• An off-site construction readiness maturity model for the Indian construction sector

      Rana, Muhammad Qasim; Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack; Sawhney, Anil; Bendi, Deepthi (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose This paper presents an Off-Site Construction (OSC) readiness maturity model for assessing the readiness of off-site construction in the Indian construction sector. Design/Methodology/Approach The research was conducted in three stages. The first stage consisted of a detailed literature review to document 17 different variables affecting the OSC adoption in India. In stage two, 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out where the participants were asked to refine those variables for the Indian context and define what would be different levels of attainment. In the third stage, another set of 5 semi-structure interviews was performed to validate the maturity levels and definitions. Findings A three-level OSC readiness maturity model is presented for discussion. This describes 17 variables at different levels of maturity. Practical Implications The proposed OSC readiness maturity model guides construction practitioners in India through a structured process to enable them to assess their OSC readiness in the market. This assessment enables them to evaluate and benchmark their processes through the strategic and operational phases. The maturity model also identifies the areas of concern and the scope for further development or change to secure the optimal advantage of OSC methods. Originality/Value The research produced a model to assess the readiness of off-site construction adoption in the Indian construction sector. Although the model has been applied to the Indian construction sector, it can easily be modified to accommodate other OSM contexts.
    • COVID-19 in haematology patients: A multi-centre West Midlands clinical outcomes analysis on behalf of West Midlands Research Consortium

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Mandal, Anandadeep; Nevill, Alan; Paneesha, Shankara; Basu, Supratik; Karim, Farheen; Imran, Mohammed; Phillips, Neil; Khawaja, Jahanzeb; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • Disruption of Protein Phosphatase 1 complexes using bioportides as a novel approach to target sperm motility

      Vieira Silva, Joana; João Freitas, Maria; Santiago, Joana; Jones, Sarah; Guimarães, Sofia; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan; Publicover, Steven; Colombo, Giorgio; Howl, John; Fardilha, Margarida (Elsevier, 2021-05-30)
      To design protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-disrupting peptides covalently coupled to inert cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as sychnologically-organized bioportide constructs as a strategy to modulate sperm motility. Design: Experimental study. Setting: Academic research laboratory. Patients/Animals: Normozoospermic men providing samples for routine analysis and Holstein Frisian bulls. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Effect of the bioportides on the activity and interactions of PP1γ2 – a PP1 isoform expressed exclusively in testicular germ cells and sperm - and on sperm vitality and motility. Results: PP1‐disrupting peptides were designed based on the sequences from (i) a sperm-specific PP1 interactor (A kinase anchor protein 4, AKAP4) and (ii) a PP1 inhibitor (protein phosphatase inhibitor 2, PPP1R2). Those sequences were covalently coupled to inert CPPs as bioportide constructs, which were successfully delivered to the flagellum of sperm cells to induce a marked impact upon PP1γ2 activity and sperm motility. Molecular modelling studies further facilitated the identification of an optimized PP1 binding sequence and enabled the development of a Modified Stop Sperm (MSS1) bioportide with reduced size and increased potency of action. Additionally, a bioportide mimetic of the unique 22-amino acid C-terminus of PP1γ2 accumulated within spermatozoa to significantly reduce sperm motility and further define the PP1γ2-specific interactome. Conclusion: These investigations demonstrate the utility of CPPs to deliver peptide sequences 53 that target unique protein-protein interactions in spermatozoa to achieve a significant impact upon 54 spermatozoa motility, a key prognostic indicator of male fertility.
    • The hidden burden of community enteral feeding on the emergency department

      Barrett, D; Li, V; Merrick, S; Murugananthan, A; Steed, Helen (Wiley, 2021-03-31)
      Abstract Background Enteral feeding tubes are associated with their most serious complications in the days and weeks after insertion, but there is limited published data in the literature on late complications and the implications for the healthcare service. Methods Retrospective observational study of attendances to a UK hospital emergency department with enteral tube complications as the primary reason for attendance. Results Over 24 months 139 attendances were recorded. Dislodged tubes and blocked tubes accounted for the majority of complications and subsequent admissions, with a mixture of enteral tube types being associated with both. Thirty-five percent were admitted and the average healthcare cost per attendance was $1071. Conclusions Enteral tube complications can place a hidden burden on the patient, on ED and on healthcare costs. More work on education and supporting carers to resolve problems themselves could reduce the burden on busy emergency departments.
    • Coronavirus research before 2020 is more relevant than ever, especially when interpreted for COVID-19

      Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-12-31)
      The speed with which biomedical specialists were able to identify and characterise COVID-19 was partly due to prior research with other coronaviruses. Early epidemiological comparisons with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), also made it easier to predict COVID-19’s likely spread and lethality. This article assesses whether academic interest in prior coronavirus research has translated into interest in the primary source material, using Mendeley reader counts for early academic impact evidence. The results confirm that SARS and MERS research 2008-2017 experienced anomalously high increases in Mendeley readers in April-May 2020. Nevertheless, studies learning COVID-19 lessons from SARS and MERS or using them as a benchmark for COVID-19 have generated much more academic interest than primary studies of SARS or MERS. Thus, research that interprets prior relevant research for new diseases when they are discovered seems to be particularly important to help researchers to understand its implications in the new context.
    • Review insights of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: the mind-knockout

      Kumar, Rajiv; Chhikara, Bhupender S; Chandra, Mina; Gulia, Kiran; Chhilar, Mitrabasu (Ivyspring International Publisher, 2020-12-31)
      Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligandconjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range
    • Enabling accurate indoor localization for different platforms for smart cities using a transfer learning algorithm

      Maghdid, Halgurd S; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Al-Talabani, Abdulbasit; Al-Shakarchi, Ali; Singh, Pranav Kumar; Rawat, Danda B (Wiley, 2020-12-31)
      Indoor localization algorithms in smart cities often use Wi‐Fi fingerprints as a database of Received Signal Strength (RSS) and its corresponding position coordinate for position estimation. However, the issue of fingerprinting is the use of different platform‐devices. To this end, we propose a Long Short‐Term Memory (LSTM)‐based novel indoor positioning mechanism in smart city environment. We used LSTM, a type of recurrent neural network to process sequential data of users’ trajectory in indoor buildings. The proposed approach first utilizes a database of normalizing fingerprint landmarks to calculateWiFi Access Points (WAPs) RSS values to mitigate the fluctuation issue and then apply the normalization parameters on the RSS values during the online phase. Afterwards, we constructed a transfer model to adapt the RSS values during the offline phase and then applying it on the RSS values from the different smartphones during the online phase. Thorough simulation results confirm that the proposed approach can obtain 1.5 to 2 meters positioning accuracy for indoor environments, which is 60 % higher than traditional approaches.
    • Patients with gastrointestinal irritability after TGN1412-induced cytokine 2 storm displayed selective expansion of gut-homing αβ and γδ T-cells

      McCarthy, Neil; Stagg, Andrew; Price, Claire; Mann, Elizabeth; Gellatly, Nichola; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Knight, Stella; Panoskaltsis, Nicki (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Following infusion of the anti-CD28 superagonist monoclonal antibody TGN1412, three of six previously healthy, young male recipients developed gastrointestinal irritability associated with increased expression of ‘gut-homing’ integrin β7 on peripheral blood αβT-cells. This subset of patients with intestinal symptoms also displayed a striking and persistent expansion of putative Vδ2+ 7 γδT-cells in the circulation which declined over a two-year period following drug infusion, concordant with subsiding gut symptoms. These data demonstrate that TGN1412-induced gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with dysregulation of the ‘gut-homing’ pool of blood αβ and γδT11 cells, induced directly by the antibody and/or arising from the subsequent cytokine storm.
    • A flow-based multi-agent data exfiltration detection architecture for ultra-low latency networks

