use of explicitly labelled research questions or other explicit research purpose terminology is non-standard in most or all broad fields, although it is becoming less rare. Keywords: Research purpose statements; research article structures; research questions; research aims; research goals.
    • Conscious multisensory integration: Introducing a universal contextual field in biological and deep artificial neural networks

      Adeel, Ahsan (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-12-01)
      Conscious awareness plays a major role in human cognition and adaptive behaviour, though its function in multisensory integration is not yet fully understood, hence, questions remain: How does the brain integrate the incoming multisensory signals with respect to different external environments? How are the roles of these multisensory signals defined to adhere to the anticipated behavioural-constraint of the environment? This work seeks to articulate a novel theory on conscious multisensory integration that addresses the aforementioned research challenges. Specifically, the well-established contextual field (CF) in pyramidal cells and coherent infomax theory [1][2] is split into two functionally distinctive integrated input fields: local contextual field (LCF) and universal contextual field (UCF). LCF defines the modulatory sensory signal coming from some other parts of the brain (in principle from anywhere in space-time) and UCF defines the outside environment and anticipated behaviour (based on past learning and reasoning). Both LCF and UCF are integrated with the receptive field (RF) to develop a new class of contextually-adaptive neuron (CAN), which adapts to changing environments. The proposed theory is evaluated using human contextual audio-visual (AV) speech modelling. Simulation results provide new insights into contextual modulation and selective multisensory information amplification/suppression. The central hypothesis reviewed here suggests that the pyramidal cell, in addition to the classical excitatory and inhibitory signals, receives LCF and UCF inputs. The UCF (as a steering force or tuner) plays a decisive role in precisely selecting whether to amplify/suppress the transmission of relevant/irrelevant feedforward signals, without changing the content e.g., which information is worth paying more attention to? This, as opposed to, unconditional excitatory and inhibitory activity in existing deep neural networks (DNNs), is called conditional amplification/suppression.
    • How does nursing research differ internationally? A bibliometric analysis of six countries

      Thelwall, Michael; Mas-Bleda, Amalia (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020-12-01)
      Background: International nursing research comparisons can give a new perspective on a nation’s output by identifying strengths and weaknesses. Aim: This article compares strengths in nursing research between six mainly English-speaking nations (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States). Methods: Journal authorship (percentage first authorship by nationality) and article keywords were compared for Scopus-indexed journal articles 2008-18. Three natural language processing strategies were assessed for identifying statistically significant international differences in the use of key words or phrases. Results: Journal author nationality was not a good indicator of international differences in research specialisms, but key word and phrase differences were more promising especially if both are used. For this, the Part Of Speech tagging and Lemmatisation text processing strategies were helpful but not Named Entity Recognition. The results highlight aspects of nursing research that were absent in some countries, such as papers about nursing administration and management. Conclusion: Researchers outside the USA should consider the importance of researching specific patient groups, diseases, treatments, skills, research methods, and social perspectives for unresearched gaps with national relevance. From a methods perspective, key word and phrase differences are useful to reveal international differences in nursing research topics.
    • BIM in the water industry: Addressing challenges to improve the project delivery process

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Kamunda, Andrew; Jallow, Haddy (Emerald Publishing, 2020-12-01)
      Purpose The UK water industry is a private sector that has no government mandate to implement BIM but would benefit from its use. Research has identified that fragmentation and inefficiency still existed in the water industry project delivery processes. These issues can be addressed by harnessing the collaboration that Building Information Modelling (BIM) brings by using emerging information technology. The UK water industry has had little research in the use of BIM in the project delivery processes over the years. Design/methodology/approach The aim of the research is to explore and examine BIM elements currently used in the water industry, as well as understand the organisational cultural support for BIM. It also investigated the adoption of BIM which will enable to improve water industry project delivery processes. An empirical study was performed in the UK. Given the relatively new and unexplored nature of the research problem, a qualitative research methodology was adopted. In total, 14 semi-structured interviews from six water sector organisations were conducted to collect data, which was then analysed using thematic analysis for inference and conclusion. Findings The study identified that BIM has already changed how projects are delivered by the water companies and their supply chain. Use of emerging technology such as Autodesk Revit, Civil 3D, and virtual reality has gained traction and is leading organisations to continue investing in these areas to remain relevant. Although staff training was offered by all organisations within the study cohort, some interviewees still thought that more can be done by their organisations as BIM is still maturing. Those interviewed regarded BIM models as data and information rich with the ability to enable the supply chain to obtain quicker approvals. Originality/value The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of BIM elements used in the water industry to improve project delivery processes. This study shows that the water industry supply chain has taken positive steps and started to benefit from BIM use. It also recommends that there is a need for cross‐sector collaboration to capture and share best and worst practices relating to BIM adoption in the water sector.
    • Greater female first author citation advantages do not associate with reduced or reducing gender disparities in academia

      Thelwall, Michael; Sud, Pardeep (MIT Press, 2020-12-01)
      Ongoing problems attracting women into many Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects have many potential explanations. This article investigates whether possible under-citation of women associates with lower proportions of, or increases in, women in a subject. It uses six million articles published 1996-2012 across up to 331 fields in six mainly English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA. The proportion of female first and last authored articles in each year was calculated and 4968 regressions were run to detect first author gender advantages in field normalised article citations. The proportion of female first authors in each field correlated highly between countries and the female first author citation advantages derived from the regressions correlated moderately to strongly between countries, so both are relatively field-specific. There was a weak tendency in the USA and New Zealand for female citation advantages to be stronger in fields with fewer women, after excluding small fields, but no other association evidence. There was no evidence of female citation advantages or disadvantages to be a cause or effect of changes in the proportions of women in a field for any country. Inappropriate uses of career-level citations are a likelier source of gender inequities.