• Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-12-31)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • The effects of micro- and macro- habitat variables on tent construction in the tent-roosting bat Artibeus watsoni on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

      Brown, Scott; Kaburu, Stefano; Besenyei, Lynn (Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-12-31)
      Bats spend half of their lives in their roosts, which play vital roles in the life histories of the bats that occupy them. More than half of all bat species roost in foliage. Within the Neotropics, 17 species of bat are known to modify foliage into structures referred to as “tents”. Of these species, Thomas’s fruit eating bat (Artibeus watsoni) uses the widest range of plant species for roosts, constructing five different tent types. However, the factors influencing the distribution and quantity of tents are not fully understood for this species. The aims of our study were to investigate whether [1] micro-habitat characteristics influence the number of tents on individual plants and [2] macro-habitat features influence the frequency of plants used for tent-roosting in the surrounding landscape. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of tents was influenced by proximity to fresh water, with 48.8% of tents within 100 m of fresh water. Additionally, A. watsoni constructed tents in sheltered habitats with a high cover abundance of trees. These types of habitat areas should be targeted for conservation efforts to conserve this species.
    • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

      Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (David Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
    • COVID-19 and construction law: comparing the United Kingdom and Australian response

      Charlson, Jennifer; Dickson, Rebecca (Informa Business Intelligence, 2021-12-31)
    • Minimum energy transmission forest-based Geocast in software-defined wireless sensor networks

      Banerjee, Anuradha; Sufian, Abu; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyedali (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)-based geographic addressing and routing have many potential applications. Geocast protocols should be made energy efficient to increase the lifetime of nodes and packet delivery ratio. This technique will increase the number of live nodes, reduce message costs, and enhance network throughput. All geocast protocols in the literature of WSN apply mostly restricted flooding and perimeter flooding, which is why still the redundancy they produce significantly high message transmission costs and unnecessarily eats up immense energy in nodes. Moreover, perimeter flooding cannot succeed in the presence of holes. The present article models wireless sensor networks with software-defined constructs where the network area is divided into some zones. Energy-efficient transmission tree(s) are constructed in the geocast area to organize the flow of data packets and their links. Therefore, redundancy in the transmission is eliminated while maintaining network throughput as good as regular flooding. This proposed technique significantly reduces energy cost and improves nodes' lifetime to function for higher time duration and produce a higher data packet delivery ratio. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work on geocast in SD-WSNs.
    • Fuzzy-logic approach for traffic light control based on IoT technology

      Hewei, Guan; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Tahir, Mohammed Adam (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      Traffic congestion is an extremely common phenomenal issue, it occurs in many cities around the world, especially in those cities with high car ownership. Traffic congestion not only causes air pollution and fuel wastage, but it also leads to an increased commuting time and reduces the work time availability. Due to these reasons, traffic congestion needs to be controlled and reduced. The traffic light is the most widely adopted method to control traffic, however, most traffic lights in use are designed based on the predefined interval, which cannot cope with traffic volume change very well. Therefore, Internet of Things (IoT) based traffic lights or adaptive traffic lights are developed in the recent years as a complement of the traditional traffic lights. The adaptive traffic light can be built based on monitoring current traffic situation or using Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication. In this paper, a new design of adaptive traffic light is proposed, this traffic light system is based on fuzzy logic and it introduces volunteer IoT agent mechanism, which introduces more accurate results.
    • Bullying discussions in UK female influencers’ YouTube comments

      Thelwall, Michael; Cash, Scottye (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      Victims of bullying are often reluctant to seek formal support and internalise their emotions, hindering recovery. Some will subsequently encounter discussions of bullying online, giving them an unexpected opportunity to share their feelings or experience vicarious support. In this article we investigate reactions to discussions of offline and online bullying in the comments posted to the YouTube channels of 34 popular UK female lifestyle influencers. We used a thematic analysis of keywords associated with comments mentioning bullying to identify bullying-related themes. The almost universally supportive comments position female YouTube influencer channels as sources of unexpected indirect support for victims that professionals may also recommend. The comments also reveal a previously undiscussed strategy for helping victims: abstraction. Commenters often seemed to depersonalise the issue to support the victim by setting their experience in the wider context of human behaviour. Commenters also supported victims by criticising bullies.
    • Letter: risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes associated with inflammatory bowel disease medications - reassuring insights from the United Kingdom PREPARE-IBD multi centre cohort study

