• COVID-19 in haematology patients: A multi-centre West Midlands clinical outcomes analysis on behalf of West Midlands Research Consortium

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Mandal, Anandadeep; Nevill, Alan; Paneesha, Shankara; Basu, Supratik; Karim, Farheen; Imran, Mohammed; Phillips, Neil; Khawaja, Jahanzeb; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • Infant survival among free-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in South India

      Arlet, Małgorzata E; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne; Marty, Pascal R; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kaasik, Ants; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      Female reproductive success depends to a large extent on infants’ ability to survive to maturity. While most studies of female reproductive success have focused on the effects of individuals’ sociodemographic factors (e.g. age/parity, dominance rank) on offspring survival among wild primates living in less disturbed habitats, little research has focused on offspring survival in urban or peri-urban animals. Here we investigated sociodemographic and anthropogenic determinants of infant survival (up to 1-yr of age) in free-ranging bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) living in a peri-urban environment in Southern India. We conducted the study from November 2016 to May 2018, on two groups of bonnet macaques at the Thenmala tourist site in the state of Kerala. Fifty infants were born across two birth seasons. 29.2% of infants died or disappeared in 2017 and 26.9% died or disappeared in 2018. We found that infant survival was strongly influenced by the mother’s parity: infants of experienced mothers had a better chance of survival than those of first-time mothers. We also found that male infants were more likely to die than female infants. However, we found no effects of mothers’ dominance rank, or of frequency of mothers’ interactions with humans and time spent foraging on anthropogenic food, on infant survival. Our results, consistent with findings from other wild primate species, show that even in challenging human-impacted environments, experienced bonnet macaque mothers have greater success than inexperienced ones.
    • Measuring community resilience using Q method: physical resilience perspective

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Decision makers, practitioners and community members have a need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand their own capacities in disaster situations. There is a lack of consensus among researchers as to what resilience means and how it can be measured. This paper proposes a novel technique to achieve consensus among stakeholders on the definitions, objectives and indicators for measuring a key dimension of community disaster resilience, namely Physical Infrastructure (PI). Method This study uses a 5-step approach utilizing Q-methods to contextualize a resilience index for Physical Infrastructure. Interviews, focus groups and Q-sorting workshops were conducted to develop a tool that ranked measures according to stakeholder preference. A total of 84 participants took part in the workshops across four countries (UK, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Findings The initial set of 317 measures was reduced to 128 and divided into the three community capacities of Anticipatory, Absorptive and Restorative. The Physical Infrastructure Capacity Assessment Tool (PI-CAT) was then finalized to encompass 38 indicators that were also ranked in order of importance by the participants. Practical implications The PI-CAT can be useful for local governments and communities to measure their own resilience. The tool allows stakeholders to be confident that the metrics being used are ones that are relevant, important and will meet their requirements. Originality The Q-method approach helps stakeholders to develop and use a community capacity assessment tool that is appropriate for their context. The PI-CAT can be used to identify effective investments that will enhance community disaster resilience.
    • Factors influencing adoption model of continuous glucose monitoring devices for internet of things healthcare

      Md Ismail, Hossain; Ahmad Fadhil, Yusof; Ab Razak, Che Hussin; Noorminshah, A lahad; Sadiq, Ali Safaa (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMs) device is the most developed technology, which has reshaped manual diabetes management with smart features having sensor, transmitter and monitor. However, the number of users for CGMs device is still very low compared to existing manual systems although this device provides a smart landmark in blood glucose monitoring for diabetes management. Consequently, the aspire of the assessment is to explore the factors that influence users’ intention to adopt CGMs device on the Internet of Things (IoT) based healthcare. This paper provides an adoption model for CGMs device by integrating some factors from different theories in existing studies of wearable healthcare devices. The proposed adoption model also examines current factors as a guideline for the users to adopt the CGMs device. We have collected data from 97 actual CGMs device users. Partial least square and structural equation modelling were involved for measurement and structural model assessment of this study. The experiential study specifies that interpersonal influence and trustworthiness are the strong predictors of attitude toward a wearable device, which shows significant relationships to use for CGMs device’s adoption. Personal innovativeness shows no significant relationship with attitude toward a wearable device. Besides, self-efficacy has no direct influence on a person’s health interest where heath interest directly influences users’ intention to use CGMs device. Moreover, perceived value is not found to be significant for measuring intention to use CGMs devices. The results from this research provide suggestions for the developers to ensure users’ intention to adopt CGMs device.
    • Discovering inconsistencies between requested permissions and application metadata by using deep learning

