• Who shares health and medical scholarly articles on Facebook?

      Thelwall, Michael; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Barahmand, Nilofar (Wiley, 2020-01-31)
      Over a million journal articles had been shared on public Facebook pages by 2017, but little is known about who is sharing (posting links to) these papers and whether mention counts could be an impact indicator. This study classified users who had posted about 749 links on Facebook before October 2017 mentioning 500 medical and health-related research articles, obtained using altmetric.com data. Most accounts (68%) belonged to groups, including online communities, journals, academic organizations, and societies. Of individual profiles, academics accounted for only 4%, but the largest group were health care professionals (16%). More than half (58%) of all Facebook accounts examined were not academic. The non-academic dominance suggests that public Facebook posts linking to health-related articles are mostly used to facilitate scientific knowledge flow between nonacademic professionals and the public. Therefore, Facebook mention counts may be a combined academic and non-academic attention indicator in the health and medical domains.
    • Implementing HBIM on conservation heritage projects: Lessons from renovation case studies

      Woodward, Alexa; Heesom, David (Emerald Publishing, 2020-01-31)
      Purpose: Heritage or Historic BIM, often referred to as HBIM, is becoming an established feature in both research and practice. The advancement of data capture technologies such as laser scanning and improved photogrammetry, along with the continued power of BIM authoring tools has provided the ability to generate more accurate digital representations of heritage buildings which can then be used during renovation and refurbishment projects. Very often these representations of HBIM are developed to support the design process. What appears to be often overlooked is the issue of conservation and how this can be linked to the BIM process to support the conservation management plan for the building once it is given a new lease of life following the refurbishment process. Approach: The paper presents a review of the context of conservation and HBIM then subsequently presents two case studies of how HBIM was applied to high profile renovation and conservation projects in the UK. In presenting the case studies, a range of issues is identified which support findings from the literature noting that HBIM is predominantly a tool for the geometric modelling of historic fabric with less regard for the actual process of renovation and conservation in historic buildings. Findings: Lessons learnt from the case studies and from existing literature are distilled to develop a framework for the implementation of HBIM on heritage renovation projects to support the ongoing conservation of the building as an integral part of a BIM based asset management strategy. Five key areas are identified in the framework including Value, Significance, Recording, Data Management and Asset Management. Building on this framework, a conceptual overlay is proposed to the current Level 2 BIM process to support conservation heritage projects. Originality/Value: This paper addresses the issue of HBIM application to conservation heritage projects. Whilst previous work in the field has identified conservation as a key area, there is very little work focusing on the process of conservation in the HBIM context. This work provides a framework and overlay which could be used by practitioners and researchers to ensure that HBIM is fully exploited and a more standardised method is employed which used on conservation heritage renovation projects.
    • Encapsulation of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol with tetraethyl orthosilicate for CO2 capture

      Rama, Sidra; Zhang, Yan; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline; Ding, Yulong; Li, Yongliang (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      Carbon capture is widely recognised as an essential strategy to meet global goals for climate protection. Although various CO2 capture technologies including absorption, adsorption and membrane exist, they are not yet mature for post-combustion power plants mainly due to high energy penalty. Hence researchers are concentrating on developing non-aqueous solvents like ionic liquids, CO2-binding organic liquids, nanoparticle hybrid materials and microencapsulated sorbents to minimize the energy consumption for carbon capture. This research aims to develop a novel and efficient approach by encapsulating sorbents to capture CO2 in a cold environment. The conventional emulsion technique was selected for the microcapsule formulation by using 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) as the core sorbent and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the shell. This paper reports the findings on the formulated microcapsules including key formulation parameters, microstructure, size distribution and thermal cycling stability. Furthermore, the effects of microcapsule quality and absorption temperature on the CO2 loading capacity of the microcapsules were investigated using a self-developed pressure decay method. The preliminary results have shown that the AMP microcapsules are promising to replace conventional sorbents.
    • A graphical tool for assessing the suitability of a count regression model