      Lamb, CA; Sebastian, S; Kent, AJ; Segal, JP; Gonzalez, HA; Brookes, MJ; Mehta, SJ; Subramanian, S; Bhala, N; Hicks, LC; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • The impact of the Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the provision of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) antenatal care and outcomes of pregnancies in women with IBD

      Steed, Helen; Selinger, CP; Segal, JP; Fraser, A; Collins, P; Gunn, Melanie; Chew, Then Soon; Kerry, Georgina; Patel, Kamal V; Toysam, M; et al. (BMJ, 2021-12-31)
      Background The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients is currently unknown. Reconfiguration of services during the pandemic may negatively affect medical and obstetric care. We aimed to examine the impacts on IBD antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. Methods Retrospective data were recorded in consecutive patients attending for IBD antenatal care including outpatient appointments, infusion unit visits and advice line encounters. Results We included 244 pregnant women with IBD, of which 75 (30.7%) were on biologics in whom the treatment was stopped in 29.3% at a median 28 weeks gestation. In addition 9% of patients were on corticosteroids and 21.5% continued on thiopurines. The care provided during 460 patient encounters was not affected by the pandemic in 94.1% but 68.2% were performed via telephone (compared to 3% pre-pandemic practice; p<0.0001). One-hundred-ten women delivered 111 alive babies (mean 38.2 weeks gestation, mean birthweight 3324grams) with 12 (11.0%) giving birth before week 37. Birth occurred by vaginal delivery in 72 (56.4%) and by caesarean section in 48 (43.6%) cases. Thirty three were elective (12 for IBD indications) and 15 emergency caesarean sections. Breast feeding rates were low (38.6%). Amongst 244 pregnant women with IBD 1 suspected COVID-19 infection was recorded. Conclusion IBD antenatal care adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic have not negatively affected patient care. Despite high levels of immunosuppression only a single COVID-19 infection occurred. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were infrequent.
    • This! Identifying new sentiment slang through orthographic pleonasm online: Yasss slay gorg queen ilysm

      Thelwall, Mike (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021-12-31)
      Identifying neologisms is important for natural language processing of social web text when informal language is standard and youth slang is common. For example, failing to identify neologisms can reduce the accuracy of lexical sentiment analysis if opinions are frequently expressed in words that are too new to be in the sentiment dictionary. This article proposes a method based on orthographic pleonasm to identify emotion-related neologisms in the social web: finding words with the most different letter repetition spelling variations. For this method, non-dictionary words are extracted from a large social web corpus, spelling standardisation is applied, and then words are ranked in decreasing order of spelling variation frequency. Words with the most spelling variations are then KWIC-analysed for semantic context. Applied to a collection of comments on YouTube influencers, this method found neologisms like slay and early as positive terms, mixed with traditional sentiment words, exclamations, and nouns. Although orthographic pleonasm was originally used to express the speaker’s rhythm and one of voice, it is also used for initialisms in a way that is difficult to vocalise. The method is therefore a practical method to identify new sentiment slang, including both normal words and initialisms.
    • Olfactory signals and fertility in olive baboons

      Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Kessler, Sharon E; Walker, David; Setchell, Joanna M (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      Female primates signal impending ovulation with a suite of sexual signals. Studies of these signals have focussed on visual, and to a lesser extent, acoustic signals, neglecting olfactory signals. We aimed to investigate the information content of female olfactory signals in captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) and relate these to the female fertile period. We studied eight adult females living in four groups at the CNRS Station de Primatologie, Rousset-sur-Arc, France. We used vaginal cytology to detect ovulation. We investigated the volatile component of odour signals using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found a total of 74 volatile compounds, of which we tentatively identified 25, including several ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, volatile fatty acids and hydrocarbons that have been identified in odour profiles of other primates. Our results show that vaginal odour intensity differs with sexual cycle stage suggesting that odour might play a role in signalling female baboon fertility. We found differences in vaginal odour between females living in all-female and in mixed sex groups but we could not distinguish the effects of group composition, female age and identity. This study of olfactory signalling improves our understanding of how female primates advertise their sexual receptivity.
    • Addressing the challenges of research on human-wildlife interactions using the concept of coupled natural & human systems