      Aleçakır, Hüseyin; Kabukcu, Muhammet; Can Buglalilar, Burcu; Şen, Sevil (ISCTurkey, 2021-12-31)
      Android gives us opportunity to extract meaningful information from metadata. From the security point of view, the missing important information in metadata of an application could be a sign of suspicious application, which could be directed for extensive analysis. Especially the usage of dangerous permissions is expected to be explained in app descriptions. The permission-to-description fidelity problem in the literature aims to discover such inconsistencies between the usage of permissions and descriptions. This study proposes a new method based on natural language processing and recurrent neural networks. The effect of user reviews on finding such inconsistencies is also investigated in addition to application descriptions. The experimental results show that high precision is obtained by the proposed solution, and the proposed method could be used for triage of Android applications.
    • Barriers for Implementing solar energy initiatives in Nigeria: an empirical study

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdullahi, Dahiru; Oloke, David (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Despite the abundant renewable energy potential in the Nigeria, power sector stakeholders have not paid attention to the prospect of natural resources that can be utilised when it is properly harnessed. Although, a very negligible fraction of the population has invested in solar photovoltaic (PVs) for home solution, the initiative was only made public commercialised under the public private partnership (PPP) and the objectives of the Power Sector Reform Act. 2005. It is, therefore, aimed to investigate the causes and insight of the barriers that are responsible for the slow implementation of the solar energy initiative in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was performed in Nigeria. The study was conducted qualitatively, through semi-structured face-to face interviews of 25 participants. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, interpreted, coded, categorised into themes, and analysed by content analysis. Findings The study reveals technological, financial, political, and social barriers have been the reason for slowing down solar energy development in Nigeria. While the technical barrier is a challenge to the solar energy implementation, socio-cultural issues have also been an obstacle to the implementation process. It is suggested that the stakeholders of the initiatives, to proffer sustainable policies to enable public and private promoters to be able to generate, and distribute electricity through solar PV, to complement the inadequate conventional electricity sources from the grids. Originality/value The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of barriers for implementing solar energy strategies in Nigeria.
    • Sampling and analysis of animal scent signals

      Vaglio, Stefano; Walker, David (MYJoVE Corporation, 2021-12-01)
      We have developed an effective methodology for sampling and analysis of odor signals, by using head-space solid- phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to understand how they may be used in animal communication. This technique allows the semi-quantitative analysis of the volatile components of odor secretions by enabling the separation and tentative identification of the components in the sample, followed by the analysis of peak area ratios to look for trends that could signify compounds that may be involved in signaling. The key strengths of this current approach are the range of sample types that can be analyzed; the lack of need for any complex sample preparation or extractions; the ability to separate and analyze the components of a mixture; the identification of the components detected; and the capability to provide semi-quantitative and potentially quantitative information on the components detected. The main limitation to the methodology relates to the samples themselves. Since the components of specific interest are volatile, and these could easily be lost, or their concentrations altered, it is important that the samples are stored and transported appropriately after their collection. This also means that sample storage and transport conditions are relatively costly. This method can be applied to a variety of samples (including urine, feces, hair and scent-gland odor secretions). These odors consist of complex mixtures, occurring in a range of matrices, and thus necessitate the use of techniques to separate the individual components and extract the compounds of biological interest.
    • A multi-user collaborative BIM-AR system to support design and construction