      Wilson, Paul; Einbeck, Jochen (Österreichische Statistische Gesellschaft (Austrian Society for Statistics), 2019-12-31)
      Whilst many numeric methods, such as AIC and deviance, exist for assessing or comparing model fit, diagrammatic methods are few. We present here a diagnostic plot, which we refer to as a ‘Quantile Band plot’, that may be used to visually assess the suitability of a given count data model. In the case of diagnosed model inadequacy, the plot has the unique feature of conveying precise information on the character of the violation, hence pointing the data analyst towards a potentially better model choice.
    • An ISM approach to evaluate critical success factors for knowledge management strategies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

      Suresh Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al Nabt, Saeed; Sarrakh, Redouane; Algahtani, Khaled; Hessami, Ali (IntechOpen, 2019-12-31)
      The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) government aims to reduce fiscal deficit by improving efficiency, reducing costs, as well as its subsidies. This often calls for the creation, use and exploitation of new knowledge. Therefore, knowledge assets must be properly managed to provide an environment for well-informed decisions. The aim of this chapter was to investigate the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective implementation of KM strategies in the KSA public sector organisations. Qualitative results were derived from semi-structured interviews with 42 public sector directors and managers to gain insights into the topic being investigated. As revealed in the study, the CSFs for effective implementation of KM strategies are broad, but nine key CSFs stand out. The association between the identified factors is established by employing an interpretive structural modelling (ISM) methodology that is based on multi-criteria decision-making approach. The MICMAC (Matrix of Cross-Impact Multiplications Applied to Classification) analysis is carried out for identifying the factors having high influential power. The research result indicated that ‘leadership’ and ‘organisational culture’ are the most significant critical success factors having highest driving power. These factors are deemed to be most effective for adopting KM strategies in the KSA public sector organisations. The chapter concludes that the leadership plays a key role in implementing KM strategies in the KSA. Leadership is about preparing organisation with a KM vision and values. The findings of this research provide valuable insight and guidance which will help the public sector decision makers to accomplish KM strategies effectively.
    • A novel real-time, lightweight chaotic-encryption scheme to enable next-generation audio-visual hearing-aids

      Adeel, Ahsan; Ahmad, Jawad; Larijani, Hadi; Hussain, Amir (Springer Nature, 2019-12-31)
      Objective: Next-generation audiovisual (AV) hearing-aids stand as a major enabler to realise more intelligible audio. However, high data rate, low latency, low computational complexity, and privacy are some of the major bottlenecks to the successful deployment of such advanced hearing-aids. To address these challenges, we propose a novel framework based on an integration of 5G Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN), Internet of Things (IoT), and strong privacy algorithms to fully benefit from the possibilities these technologies have to offer. Background: Existing audio-only hearing-aids are known to perform poorly in noisy situations where overwhelming noise is present. Current devices make the signal more audible but remains deficient to restore intelligibility. Thus, we need hearing aids that can selectively amplify the attended talker or filter out acoustic clutter Methods: 1 The proposed 5G IoT enabled AV hearing-aid framework transmits the encrypted compressed AV information and receives encrypted enhanced reconstructed speech in real-time to address cybersecurity attacks such as location privacy and eavesdropping. For security implementation, a real-time lightweight AV encryption is proposed, based on a piece-wise linear chaotic map (PWLSM), Chebyshev map, and a secure hash and S-Box algorithm. For speech enhancement, the received secure AV (including lip-reading) information in the cloud is used to filter noisy audio using both deep learning and analytical acoustic modelling. To offload the computational complexity and real-time optimization issues, the framework runs deep learning and big data optimization processes in the background on the cloud. Results: The effectiveness and security of our proposed 5G-IoT-enabled AV hearing-aid framework are extensively evaluated using widely known security metrics. Our newly reported, deep learning-driven lip-reading approach for speech enhancement is evaluated under four different dynamic real-world scenarios (cafe, street, public transport, pedestrian area) using benchmark Grid and ChiME3 corpora. Comparative critical analysis in terms of both speech enhancement and AV encryption demonstrate the potential of our envisioned technology to deliver high quality speech reconstruction and secure mobile AV hearing aid communication. Conclusion: We believe that the proposed 5G IoT enabled AV hearing aid is an effective and feasible solution and represents a step change in the development of next generation multimodal digital hearing aids. The ongoing and future work includes more extensive evaluation and comparison with benchmark lightweight encryption algorithms and hardware prototype implementation.
    • Academic collaboration rates and citation associations vary substantially between countries and fields