      Marques, Rafael Salema; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; De Castro, Paulo Andre Lima; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond (Association for Computing Machinery, 2020-12-31)
      Modern network infrastructures host converged applications that demand rapid elasticity of services, increased security and ultra-fast reaction times. The Tactile Internet promises to facilitate the delivery of these services while enabling new economies of scale for high-fdelity of machine-to-machine and human-to-machine interactions. Unavoidably, critical mission systems served by the Tactile Internet manifest high-demands not only for high speed and reliable communications but equally, the ability to rapidly identify and mitigate threats and vulnerabilities. This paper proposes a novel Multi-Agent Data Exfltration Detector Architecture (MADEX) inspired by the mechanisms and features present in the human immune system. MADEX seeks to identify data exfltration activities performed by evasive and stealthy malware that hides malicious trafc from an infected host in low-latency networks. Our approach uses cross-network trafc information collected by agents to efectively identify unknown illicit connections by an operating system subverted. MADEX does not require prior knowledge of the characteristics or behaviour of the malicious code or a dedicated access to a knowledge repository. We tested the performance of MADEX in terms of its capacity to handle real-time data and the sensitivity of our algorithm’s classifcation when exposed to malicious trafc. Experimental evaluation results show that MADEX achieved 99.97% sensitivity, 98.78% accuracy and an error rate of 1.21% when compared to its best rivals. We created a second version of MADEX, called MADEX level 2 that further improves its overall performance with a slight increase in computational complexity. We argue for the suitability of MADEX level 1 in non-critical environments, while MADEX level 2 can be used to avoid data exfltration in critical mission systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the frst article in the literature that addresses the detection of rootkits real-time in an agnostic way using an artifcial immune system approach while it satisfes strict latency requirements.
    • Novel metaheuristic based on multiverse theory for optimization problems in emerging systems

      Hosseini, Eghbal; Ghafoor, Kayhan Zrar; Emrouznejad, Ali; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Rawat, Danda B. (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Finding an optimal solution for emerging cyber physical systems (CPS) for better efficiency and robustness is one of the major issues. Meta-heuristic is emerging as a promising field of study for solving various optimization problems applicable to different CPS systems. In this paper, we propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on Multiverse Theory, named MVA, that can solve NP-hard optimization problems such as non-linear and multi-level programming problems as well as applied optimization problems for CPS systems. MVA algorithm inspires the creation of the next population to be very close to the solution of initial population, which mimics the nature of parallel worlds in multiverse theory. Additionally, MVA distributes the solutions in the feasible region similarly to the nature of big bangs. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a set of test problems is implemented and measured in terms of feasibility, efficiency of their solutions and the number of iterations taken in finding the optimum solution. Numerical results obtained from extensive simulations have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches while solving the optimization problems with large feasible regions.
    • Are the Mascarene frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis) and Brahminy blind snake (Indotyphlops braminus) really alien species in the Seychelles?

      Williams, Rhiannon; Gower, David; Labisko, Jim; Morel, Charles; Bristol, Rachel; WILKINSON, MARK; Maddock, Simon (British Herpetological Society, 2020-12-31)
    • Optimising driver profiling through behaviour modelling of in-car sensor and global positioning system data

      Ahmadi-Assalemi, Gabriela; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Maple, Carsten; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Jahankhani, Hamid; Pillai, Prashant (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Connected cars have a massive impact on the automotive sector, and whilst this catalyst and disruptor technology introduce threats, it brings opportunities to address existing vehicle-related crimes such as carjacking. Connected cars are fitted with sensors, and capable of sophisticated computational processing which can be used to model and differentiate drivers as means of layered security. We generate a dataset collecting 14 hours of driving in the city of London. The route was 8.1 miles long and included various road conditions such as roundabouts, traffic lights, and several speed zones. We identify and rank the features from the driving segments, classify our sample using Random Forest, and optimise the learning-based model with 98.84% accuracy (95% confidence) given a small 10 seconds driving window size. Differences in driving patterns were uncovered to distinguish between female and male drivers especially through variations in longitudinal acceleration, driving speed, torque and revolutions per minute.
    • Framework for sustainable risk management in the manufacturing sector

      Oduoza, Chike (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Risk management is a huge challenge for business managers especially in the manufacturing engineering sector, and if not proactively controlled can lead to under performance and sometimes cessation of activities for some companies. It is common knowledge that poorly managed risks can have an adverse effect on performance while proactive and systematic control of key risk variables in a business environment could generate successful outcomes. The work carried out here has developed a framework for risk management affordable and suitable for use especially by small and medium size enterprises in the manufacturing sector. Using a combination of Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) search algorithms, it was possible to search and identify key risk indicators that could undermine business performance (measured in terms of cost, time, quality and safety) from a system database, and thereby manage (monitor, identify, analyse, reduce, accept or reject their impact) them. The conclusion drawn from the study is that risk management for a manufacturing process can be successfully achieved if risk factors which have a negative impact on project cost, quality of delivery, lead cycle and takt time and health and safety of workers can be identified using BBN and minimised using the framework developed in this study.
    • Small female citation advantages for US journal articles in medicine

