• Quantum metric and wave packets at exceptional points in non-Hermitian systems

      Solnyshkov, DD; Leblanc, C; Bessonart, L; Nalitov, A; Ren, J; Liao, Q; Li, F; Malpuech, G (American Physical Society, 2021-03-11)
      The usual concepts of topological physics, such as the Berry curvature, are not always relevant for non-Hermitian systems. We show that another object, the quantum metric, which often plays a secondary role in Hermitian systems, becomes a crucial quantity near exceptional points in non-Hermitian systems, where it diverges in a way that fully controls the description of wave-packet trajectories. The quantum metric behavior is responsible for a constant acceleration with a fixed direction, and for a nonvanishing constant velocity with a controllable direction. Both contributions are independent of the wave-packet size.
    • Optically controlled polariton condensate molecules

      Cherotchenko, ED; Sigurdsson, H; Askitopoulos, A; Nalitov, AV (American Physical Society, 2021-03-29)
      A condensed-matter platform for analog simulation of complex two-dimensional molecular bonding configurations, based on optically trapped exciton-polariton condensates is proposed. The stable occupation of polariton condensates in the excited states of their optically configurable potential traps permits emulation of excited atomic orbitals. A classical mean-field model describing the dissipative coupling mechanism between p-orbital condensates is derived, identifying lowest-threshold condensation solutions as a function of trap parameters corresponding to bound and antibound π and σ bonding configurations, similar to those in quantum chemistry.
    • Dynamics of spin polarization in tilted polariton rings

      Mukherjee, S; Kozin, VK; Nalitov, AV; Shelykh, IA; Sun, Z; Myers, DM; Ozden, B; Beaumariage, J; Steger, M; Pfeiffer, LN; et al. (American Physical Society, 2021-04-22)
      We have observed the effect of pseudomagnetic field originating from the polaritonic analog of spin-orbit coupling [transverse electric and transverse magnetic (TE-TM) splitting] on a polariton condensate in a ring-shaped microcavity. The effect gives rise to a stable four-leaf pattern around the ring as seen from the linear polarization measurements of the condensate photoluminescence. This pattern is found to originate from the interplay of the cavity potential, energy relaxation, and TE-TM splitting in the ring. Our observations are compared to the dissipative one-dimensional spinor Gross-Pitaevskii equation with the TE-TM splitting energy, which shows good qualitative agreement.
    • Acoustic behaviour of 3D printed titanium perforated panels

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Latif, Ahmad (Elsevier BV, 2021-07-21)
      Titanium alloys such as Ti6Al4V is amongst the most widely studied metallic materials in the broad context of metal 3D printing. Although the mechanical performances are well understood, the acoustic performance of 3D printed Ti6Al4V, and Ti6Al4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) has received limited attention in the literature. As such, this study investigates the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient () and Sound Transmission Loss (STL) of both Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V ELI samples manufactured using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The influence of material thickness on acoustic responses and the potential of developing Ti6Al4V micro-perforated panels (MPP) at 400–1600 Hz is also explored. The sound absorption of three aesthetic perforations printed using Ti6Al4V and the influence of a porous back layer was also investigated. The experimental measurements were carried out using an impedance tube following ISO10534-2. The result of the study establishes that 3D printed non-circular perforations featuring porous back-layer can exhibit improved sound absorption coefficient.
    • Robust Deep Identification using ECG and Multimodal Biometrics forIndustrial Internet of Things

      Alkeem, Ebrahim Al; Yeob Yeun, Chan; Yun, Jaewoong; Yoo, Paul D; Chae, Myungsu; Rahman, Arafatur; Asyhari, A Taufiq (Elsevier, 2021-06-12)
      The use of electrocardiogram (ECG) data for personal identification in Industrial Internet of Things can achieve near-perfect accuracy in an ideal condition. However, real-life ECG data are often exposed to various types of noises and interferences. A reliable and enhanced identification method could be achieved by employing additional features from other biometric sources. This work, thus, proposes a novel robust and reliable identification technique grounded on multimodal biometrics, which utilizes deep learning to combine fingerprint, ECG and facial image data, particularly useful for identification and gender classification purposes. The multimodal approach allows the model to deal with a range of input domains removing the requirement of independent training on each modality, and inter-domain correlation can improve the model generalization capability on these tasks. In multitask learning, losses from one task help to regularize others, thus, leading to better overall performances. The proposed approach merges the embedding of multimodality by using feature-level and score level fusions. To the best of our understanding, the key concepts presented herein is a pioneering work combining multimodality, multitasking and different fusion methods. The proposed model achieves a better generalization on the benchmark dataset used while the feature-level fusion outperforms other fusion methods. The proposed model is validated on noisy and incomplete data with missing modalities and the analyses on the experimental results are provided.
    • Review article: faecal transplantation therapy for gastrointestinal disease