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-12-31)
      Research collaboration is promoted by governments and research funders but if the relative prevalence and merits of collaboration vary internationally different national and disciplinary strategies may be needed to promote it. This study compares the team size and field normalised citation impact of research across all 27 Scopus broad fields in the ten countries with the most journal articles indexed in Scopus 2008-2012. The results show that team size varies substantially by discipline and country, with Japan (4.2) having two thirds more authors per article than the UK (2.5). Solo authorship is rare in China (4%) but common in the UK (27%). Whilst increasing team size associates with higher citation impact in almost all countries and fields, this association is much weaker in China than elsewhere. There are also field differences in the association between citation impact and collaboration. For example, larger team sizes in the Business, Management & Accounting category do not seem to associate with greater research impact, and for China and India, solo authorship associates with higher citation impact. Overall, there are substantial international and field differences in the extent to which researchers collaborate and the extent to which collaboration associates with higher citation impact.
    • Perception of university students on gender issues in the industry

      Suresh, Subashini; Abdul Aziz, Amal Hj; Stride, Mark; Hampton, Paul; Renukappa, Suresh (Springer, 2019-12-31)
      The UK construction industry is currently suffering from a skills shortage. There are many reasons and issues that surround this, however Office of National Statistics data shows only 13% of the construction industry is employed by females. This research study will discuss the perception of the construction industry by students studying construction subjects. The research within this study involved literature review and 12 qualitative interviews. The results revealed that there are campaigns to encourage women to join the constructions industry however there is still a stigma attached that the industry is scarred by discrimination harassment, pay equality and stereo typing that are deterring females from offering greater diversity, new ideas and a solution to the skills shortage from joining the industry. On this basis, a culture change and new legislation clearing up the major issues within the construction industry needs to be completed prior to remarketing the image of the industry campaigning enabling females to join the sector
    • A novel architecture to verify offline hand-written signature using convolutional neural network

      Alkaabi, Sultan; Yussof, Salman; Almulla, Sameera; Al-Khateeb, Haider; AAlAbdulsalam, Abdulrahman (IEEE, 2019-12-31)
      Hand-written signatures are marked on documents to establish legally binding evidence of identity and intent. However, they are prone to forgery, and the design of an accurate feature extractor to distinguish between highlyskilled forgeries and genuine signatures is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a Convolution Neural Network (CNN) architecture for Signature Verification (SV). The algorithm is trained using two signatures, genuine and forged. Then the SV module performs a classification task to determine if any two signatures are of the same individual or not. The simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve 27% (relatively) better results than the benchmark scheme. The paper also integrated different data augmentation techniques for the signature data, which further improved the efficiency of the proposed method by 14% (relative).
    • An analysis of diversity management in the construction industry: a case study of a main contractor