      Garbett, James; Hartley, Thomas; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-11-29)
      Augmented Reality (AR) is fast becoming an established tool for the construction industry. Previous research reports on the conversion of BIM geometric models and the implementation of these with marker-based AR, or the use of more wide area AR taking positional input from GPS. Much of this focused on the use of AR in an individual context, so there is need to align AR with the more collaborative nature of BIM. By implementing marker-based AR, and connecting to a cloud-based database, the presented BIM-AR system provides the ability to view, interact and collaborate with 3D and 2D BIM data via AR with geographically dispersed teams. An Agile Scrum Method was used to develop the prototype system including a mobile AR application and a Large Touch Screen application based on and a Model, View, Controller (MVC) approach. Finally, the system was tested and verified using a focus group of construction practitioners.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Chandra, Mina; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2021-05-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-05-30)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • Impact of individual demographic and social factors on human-wildlife interactions: a comparative study of three macaque species

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Marty, Pascal R; Samartino, Shelby; Sobrino, Alvaro; Gill, Taniya; Ismail, Mohammed; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne A; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-03-31)
      Despite increasing conflict at human-wildlife interfaces, there exists little research on how the attributes and behavior of individual wild animals may influence human-wildlife interactions. Adopting a comparative approach, we examined the impact of animals’ life-history and social attributes on interactions between humans and (peri)urban macaques in Asia. For 10 groups of rhesus, long-tailed, and bonnet macaques, we collected social behavior, spatial data, and human-interaction data for 11-20 months on pre-identified individuals. Mixed-model analysis revealed that, across all species, males and spatially peripheral individuals interacted with humans the most, and that high-ranking individuals initiated more interactions with humans than low-rankers. Among bonnet macaques, but not rhesus or long-tailed macaques, individuals who were more well-connected in their grooming network interacted more frequently with humans than less well-connected individuals. From an evolutionary perspective, our results suggest that individuals incurring lower costs related to their life-history (males) and resource-access (high rank; strong social connections within a socially tolerant macaque species), but also higher costs on account of compromising the advantages of being in the core of their group (spatial periphery), are the most likely to take risks by interacting with humans in anthropogenic environments. From a conservation perspective, evaluating individual behavior will better inform efforts to minimize conflict-related costs and zoonotic-risk.
    • “My ADHD hellbrain”: A Twitter data science perspective on a behavioural disorder

      Thelwall, Michael; Makita, Meiko; Mas-Bleda, Amalia; Stuart, Emma (De Gruyter Open, 2021-03-31)
      Purpose: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioural condition. This article introduces a new data science method, word association thematic analysis, to investigate whether ADHD tweets can give insights into patient concerns and online communication needs. Design/methodology/approach: Tweets matching “my ADHD” (n=58,893) and 99 other conditions (n=1,341,442) were gathered and two thematic analyses conducted. Analysis 1: A standard thematic analysis of ADHD-related tweets. Analysis 2: A word association thematic analysis of themes unique to ADHD. Findings: The themes that emerged from the two analyses included people ascribing their brains agency to explain and justify their symptoms and using the concept of neurodivergence for a positive self-image. Research limitations: This is a single case study and the results may differ for other topics. Practical implications: Health professionals should be sensitive to patients’ needs to understand their behaviour, find ways to justify and explain it to others and to be positive about their condition. Originality/value: Word association thematic analysis can give new insights into the (self reported) patient perspective.
    • Exploring WorldCat identities as an altmetric information source: A library catalog analysis experiment in the field of Scientometrics

      Torres-Salinas, Daniel; Arroyo-Machado, Wenceslao; Thelwall, Michael (Springer Nature, 2021-03-31)
      Assessing the impact of scholarly books is a difficult research evaluation problem. Library Catalog Analysis facilitates the quantitative study, at different levels, of the impact and diffusion of academic books based on data about their availability in libraries. The WorldCat global catalog collates data on library holdings, offering a range of tools including the novel WorldCat Identities. This is based on author profiles and provides indicators relating to the availability of their books in library catalogs. Here, we investigate this new tool to identify its strengths and weaknesses based on a sample of Bibliometrics and Scientometrics authors. We review the problems that this entails and compare Library Catalog Analysis indicators with Google Scholar and Web of Science citations. The results show that WorldCat Identities can be a useful tool for book impact assessment but the value of its data is undermined by the provision of massive collections of ebooks to academic libraries.
    • Prevention through design: conceptual models for the assessment of a principal designer’s skills, knowledge and experience