      Landy, J; Al-Hassi, HO; McLaughlin, SD; Walker, AW; Ciclitira, PJ; Nicholls, RJ; Clark, SK; Hart, AL; IBD Unit, St Mark's Hospital, Harrow, London, UK. (Wiley, 2011-06-20)
      Summary Background Evidence is emerging regarding the relationship between a dysbiosis of the human gut microbiota and a number of gastrointestinal diseases as well as diseases beyond the gut. Probiotics have been investigated in many gastrointestinal disease states, with variable and often modest outcomes. Faecal transplantation is an alternative approach to manipulate the gut microbiota. Aim To review the use of faecal transplantation therapy for the management of gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Available articles on faecal transplantation in the management of gastrointestinal disorders were identified using a Pubmed search and bibliographies of review articles on the subject were collated. Results A total of 239 patients who had undergone faecal transplantation were reported. Seventeen of 22 studies of faecal transplantation were in fulminant or refractory Clostridium difficile. Studies of faecal transplantation are heterogeneous regarding the patients, donors, screening, methods of administration and definition of response. Faecal transplantation for C. difficile has been demonstrated to be effective in 145/166 (87%) patients. Small numbers of patients are reported to have undergone successful faecal transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions Faecal transplantation has been reported with good outcomes for fulminant and refractory C. difficile. No adverse effects of faecal transplantation have been reported. However, there are no level 1 data of faecal transplantation and reports to date may suffer from reporting bias of positive outcomes and under-reporting of adverse effects. This therapy holds great promise, where a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is responsible for disease and further studies are necessary to explore this potential.
    • How has Covid-19 affected published academic research? A content analysis of journal articles mentioning the virus

      Thelwall, Michael; Thelwall, Saheeda (De Gruyter Open, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: Methods to tackle Covid-19 have been developed by a wave of biomedical research but the pandemic has also influenced many aspects of society, generating a need for research into its consequences, and potentially changing the way existing topics are investigated. This article investigates the nature of this influence on the wider academic research mission. Design/methodology/approach: This article reports an inductive content analysis of 500 randomly selected journal articles mentioning Covid-19, as recorded by the Dimensions scholarly database on 19 March 2021. Covid-19 mentions were coded for the influence of the disease on the research. Findings: Whilst two thirds of these articles were about biomedicine (e.g., treatments, vaccines, virology), or health services in response to Covid-19, others covered the pandemic economy, society, safety, or education. In addition, some articles were not about the pandemic but stated that Covid-19 had increased or decreased the value of the reported research or changed the context in which it was conducted. Research limitations: The findings relate only to Covid-19 influences declared in published journal articles. Practical implications: Research managers and funders should consider whether their current procedures are effective in supporting researchers to address the evolving demands of pandemic societies, particularly in terms of timeliness. Originality/value: The results show that although health research dominates the academic response to Covid-19, it is more widely disrupting academic research with new demands and challenges.
    • Enhancing learning opportunities in higher education: best practices that reflect on the themes of the National Student Survey, UK