      Thelwall, Michael; Maflahi, Nabeil (SAGE, 2020-12-31)
      Female underrepresentation continues in senior roles within academic medicine, potentially influenced by a perception that female research has less citation impact. This article provides systematic evidence of (a) female participation rates from the perspective of published journal articles in 46 Scopus medical subject categories 1996-2018 and (b) gender differences in citation rates 1996-2014. The results show female proportion increases 1996-2018 in all fields and a female majority of first authored articles in two fifths of categories, but substantial differences between fields: A paper is 7.3 times more likely to have a female first author in Obstetrics and Gynecology than in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Only three fields had a female last author majority by 2018, a probable side effect of ongoing problems with appointing female leaders. Female first-authored research tended to be more cited than male first-authored research in most fields (59%), although with a maximum difference of only 5.1% (log-transformed normalised citations). In contrast, male last-authored research tends to be more cited than female last-authored research, perhaps due to cases where a senior male has attracted substantial funding for a project. These differences increase if team sizes are not accounted for in the calculations. Since female first-authored research is cited slightly more than male first-authored research, properly analysed bibliometric data considering career gaps should not disadvantage female candidates for senior roles.
    • Conceptual model for cloud computing adoption in upstream oil & gas sector

      Lawan, Mahmud; Oduoza, Chike; Buckley, Kevan (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Cloud computing is a paradigm which offers IT services such as storage, network and processing power via the internet. The technology has gained popularity in recent years with adoption in different sectors due to the numerous benefits it offers such as scalability, flexibility and cost reduction. Although some are quick adopters, others are considered cautious adaptors. The upstream oil and gas industry fall under the latter category due to some challenges with regards to adoption decision. Migrating to a cloud platform depends on a number of factors. A clear understanding of these factors is necessary to enable decision makers in the industry to be more proactive and appropriately guided in their plan towards adoption. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors that may influence cloud adoption in the industry. A literature review was conducted in order to propose an integrated model, which is a combination of the Technology environment organisation (TOE) framework, institutional theory, and diffusion of innovation. The model groups the factors into three fundamental categories. In addition, the study reports benefits of the cloud technology in the upstream oil and gas sector, challenges hindering adoption, as well as approaches by earlier researchers to support cloud migration in the industry.
    • Iron deficiency, immunology and colorectal cancer

      Omar, Hafid; Phipps, Oliver; Brookes, Matthew (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-31)
      Excessive gut luminal iron contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence suggests that reduced iron intake and low systemic iron levels are also associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. This is important because patients with colorectal cancer often present with iron deficiency. Iron is necessary for appropriate immunological functions; hence, iron deficiency may hinder cancer immunosurveillance and potentially modify the tumor immune microenvironment, both of which may assist cancer development. This is supported by studies showing that patients with colorectal cancer with iron deficiency have inferior outcomes and reduced response to therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the immunological consequences of iron deficiency and suggest ensuring adequate iron therapy to limit these outcomes.
    • Developments of collaboration in planning: what can construction project management learn from other fields?