      Adaku, Ebenezer; Ankrah, Nii A; Issaka, Ndekugri E (Emerald, 2021-03-31)
      Purpose - The prevention through design (PtD) initiative places a duty on designers to originate designs that are inherently safe for construction, maintenance, occupation and demolition. In the UK, legislation has been introduced creating a new statutory role called the Principal Designer (PD) to ensure that PtD occurs during the design process. In order to realize this objective, Principal Designers under the Regulations must have appropriate skills, knowledge and experience (SKE) of occupational safety and health (OSH) risks as they relate to construction products. However, there is a paucity of knowledge, in the extant literature and in practice, regarding what specifically constitutes Principal Designers’ skills, knowledge and experience of PtD as well as how to measure same. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study undertook a systematic review of meanings of skills, knowledge and experience, and carried out content analyses to provide robust conceptualizations of the constructs skill, knowledge and experience. This underpinned the development of nomological networks to operationalize the constructs skills, knowledge and experience in respect of Principal Designers’ ability to ensure PtD. Results – Principal Designers’ skills, knowledge and experience of PtD are presented as multi-dimensional constructs that can be operationalized at different levels of specificity in three theoretical models. Practical implications – The models indicated in this study can assist project clients to clarify the PtD skills, knowledge and experience of prospective Principal Designers in the procurement process. Correspondingly, Principal Designers can look to these frameworks to identify their skills, knowledge and experience gaps and take steps to address them. Originality/Value – This study contributes to the PtD literature by providing theoretical frameworks to clarify the PtD skills, knowledge and experience of Principal Designers. The study provides a basis for future research to empirically test the attributes of these as they relate to Principal Designers’ competence to ensure PtD.
    • Self attended stack pointer networks for learning long term dependencies

      Tuç, Salih; Can, Burcu (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021-03-31)
      We propose a novel deep neural architecture for dependency parsing, which is built upon a Transformer Encoder (Vaswani et al., 2017) and a Stack Pointer Network (Ma et al., 2018). We first encode each sentence using a Transformer Network and then the dependency graph is generated by a Stack Pointer Network by selecting the head of each word in the sentence through a head selection process. We evaluate our model on Turkish and English treebanks. The results show that our transformer-based model learns long term dependencies efficiently compared to sequential models such as recurrent neural networks. Our self attended stack pointer network improves UAS score around 6% upon the LSTM based stack pointer (Ma et al., 2018) for Turkish sentences with a length of more than 20 words.
    • Critical success factors for cost management in public-housing projects

      Obi, Lovelin; Arif, Mohammed; Awuzie, B; Islam, Rubina; Gupta, Aman; Walton, Robert (Emerald, 2021-01-31)
      Purpose Effective cost performance is a crucial criterion measuring successful project management in Public-housing projects. This paper analyses the vital underlying factors surrounding the successful Cost Management Process (CMP) outcomes in Public Housing Projects (PHPs). Design/methodology The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of a detailed literature review to document Success factors affecting Cost performances and management. In stage two, Brainstorming sessions were undertaken with construction experts knowledgeable in cost management practices and have been involved in PHPs. These sessions were used to refine those Success factors for the PHPs settings and define their criticality with respect to the CMP stages using Interpretive Ranking Process (IRP). In Stage three, focus group sessions were performed to validate the interrelationships of the contextualised Success factors. Findings The top three most critical factors for successful implementation and outcomes at all CMP stages in PHPs settings were found to relate to competencies, team qualities and collaborative practices of Project Team (PT). Early contractor involvement and effective construction planning and management also emerged relevant to the process. Practical implications Government project departments, project managers and construction organisations (consultants and contractors) need to commit and mandate continuous development of cost management competencies for all professionals engaged in PHPs. Channels supporting Team integration and collaborative practices between design and construction teams are required to increase the likelihood of successful project cost management practice and outcomes in PHPs. Originality/value The research has developed a Factor-Process relationship model that can be used to improve and evaluate the efficacy of CMP implementation in PHP settings.
    • Design of stainless steel cross-sections with outstand elements under stress gradients