      Gomis, Muhandiramge Kasun Samadhi; Saini, Mandeep; Pathirage, Chaminda; Arif, Mohammed (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: This study assessed 'Learning Opportunities' provided to the undergraduate students, from level three to six, in Higher Education (HE). A knowledge gap was identified within the current practice relating to learning opportunities for Built Environment (BE) students in HE. The study focused on the themes under section two of the National Student Survey (NSS): how students explore ideas or concepts in-depth, bring information and ideas together from different topics, and apply the learned content in a real-life context. The study aimed to provide recommendations for enhancing 'Learning Opportunities' to the BE students within HE. Methodology: Data collection focused on section two of NSS ‘Learning Opportunities’ and documentary analysis, and a qualitative survey was adopted for this study. A documental analysis of 334 Mid Module Reviews (MMR’s) was carried out. The qualitative data was collected from level three to level six students and academics from Architecture, Construction Management, Civil Engineering and Quantity Surveying disciplines representing BE context. A sample of 40 students and 15 academics, including a Head of school, a Principal lecturer, Subject leads and lecturers, participated in interviews as part of a qualitative survey. Twelve drivers were developed using the data obtained through literature, documental analysis, and interviews. These drivers were analysed using manual content analysis to identify their influence on the specified themes under NSS section two and circulated among academics to be ranked by identifying its’ influence to promote learning opportunities to BE students in HE. Findings: This study highlighted twelve drivers which promote learning opportunities in HE within BE curriculum. Findings established that topics should be explained with more real-life or industry-orientated concepts such as simplification integrated into module delivery. Contrary to the literature, the use of physical materials (i.e. handouts and whiteboard) in addition to Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) for detailed explanations were considered effective in exploring concepts. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, context-based learning needs to be promoted by integrating videos of practical implementation for better understanding. The study recognised that lab, fieldwork and tutorials were essential to apply what students have learned in BE curricula to a real-life context. Originality/Value: This study identified current learning approaches and provided recommendations to improve the BE students learning experience in HE. The identified twelve drivers would significantly help academics and academic institutions to understand how learning opportunities should be facilitated in the BE curriculum to enhance student performances in HE. Conclusion: Study identified twelve drivers that significantly contribute towards enhancing learning opportunities for BE students in the current HE context. It concludes that certain drivers should be prioritised in enhancing learning opportunities provided in BE curriculum. The study recommends that using traditional and VLE is essential to implement identified drivers and enhance the learning opportunities provided.
    • Influence of the tetraalkoxysilane crosslinker on the properties of polysiloxane-based elastomers prepared by the Lewis acid-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction

      Hickman, Andrew M.; Chmel, Nikola; Cameron, Neil R.; Keddie, Daniel J.; Schiller, Tara L. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021-07-21)
      We investigate the preparation of polysiloxane-based networks under solvent-free, ambient conditions using the Lewis acid catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn (PR) reaction of hydride-terminated siloxanes with various tetrafunctional alkoxysilanes (tetraethoxysilane, tetrapropoxysilane, tetra-n-buxoxysilane, tetra-s-butoxysilane, tetra-s-butoxysilane, and tetrakis(2- ethylbutoxy)silane) as crosslinkers. We explore the effects of polysiloxane chain length and crosslinker alkyl group on the rheological performance of the elastomers. By analysing the reaction progress by grazing angle Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and determining the rheological properties of the resulting materials, we show that the use of linear or branched alkoxysilanes strongly influences the morphology and properties of these network polymers. We have shown the PR process is can be tailored to reliably produce homogeneous, polysiloxane network materials. This work provides information on the relative rates of network formation under ambient conditions with an emphasis on the impact of crosslinker alkyl chain length. Our results show that electronics and s terics both play critical roles in influencing the the rate of the curing reaction. Crucially, we newly demonstrate the benefit of a having tertiary carbon α to the SiO reaction centre, as is the case for the tetra-s-butoxysilane crosslinker, for delivering exceptionally rapid network cure and a concomitant enhancement in storage modulus of the resultant materials.
    • PlenoptiCam v1.0: A light-field imaging framework

      Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar (IEEE, 2021-12-31)
      Light-field cameras play a vital role for rich 3-D information retrieval in narrow range depth sensing applications. The key obstacle in composing light-fields from exposures taken by a plenoptic camera is to computationally calibrate, re-align and rearrange four-dimensional image data. Several attempts have been proposed to enhance the overall image quality by tailoring pipelines dedicated to particular plenoptic cameras and improving the color consistency across viewpoints at the expense of high computational loads. The framework presented herein advances prior outcomes thanks to its cost-effective color equalization from parallax-invariant probability distribution transfers and a novel micro image scale-space analysis for generic camera calibration independent of the lens specifications. Our framework compensates for artifacts from the sensor and micro lens grid in an innovative way to enable superior quality in sub-aperture image extraction, computational refocusing and Scheimpflug rendering with sub-sampling capabilities. Benchmark comparisons using established image metrics suggest that our proposed pipeline outperforms state-of-the-art tool chains in the majority of cases. The algorithms described in this paper are released under an open-source license, offer cross-platform compatibility with few dependencies and a graphical user interface. This makes the reproduction of results and experimentation with plenoptic camera technology convenient for peer researchers, developers, photographers, data scientists and others working in this field.
    • Coatings for dental applications