      Ramesh, Marasini; Daniel, Emmanuel; Haizelden, Julia (Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2019-12-31)
      In recent times there is an increasing argument for diversity and inclusivity in work places. Although the construction industry is moving forward to improve diversity, there is still a long way to create a more inclusive workforce. Not only are there legal requirements that organisations must adhere to following the release of the Equality Act 2010, there is also a moral and business case for managing diversity. It has been speculated that improving diversity and reaching out to wider talent pools could help improve the skills shortage that is currently affecting the industry. However, there is limited evidence to substantiate this claim in the construction industry context. The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical perspective on how diversity management would improve the construction industry and evaluate whether main contractors are managing diversity effectively. A theoretical framework was developed through the review of the literature to monitor the effectiveness of the DM strategies. A case study of one of the top ten major contractors in the United Kingdom has been carried out to see the extent to which the company is applying the diversity management requirements. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews with senior management mainly Director, Project Manager and Diversity Manager to understand their current approach to manage diversity, document analysis and observations. Following these interviews, a questionnaire was issued to all employees of the company to identify if the approach taken from senior management is working. The case study findings highlight that there are policies and tools in place to comply equality legislation and to improve and enhance diversity. There is a positive attitude to implement and maintain steps to improve diversity with some incentives. However, the results of the questionnaire survey reveal that the main contractor lacks diverse workforce as the employment of women or ethnic minorities; majority of women in the organisation are on lower level positions. There is limited evidence to quantify the productivity improvements, nevertheless majority of the respondents believed that diverse workforce enhances productivity.
    • Mendeley reader counts for US computer science conference papers and journal articles

      Thelwall, Mike (MIT Press, 2019-12-31)
      Although bibliometrics are normally applied to journal articles when used to support research evaluations, conference papers are at least as important in fast-moving computingrelated fields. It is therefore important to assess the relative advantages of citations and altmetrics for computing conference papers to make an informed decision about which, if any, to use. This paper compares Scopus citations with Mendeley reader counts for conference papers and journal articles that were published between 1996 and 2018 in 11 computing fields and had at least one US author. The data showed high correlations between Scopus citation counts and Mendeley reader counts in all fields and most years, but with few Mendeley readers for older conference papers and few Scopus citations for new conference papers and journal articles. The results therefore suggest that Mendeley reader counts have a substantial advantage over citation counts for recently-published conference papers due to their greater speed, but are unsuitable for older conference papers.
    • Bruxism and psychotropic medications

      Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Girgis, Eriny; Ayoub, Amin; Mishriky, Raafat (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Mental Health Disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar and schizoaffective disorders are often treated using psychotropic medications with evidence that some of these medications such as antipsychotics could be associated with significant oral side-effects. In this comprehensive review, we examine the psychotropic medications mechanisms of action and their oral side-effects, with specific focus on psychotropic medications and bruxism as a major oral health complication with a negative impact on the quality of life of mental health sufferers, relevant to psychiatrists, dentists and general practitioners. Bruxism could be caused by the antipsychotics extrapyramidal side-effects through dopaminergic receptors. Bruxism as a side-effect of psychotropic medications could result in significant consequences to oral health such as tooth structure destruction and irreversible harm to the temporomandibular joint. The review findings could assist in understanding the aetiology of bruxism, establish appropriate management plan, while supporting psychiatrists and dentists to detect temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMD) such as bruxism.
    • Author gender differences in psychology citation impact 1996-2018

      Thelwall, Michael (Wiley, 2019-12-31)
      Academic psychology in the USA is a gender success story in terms of overturning its early male dominance but there are still relatively few senior female psychology researchers. To assess whether there are gender differences in citation impact that might help to explain either of these trends, this study investigates psychology articles since 1996. Seven out of eight Scopus psychology categories had a majority of female first-authored journal articles by 2018. From regression analyses of first and last author gender and team size, female first authors associate with a slightly higher average citation impact, but extra authors have a ten times stronger association with higher average citation impact. Last author gender has little association with citation impact. Female first authors are more likely to be in larger teams and if team size is attributed to the first author’s work, then their apparent influence of female first authors on citation impact doubles. Whilst gender differences in average citation impact are too small to account for gender-related trends in academic psychology, they warn that male dominated citation-based ranking lists of psychologists do not reflect the state of psychology research today.
    • UK landscape ecology: trends and perspectives from the first 25 years of ialeUK