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Beisner, Brianne A; Marty, Pascal; Kaburu, Stefano; McCowan, Brenda (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      With the global expansion of human populations, research on human-wildlife interactions (HWIs) has become increasingly important in conservation science. Despite its growing importance, such research faces challenges that include a bias towards evaluating wildlife- compared to human-related aspects of interactions, limited focus on the complexity of HWIs and their effects, assessments of more observable compared to hidden/subtle effects, and the lack of comparative studies. Here we review how the Coupled Natural and Human Systems (CNHS) approach has been useful to address these challenges. We demonstrate the relative dearth in studies that have implemented CNHS approaches in the context of HWIs, compared to human interactions with biophysical, abiotic, and other biotic natural systems. We next review conceptual CNHS frameworks implemented to model HWIs, their structural and functional similarities and differences, and reveal how they help to address some, but not all, of the afore-mentioned challenges. We then construct a general, integrated conceptual framework for human-wildlife CNHS borrowing elements from pre-existing frameworks, which includes a standardized designation/nomenclature of CNHS components and their relationships and builds on pre-existing frameworks by placing a greater emphasis on less visible outcomes of HWIs that remain under-represented in the CNHS literature. We discuss the potential and scope of this integrated framework in terms of its usefulness to address the above challenges, and the importance of moving human-wildlife CNHS frameworks from merely providing conceptual platforms towards their analytical utility as single ‘whole’ systems.
    • Enhanced properties of well-defined polymer networks prepared by a sequential thiol-Michael - radical thiol-ene strategy (STMRT)

      Cespedes, Sergio; Hand, Rachel; Chmel, Nikola; Moad, Graeme; Keddie, Daniel; Schiller, Tara L. (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      A sequential thiol-Michael - radical thiol-ene (STMRT) strategy was used to produce poly(ethylene glycol)-based model networks and enable establishment of a structure-property relationship from the network characteristics. Selective double thiol-Michael reactions on a series of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEGDA), that differed in average chain length, with two molar equivalents of the trithiol trimethylolpropane tris(3mercaptopropionate) (TMPTMP) yielded well-defined telechelic poly(ethylene glycol)-based tetrathiols. These tetrathiols were in turn used to produce model (co-)networks by photo-induced radical thiol-ene polymerization with either the same poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates or with tri(ethyleneglycol) divinylether (TEGDVE). The properties of these networks were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The STMRT-produced model networks possess storage moduli (Eʹ) up to 4-fold larger and glass transition temperatures (Tg) of up to 10 °C lower than conventionally produced counterparts. The STMRT strategy allows the properties of the model networks to be finely tuned by manipulation of crosslink density and average polymer chain length.
    • Researchers’ attitudes towards the h-index on Twitter 2007–2020: criticism and acceptance

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      The h-index is a well-known indicator of the scientific impact of an academic publishing career. Its hybrid publishing/citation nature and inherent bias against younger researchers, women, people in low resourced countries, and those not prioritizing publishing arguably give it little value for most formal and informal research evaluations. Nevertheless, it is well-known by academics, used in some promotion decisions, and is prominent in bibliometric databases, such as Google Scholar. In the context of this apparent conflict, it is important to understand researchers’ attitudes towards the h-index. This article used public tweets in English to analyse how scholars discuss the h-index in public: is it mentioned, are tweets about it positive or negative, and has interest decreased since its shortcomings were exposed. The January 2021 Twitter Academic Research initiative was harnessed to download all English tweets mentioning the h-index from the 2006 start of Twitter until the end of 2020. The results showed a constantly increasing number of tweets. Whilst the most popular tweets unapologetically used the h-index as an indicator of research performance, 28.5% of tweets were critical of its simplistic nature and others joked about it (8%). The results suggest that interest in the h-index is still increasing online despite scientists willing to evaluate the h-index in public tending to be critical. Despite this, in limited situations it may be effective at succinctly conveying the message that a researcher has had a successful publishing career.
    • A multi-user collaborative BIM-AR system to support design and construction

      Garbett, James; Hartley, Thomas; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-11-29)
      Augmented Reality (AR) is fast becoming an established tool for the construction industry. Previous research reports on the conversion of BIM geometric models and the implementation of these with marker-based AR, or the use of more wide area AR taking positional input from GPS. Much of this focused on the use of AR in an individual context, so there is need to align AR with the more collaborative nature of BIM. By implementing marker-based AR, and connecting to a cloud-based database, the presented BIM-AR system provides the ability to view, interact and collaborate with 3D and 2D BIM data via AR with geographically dispersed teams. An Agile Scrum Method was used to develop the prototype system including a mobile AR application and a Large Touch Screen application based on and a Model, View, Controller (MVC) approach. Finally, the system was tested and verified using a focus group of construction practitioners.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2021-05-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • Exploring students' perceptions and opinions about an institutional hierarchy of healthcare professionals and its impact on their inter- professional learning outcomes