      Praveen, Ayyappan S; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad (Elsevier, 2021-07-15)
      Dental implants have become a reliable treatment option in oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients to secure various kinds of prostheses. Established standard procedures exist for tooth replacement in various zones with varying degrees of success and challenges. Overall, the long-term success of dental implants largely depends on their surface characteristics and osseointegration. Although, the success rate of dental implants is high in comparison to orthopedic implants, insufficient integration, local tissue inflammation, and infection are still persistent issues. Accordingly, various types of biomaterial coatings using a range of techniques are commonly used to improve the overall performance of dental implants and to overcome some of the persistent issues. The function of the implant coated material includes enhancing the cellular changes which in turn accelerate the healing process through improved osseointegration and antibacterial properties. Consequently, coatings for dental applications are gaining significant attention and interest among researchers across the globe. This article, therefore, aims to introduce coating materials and associated techniques used in the context of dental application for improved biocompatibility and biofunctionality.
    • Different grades and different green premiums: a cross sectional analysis of a green certification scheme

      Wadu Mesthrige, Jayantha; Oladinrin, OT; Javed, AA (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-18)
      Green certification is often hailed as an effective means of resolving information asymmetry by providing prospective buyers with credible proof of a property’s level of quantitative sustainability performance. These certification schemes are also considered as providing the credible identification labels needed to generate a market premium. This study analysed whether different market premiums (financial implications) exist across different ratings of the HK-BEAM certification scheme. The paper used hedonic price model (HPM) to evaluate the influence of green certification rating levels on residential property prices in Hong Kong. The results indicate, on average, that HK-BEAM certification increases price values by between 5.3% and 6.7%. Most importantly, the results indicate that significant price premium differences exist across the different ratings available for HK-BEAM certified buildings. The findings provide strong proof of the existence of a premium across ratings.
    • Controls on the development of continuous gullies: a 60 year monitoring study in the Moldavian Plateau of Romania

      Ionita, I; Niacsu, L; Poesen, J; Fullen, MA (Wiley, 2021-07-15)
      Gully erosion is a major environmental threat on the Moldavian Plateau (MP) of eastern Romania. The permanent gully systems consist of two main gully types. These are: (1) discontinuous gullies, which are mostly located on hillslopes and (2) large continuous gullies in valley bottoms. Very few studies have investigated the evolution of continuous gullies over the medium to longer term. The main objective of this study was to quantitatively analyse the development of continuous gullies over six decades (1961-2020). The paper aimed at predicting temporal patterns of gully head erosion based on field data from multiple gullies. Fourteen representative continuous gullies were selected near the town of Barlad, most of them having catchment areas <500 ha. Linear gully head retreat (LGHR) and areal gully growth (AGG) rates were quantified for six decades. Two main periods were distinguished and compared (i.e. the wet 1961-1980 period and the drier 1981-2020 period). Results indicate that gully erosion rates have significantly decreased since 1981. The mean LGHR of 7.7 m yr-1 over 60 years was accompanied by a mean AGG of 213 m2 yr-1. However, erosion rates between 1961-1980 were 4.0 times larger for LGHR and 5.9 times more for AGG compared to those for 1981-2020. Two regression models indicate that annual precipitation (P) is the primary controlling factor, explaining 57% of LGHR and 53% of AGG rate. The contributing area (CA) follows, with ~33%. Only 43% of total change in LGHR and 46% of total change in AGG results from rainfall-induced runoff during the warm season. Accordingly, the cold season (with associated freeze-thaw processes and snowmelt runoff) has more impact on gully development. The runoff pattern, when flow enters the trunk gully head, is largely controlled by the upper approaching discontinuous gully.
    • The cellular pathways and potential therapeutics of polycystic kidney disease