      Gkantou, Michaela; Bock, Marina; Theofanous, Marios (Elsevier, 2021-01-09)
      A significant amount of research has been reported on stainless steel tubular sections, while studies on I- and C-sections remain relatively limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of stainless steel I- and C-sections subjected to minor axis bending, with outstand flanges subjected to stress gradients. Numerical models are developed and validated against reported test data on austenitic stainless steel sections under minor axis bending. Subsequently, parametric studies using standardised material properties on austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel grades, covering a wide variety of cross-section slendernesses, are carried out to expand the structural performance data. The results are used to assess the applicability of the Eurocode slenderness limits, revealing that the Class limit 3 for outstand flanges under stress gradient is overly conservative. Moreover, Eurocode underestimates the predicted bending strengths, whereas the level of accuracy and consistency improves for stocky sections, when the Continuous Strength Method is used. Aiming to address the lack of accuracy and consistency in the design predictions of slender sections, particular focus is placed on their performance. It is demonstrated that outstand elements under stress gradients exhibit significant inelastic behaviour after the compression flanges have locally buckled. Inelastic buckling behaviour is not considered in current design guidance, thus resulting in overly conservative and fundamentally incorrect strength predictions. An alternative design method based on the plastic effective width concept is proposed for slender stainless steel I- and C-sections in minor axis bending, which leads to more favourable and less scattered strength predictions.
    • Crashworthiness analysis and optimization of standard and windowed multi-cell hexagonal tubes

      Tran, TN; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Estrada, Quirino; Arjunan, Arun; Le, HuuSon; Thien, NP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
      Recently, multi-cell structures have received increased attention for crashworthiness applications due to their superior energy absorption capability. However, such structures were featured with high peak collapsing force (PCL) forming a serious safety concern, and this limited their application for vehicle structures. Accordingly, this paper proposes windowed shaped cuttings as a mechanism to reduce the high PCL of the multi-cell hexagonal tubes and systemically investigates the axial crushing of different windowed multi-cell tubes and also seeks for their optimal crashworthiness design. Three different multi-cell configurations were constructed using wall-to-wall (WTW) and corner-to-corner (CTC) connection webs. Validated finite element models were generated using explicit finite element code, LS-DYNA, and were used to run crush simulations on the studied structures. The crashworthiness responses of the multi-cell standard tubes (STs), i.e., without windows, and multi-cell windowed tubes (WTs) were determined and compared. The WTW connection type was found to be more effective for STs and less favorable for WTs. Design of experiments (DoE), response surface methodology (RSM), and multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) tools were employed to find the optimal designs of the different STs and WTs. Furthermore, parametric analysis was conducted to uncover the effects of key geometrical parameters on the main crashworthiness responses of all studied structures. The windowed cuttings were found to be able to slightly reduce the PCL of the multi-cell tubes, but this reduction was associated with a major negative implication on their energy absorption capability. This work provides useful insights on designing effective multi-cell structures suitable for vehicle crashworthiness applications.
    • Attention: there is an inconsistency between android permissions and application metadata!

      Alecakir, Huseyin; Can, Burcu; Sen, Sevil (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
      Since mobile applications make our lives easier, there is a large number of mobile applications customized for our needs in the application markets. While the application markets provide us a platform for downloading applications, it is also used by malware developers in order to distribute their malicious applications. In Android, permissions are used to prevent users from installing applications that might violate the users’ privacy by raising their awareness. From the privacy and security point of view, if the functionality of applications is given in sufficient detail in their descriptions, then the requirement of requested permissions could be well-understood. This is defined as description-to-permission fidelity in the literature. In this study, we propose two novel models that address the inconsistencies between the application descriptions and the requested permissions. The proposed models are based on the current state-of-art neural architectures called attention mechanisms. Here, we aim to find the permission statement words or sentences in app descriptions by using the attention mechanism along with recurrent neural networks. The lack of such permission statements in application descriptions creates a suspicion. Hence, the proposed approach could assist in static analysis techniques in order to find suspicious apps and to prioritize apps for more resource intensive analysis techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves high accuracy.
    • Guest editorial

      Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack; Rankin, Jeff; Pour Rahimian, Farzad (Emerald, 2021-01-04)