      Rabani, Raiharn; Key, Michelle; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), 2021-04-06)
      Context: Institutional hierarchy is a phenomenon associated with clinical tribalism. Inter-professional learning is thought to improve a healthcare team's collaboration and communication. Aim: The aim was to evaluate student understanding of institutional hierarchy and perceptions and opinions on their participation in inter-professional learning. Method: Using a questionnaire, this study gathered the opinions of fourth year pharmacy students who had completed two inter-professional learning sessions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. Results: Students (87.7%, n=50) were aware of the institutional hierarchy concept, listing the order as doctors, pharmacists, nurses then allied health. 61.4% (n=35) were willing to participate in inter-professional learning sessions. Students (70.1%, n=40) agreed that inter-professional learning sessions have added benefit to patient-centred care, and to understanding different healthcare roles in depth (82.5%, n=47) but failed in diminution of the hierarchical ideology. Conclusions: Inter-professional learning sessions did not change students' opinions about posiGoning of doctors as the top of the healthcare institutional hierarchy.
    • Oxytocin promotes prosocial behavior and related neural responses in infantmacaques at-risk for compromised social development

      Festante, Fabrizia; Rayson, Holly; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano; Toschi, Giulia; Fox, Nathan A; Ferrari, Pier Francesco (Elsevier, 2021-04-02)
      Although positive effects of oxytocin (OT) on social functioning are well-demonstrated, little is known about the mechanisms through which OT may drive early social development, or its therapeutic efficacy in infancy. To address these critical issues, we investigated the effects of exogenous OT on neural (EEG) and behavioral responses during observation of live facial gestures in infant macaques with limited social exposure (i.e. nursery-reared). Three key findings were revealed. First, OT increased alpha suppression over posterior scalp regions during observation of facial gestures but not non-biological movement, suggesting that OT targets self-other matching and attentional cortical networks involved in social perception from very early infancy. Second, OT increased infant production of matching facial gestures and attention towards the most socially-relevant facial stimuli, both behaviors typically silenced by early social deprivation. Third, infants with higher cortisol levels appeared to benefit the most from OT, displaying greater improvements in prosocial behaviors after OT administration. Altogether, these findings suggest that OT promotes prosocial behaviors and associated neural responses likely impacted by early social adversity, and demonstrate the potential of OT administration to ameliorate social difficulties in the context of neurodevelopmental and early-emerging psychiatric disorders, at a developmental stage when brain plasticity is greatest.
    • Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation

      Livingston, Mark; Plant, Aiden; Dunmore, Simon; Hartland, Andrew; Jones, Stephen; Laing, Ian; Ramachandran, Sudarshan (Wiley, 2021-04-02)
      Background Accumulating evidence links COVID‐19 incidence and outcomes with vitamin D status. We investigated if an interaction existed between vitamin D levels and social deprivation in those with and without COVID‐19 infection. Methods Upper‐ or lower‐respiratory tract samples from 104 patients were tested for SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA in accordance with Public Health England criteria (January–May 2020) using RT‐PCR. The latest serum total 25‐hydroxyvitamin D(25‐OHD) levels, quantified by LC‐MS/MS, was obtained for each patient (September 2019–April 2020). Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was generated for each patient. Univariate and logistic regression analyses examined associations between age, gender, 25‐OHD, IMD score and SARS‐CoV‐2 result in the total cohort and subgroups. Results In the total cohort, a positive SARS‐CoV‐2 test was significantly associated with lower 25‐OHD levels and higher IMD. A positive test was associated with higher IMD in the male subgroup and with lower 25‐OHD levels in those aged >72 years. Low 25‐OHD and IMD quintile 5 were separately associated with positive COVID‐19 outcome in the cohort. Patients in IMD quintile 5 with vitamin D levels ≤34.4 nmol/L were most likely to have a positive COVID‐19 outcome, even more so if aged >72 years (OR: 19.07, 95%CI: 1.71–212.25; p=0.016). Conclusions In this cohort, combined low vitamin D levels and higher social deprivation were most associated with COVID‐19 infection. In older age, this combination was even more significant. Our data supports the recommendations for normalising vitamin D levels in those with deficient / insufficient levels and in groups at high‐risk for deficiency.