      Richards, T; Modarage, K; Malik, SA; Goggolidou, P; Department of Biomedical Science and Physiology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, U.K. (Portland Press, 2021-06-22)
      Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) refers to a group of disorders, driven by the formation of cysts in renal tubular cells and is currently one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. The range of symptoms observed in PKD is due to mutations in cilia-localising genes, resulting in changes in cellular signalling. As such, compounds that are currently in preclinical and clinical trials target some of these signalling pathways that are dysregulated in PKD. In this review, we highlight these pathways including cAMP, EGF and AMPK signalling and drugs that target them and may show promise in lessening the disease burden of PKD patients. At present, tolvaptan is the only approved therapy for ADPKD, however, it carries several adverse side effects whilst comparatively, no pharmacological drug is approved for ARPKD treatment. Aside from this, drugs that have been the subject of multiple clinical trials such as metformin, which targets AMPK signalling and somatostatins, which target cAMP signalling have shown great promise in reducing cyst formation and cellular proliferation. This review also discusses other potential and novel targets that can be used for future interventions, such as β-catenin and TAZ, where research has shown that a reduction in the overexpression of these signalling components results in amelioration of disease phenotype. Thus, it becomes apparent that welldesigned preclinical investigations and future clinical trials into these pathways and other potential signalling targets are crucial in bettering disease prognosis for PKD patients and could lead to personalised therapy approaches.
    • Antibacterial biomaterials in orthopedics

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-07-10)
      Implant infection is a serious complication resulting in pain, mortality, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century causing an estimated 25000 deaths/year in the EU at €1.5 billion/year in healthcare and productivity cost. By 2050, WHO estimates 10 million lives a year will be at risk from AMR, surpassing cancer, with $100 trillion in economic costs if no proactive solutions are found. The risk-of-infection associated with surgical implants is the one that is called for the highest attention. Antibacterial biomaterials are rapidly emerging as a primary component of the global mitigation strategy against both implant infection and AMR. As a result of extensive research efforts, advances are being made both on antibacterial surface coatings topographical architecture that can be applied that reduces the risk of infection. In this regard, the paper introduces the emerging research on antibacterial constructs highlighting the challenges and opportunities. In doing so, antibacterial biomaterials the offer the highest potential for reducing orthopedic infections while combating AMR are discussed.
    • Different thyroid assays may greatly affect diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism

      Kalaria, Tejas; Sanders, Anna; Fenn, Jonathan; Buch, Harit; Ford, Clare; Ashby, Helen L; Mohammed, Pervaz; Gama, Rousseau; Clinical Biochemistry, New Cross Hospital, Black Country Pathology Services, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK. (BMJ, 2021-06-09)
      Letter to the editor, replying to Investigating hypothyroidism, Published: 27 April 2021; BMJ 373 doi:10.1136/bmj.n993
    • SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus and nanoscale particles trapping, tracking and tackling using nanoaperture optical tweezers: A recent advances review

      Kumar, Rajiv; Gulia, Kiran; Chaudhary, M.P.; Shah, M.A. (iScienceIn Publishing, 2020-12-02)
      Recent advances in nanoscale technologies have provided advanced tools that can be easily used to trap, track, and manipulate individual nanoscale particles and viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses accurately. Among the promising strategies that exist to date, optical forces based techniques are the leading tools in this task. Perfectly, focused lasers act as “optical tweezers,” and can trap individual particles and viruses. These forces can be applied to study nanomaterials, viruses, the building blocks of a quantum computer, and collision processes occurring between molecules in a better way than ever before. These cutting-edge tools are capable of trapping, tracking, and manipulating at the nanoscale in three dimensions. The optical tweezers have been used within biological and nanotechnological fields for trapping, tracking, and manipulating nanoparticles, and viruses with high flexibility, precision, and integration. The outcomes are important breakthroughs in the field of molecular mechanics. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical tools employed in optical trapping, tracking, and manipulation of different particles at the nanoscale. The trapping of nanoparticles down to single-digit nanometer range and individual SARS-CoV-2 are the main features discussed here. Optical tweezers are also capable of sizing and probing acoustic modes of a small virus such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. The optical tweezers can perform tracking of nanoparticles in three-dimensional with high-resolution by forwarding scattered light. Optical tweezers are used to grab single molecules and measure events that are occurring and employed for measuring forces and measuring distance. A miniature and modular system creates a reliable and mobile optical trap that has more potential to be applied in optical trapping technologies.
    • Sexual dimorphism in crowned lemur scent-marking