      Young, Christopher; Bellamy, Chloe; Burton, Vanessa; Griffiths, Geoff; Metzger, Marc J; Neumann, Jessica; Porter, Jonathan; Millington, James DA (Springer Nature, 2019-12-03)
      Context The 25th anniversary of the founding of the UK chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology (ialeUK) was marked in 2017. Objectives To assess trends in UK landscape ecology research over ialeUK’s first 25 years, to compare these trends to changes elsewhere in the world, and to consider how ialeUK can continue to support landscape ecology research and practice. Methods A database of conference abstracts was compiled and examined in combination with a questionnaire that surveyed existing and former active members of ialeUK. Results Across 1992–2017 we observe noticeable trends including the declining roles of statutory bodies, the development of the ecosystem services concept, and a decrease in use of empirical methods. Analysis of questionnaire results highlighted four key areas: Developing new researchers; Facilitating conferences for networking, learning and discussion; Linking policy with practice; and Driving the continued growth of landscape ecology as a discipline. Challenges were also noted, especially regarding the adoption of a wider understanding of landscape ecological principles in management. Conclusions Increases in qualitative research, decreases in studies explicitly examining connectivity/fragmentation and an absence of landscape genetics studies in the UK are seemingly distinct from US landscape ecology and elsewhere around the world, based on published accounts. ialeUK has had success in increasing the role of landscape ecology in policy and practice, but needs to continue to aim for improved collaboration with other landscape-related professional bodies and contributions to wider sustainability agendas.
    • Individuals in urban dwelling primate species face unequal benefits associated with living in an anthropogenic environment

      Marty, Pascal R; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Kaburu, Stefano; Hubbard, Josephine; Beisner, Brianne; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Ruppert, Nadine; Arlet, Małgorzata E; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Mohan, Lalit; et al. (Springer Nature, 2019-11-26)
      In primates, living in an anthropogenic environment can significantly improve an individual’s fitness, which is likely attributed to access to anthropogenic food resources. However, in non-professionally provisioned groups, few studies have examined whether individual attributes, such as dominance rank and sex, affect primates’ ability to access anthropogenic food. Here, we investigated whether rank and sex explain individual differences in the proportion of anthropogenic food consumed by macaques. We observed 319 individuals living in nine urban groups across three macaque species. We used proportion of anthropogenic food in the diet as a proxy of access to those food resources. Males and high-ranking individuals in both sexes had significantly higher proportions of anthropogenic food in their diets than other individuals. We speculate that unequal access to anthropogenic food resources further increases within-group competition, and may limit fitness benefits in an anthropogenic environment to certain individuals.
    • Smart city business models – A systematic literature review

      Shetty, Nisha; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Algahtani, Khaled (IEEE, 2019-11-21)
      Business models have routed its way through smart cities. This, being an important phenomenon for an organisations success the concept has not been defined accurately. Literature review defines this as fuzzy and vague concept despite its importance to organisations is tremendous. This paper advances our understanding of the business model concept by reviewing the different types of business models and business model definitions following a systematic literature review approach. The paper progresses with a comparison between the businesses models developed for the smart cities domain. The paper seeks to address the question - How are smart cities going to generate economic value?
    • Challenges for managing smart cities initiatives: An empirical study

      Abdalla, Wala; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al-Janabi, Razan (IEEE, 2019-11-21)
      Extensive urbanisation is increasing on a global scale. The urban population is estimated to rise to 66 per cent by 2050. This significant urbanisation growth drives the consumption of resources causing resource shortages and posing significant environmental and social concerns. To manage these concerns municipal decision makers' attempt to leverage the smart city concept with collaboration between external actors as a means to maintain the prepossessed living standard in the city. The philosophy of smart cities is to see challenges as opportunities and take advantage of other trends such as digitalization. Smart cities may offer a major market opportunity that can be easily exploited by information and communication technologies providers and their telecom equipment partners. However, although the opportunity exits, capitalizing on it is not as straightforward as it seems. This paper investigates the predominant challenges in smart city initiatives from the municipal decision makers' perspective. The study is based on the findings of a survey conducted via 65 participants from various small and medium enterprises and large organisations. The results show that smart cities decision makers mainly perceive challenges with various technical and non-technical issues such as collaboration, economical, governance, social acceptance, and awareness of technology, as well as high technological risk, security and privacy of users and cyber-crimes issues.
    • Innovative business models for smart cities – A systematic review