      Daniel, Emmanuel; Pasquire, Christine; Chinyio, Audu Ezekiel; Oloke, David; Suresh, Subashini (International Group for Lean Construction, 2020-12-31)
      This study seeks to examine how collaboration in planning has developed in the fields of urban planning (UP), software design and lean construction and to present what construction project management can learn from these developments. A critical literature review was adopted to achieve the aim of the study. The study found that the prevailing rational or technical approach to planning is not germane to the construction industry alone. Rather, it exists in various disciplines as seen in the rational comprehensive model (RCM) used in urban planning and the waterfall process model used in software design. The research reveals that the current theory on which construction project management is based cannot provide resources, which people can utilise to develop genuine collaboration in planning among construction stakeholders. To overcome this, the study recommends that construction project management should include the concept of management-asorganising and the ‘Flow’ and ‘Value’ views which can provide resources that can be utilised by people for the smooth running of the production (construction) system as demonstrated in Scrum and the Last Planner System. This study brings new insight and opens a new opportunity on how collaboration could be achieved in construction project management using existing evidence from other fields. Additionally, the study contributes to the discussion on construction management theory that has received less attention.
    • Strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Silverio-Fernández, Manuel (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: The decentralisation of information and high rate of mobile content access in the construction industry provides an ideal scenario for improvement of processes via the implementation of the paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart devices are considered as the objects interconnected in the IoT; therefore they play a fundamental role in the digital transformation of the construction industry. Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding the implementation of smart devices for digitalisation in the construction industry. Consequently, this paper intends to provide a set of guidelines for implementing smart devices in the construction industry Design/methodology/approach: An empirical study was performed in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Dominican Republic (DR). Following a systematic approach, qualitative data collection and analysis was performed based on semi-structured interviews involving professionals from construction companies in the UK and the DR. Interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed using and exported to the software NVivo where it was used to find common thematic nodes across all interviews. Findings: The findings encompass drivers, challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing smart devices in construction project. For both countries the top five CSFs were Leadership, Staff training, culture, technology awareness and cost of implementation. These findings were used to develop a strategic framework for implementing smart devices in construction companies. The framework stablishes the actors, elements and actions to be considered by construction companies when implementing smart devices. Originality/value: The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of implementing smart devices. A strategic framework for implementing smart devices in the construction industry and providing guidelines for adopting smart devices in construction projects was developed and validated. This study provides a better understanding of the key factors to be considered by construction companies when embedding smart devices into their projects.
    • Transition towards circular economy implementation in the construction industry: a systematic review

      Osobajo, O; Omotayo,, T; Oke, A; Obi, Lovelin (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose – While Circular Economy (CE) is fast becoming a political and economic agenda for global urban development, there are still substantial knowledge gaps in possible strategies to speed up such transition, especially in the construction industry. This study analyses literature surrounding circular economy to unpack current trends possible future research directions to foster CE implementation in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach- The study undertakes a systematic review of Circular economy literature published between 1990 and 2019. It adopts a fivestage procedure as a methodological approach for the review: formulation of the evaluation of studies; analysis or synthesis; and results reporting. Findings – The findings on CE research in the construction industry show extensive focus on resource use and waste management. There are limited investigations in other areas of construction such as supply chain integration, building designs, policy, energy efficiency, land use, offsite manufacturing, whole life costing, and risk, cost reduction, cost management, health and safety management. The study findings provide evidence that current CE practice fails to incorporate other areas that would facilitate the network of true circular construction industry. Originality/value – This research provides a comprehensive overview of research efforts on CE in the construction context, identifying areas of extensive and limited coverage over three decades. Besides, it identifies possible pathways for future research directions on CE implementation, towards the accelerated transition to a true circular construction industry for the benefit of funding bodies and researchers.
    • Dynamic reciprocal authentication protocol for mobile cloud computing

      Ahmed, Abdulghani Ali; Wendy, Kwan; Kabir, Mohammed Noman; Al-Shakarchi, Ali (IEEE, 2020-12-31)
      A combination of mobile and cloud computing delivers many advantages such as mobility, resources, and accessibility through seamless data transmission via the Internet anywhere at any time. However, data transmission through vulnerable channels poses security threats such as man-in-the-middle, playback, impersonation, and asynchronization attacks. To address these threats, we define an explicit security model that can precisely measure the practical capabilities of an adversary. A systematic methodology consisting of 16 evaluation criteria is used for comparative evaluation, thereby leading other approaches to be evaluated through a common scale. Finally, we propose a dynamic reciprocal authentication protocol to secure data transmission in mobile cloud computing. In particular, our proposed protocol develops a secure reciprocal authentication method, which is free of Diffie–Hellman limitations, and has immunity against basic or sophisticated known attacks. The protocol utilizes multi-factor authentication of usernames, passwords, and a one-time password. The password is automatically generated and regularly updated for every connection. The proposed protocol is implemented and tested using Java to demonstrate its efficiency in authenticating communications and securing data transmitted in the mobile cloud computing environment. Results of the evaluation process indicate that compared with the existing works, the proposed protocol possesses obvious capabilities in security and in communication and computation costs.