      Elwell, Emily; Walker, David; Vaglio, Stefano (MDPI, 2021-07-14)
      Primates are traditionally considered to have a poor sense of smell. However, olfaction is important for non-human primates as demonstrated by conspicuous scent-marking behaviours in lemurs. We studied two pairs (n = 4) of crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus) housed at Colchester and Twycross zoos (UK) by combining behavioural observations and chemical analyses of scent-marks and glandular swabs. We recorded observations of olfactory behaviours for 201 h using instantaneous scan sampling. We investigated the volatile compounds of ano-genital odour secretions (n = 16) using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Males scent-marked most frequently, displaying ano-genital marking for allomarking, head marking for countermarking and wrist marking in specific areas of the enclosure. Females displayed ano-genital marking, predominantly on feeding devices. We detected a total of 38 volatile components in all male ano-genital scent-marks and 26 in all female samples of ano-genital odour secretions, including a series of esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenes, volatile fatty acids and hydrocarbons that have been identified in odour profiles of other primates. In conclusion, we found sexual dimorphism in crowned lemur scent-marking. Male head and wrist marking behaviours might play defensive territorial functions, while ano-genital marking would be related to socio-sexual communication as chemical mate-guarding. Female ano-genital marking might be involved in resource defense.
    • New look on relay selection strategies for full-duplex multiple-relay NOMA over Nakagami-m fading channels

      Thi Nguyen, Tu-Trinh; Do, Dinh-Thuan; Chen, Yeong-Chin; So-In, Chakchai; Rahman, Md Arafatur (Springer, 2021-07-07)
      By removing the orthogonal use of radio-resources, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has been introduced to improve the spectral efficiency of fifth generation (5G) and beyond networks. This paper studies the system performance in a dual-hop multi-relay NOMA using decode-and-forward (DF) scheme over Nakagami-m fading channels. A group of NOMA users is considered, i.e. the near and far users which are decided by how strong these related channels are. Specifically, we obtain a closed-form expression of the outage probability of the near/far NOMA users when the several relay selection schemes are adopted for selecting the best among M intermediate relays. As main finding, this paper introduces three strategies including two-stage relay selection, max-min and power allocation based relay selection schemes. As main benefit, the NOMA users are considered to employ selection combining technique in order to improve signal transmissions for an increased reliability in the context of massive connections in 5G wireless communications. By conducting numerical simulations, we evaluate the impact of the number of intermediate relays, the NOMA power allocation factor, and the Nakagami-m fading severity parameter on the outage performance of the NOMA users. Finally, the outage probability along with throughout in delay-limited transmission mode are provided via numerical results and the necessary comparisons are provided.
    • Defining lean construction capability from an ambidextrous perspective

      Yanquing, Fang; Daniel, Emmanuel Itodo (International Group for Lean Construction, 2021-07-01)
      Lean construction (LC) is widely used to eliminate waste in the construction industry. However, research on LC capability is lagging relative to other works in the LC field. By exploring relevant literature on the rigid and flexible characteristics of LC, this study proposes for the first time that LC capability is an ambidextrous capability from a paradoxical lens. The investigation reveals that the concept of LC capability has no clear definition and puts forward the view that LC capability is an ambidextrous capability. The study established that LC ambidextrous capability is a paradox which consist of two dimensions—namely LC exploitative capability and LC exploratory capability. LC ambidextrous capability emphasizes striving for a balance between the two capabilities. This study contributes to current knowledge and future application of organizational ambidexterity theory to LC capability development. Regarding contribution to practice, this research would enable LC project practitioners to understand the paradoxical tensions in LC projects, and to how to deal with them. Additionally, this study brings new insight and opens a new debate on how LC ambidextrous capability could develop in the construction field.