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Shetty, Nisha (Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication, 2019-11-21)
      Cities are the engines of growth for a nation. Smart technologies can help address the urban challenges and improve quality of life, economic opportunity, and liveability for citizens. Cities benefit from a transparent overview of best practice solutions to become smarter and from identifying best-suited solution providers. Companies that make cities smarter benefit from becoming more visible to cities around the globe with their newly developed or proven solutions. Innovative business models help accelerate the adoption of smart technologies. Various funding mechanisms have been used by cities to develop smart city projects. However, it has been revealed that the literature does not provide enough thoughts on these concepts. This paper provides an insight to the concept of innovative business models and the adoption of these in smart cities. Further the paper advances the understanding on the evolving business models and city procurement policies that could be used to accelerate smart city development. The paper seeks to address the question: What are the challenges faced by organisations and smart cities to develop a successful innovative business model? Cities have designed well defined strategies and are in the process of developing strategies for smart city. The paper address the challenges and functions of an innovative business model for development of smart cities
    • Antibiotics utilization patterns and direct cost in an emergency treatment unit in Sri Lanka

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, PATRICK A; ABERATHNA, ACHINI; Zawahir, Shukry (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2019-11-15)
      Objective: Anecdotal evidence suggested that antibiotics are frequently used in the Emergency Treatment Units in Sri Lanka, mostly for the respiratory tract, soft tissue or urinary tract infections. This study aimed to describe the utilization patterns of antibiotics in terms of most common type, indication and associated direct cost in ETU at the Teaching Hospital Karapitiya, Sri Lanka. Methods: In this study, utilization patterns and the direct cost of antibiotics in an emergency treatment unit was evaluated by checking the bed-head tickets of all patients admitted to the unit from 1/5/16 to 15/5/16. Out of the 414 bed-head tickets checked 156 patients were receiving antibiotic treatment. Socio-demographic characteristics were analyzed. The prices of antibiotics in SriLankan government hospitals were taken from the hospital medical supply division price list. Data were analyzed by Microsoft Excel™. Results: In this study, 45.5% (out of 156 patients) were aged between 61-80years. The most used antibiotic was amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (18.1%) and clarithromycin (15.5%). Generic antibiotics were used for most patients (95.58%). Fixed-dose combinations were used in 18.5% of cases, including amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam. The common indications for prescribing antibiotics were respiratory tract infections (31.2%) and soft tissues injuries (12.1%). Conclusion: This study revealed that there is apparent overuse of antibiotics and reveals that antibiotic stewardship programme could reduce antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and cost. Improved understanding of the rationale for antibiotic use would contribute optimising their use. Further studies are needed to establish the extent of sub-optimal prescribing of antibiotics in Sri Lankan hospitals.
    • Janus kinase enzyme (JAK) inhibitors and rheumatoid arthritis: a review of the literature

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick A; Askari, Ayman; NOURI, ABDULLA KHALID (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2019-11-15)
      Cytokines play an essential role in normal cell growth and the regulation of immune function. The emergence of Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors promises the start of a revolution in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Their efficacy and safety profile have been demonstrated in multiple trials and they have been licensed for the treatment of a number of diseases including RA and PsA. Moreover, the use of highly selective Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitors is currently being studied aiming to reduce side effects compared with traditional JAKinibs, an example of that would be the recent FDA approved upadacitinib. The Janus Kinase Enzyme inhibitorsmay supplant the classical biologic agents in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, since they exhibitthe advantages of oral administration, simultaneous blockade of multiple cytokines, reversibility and the lack of immunogenicity.