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Compressive performance of an arbitrary stiffness matched anatomical Ti64 implant manufactured using Direct Metal Laser SinteringVance, Aaron; Bari, Klaudio; Arjunan, Arun (Elsevier, 2018-11-08)The reduction of stress shielding following Segmental Bone Defect (SBD) repair requires stiffness matching strategies. Accordingly, this work introduces a Ti6Al4V (Ti64) SBD tibial implant that mimics the segmented bone anatomy using a digital bio-model derived from X-Ray μCT Scan data. The implant features a sheathed periodic unit cell design that can perform slightly lower than the segmented bone being replaced for potential stiffness matching. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out for the selection of unit cell and to predict the implant performance. The results were then compared to compression test data from a Ti64 Grade 23 implant manufactured using Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) to assess predictability. The outcome of this research shows an anatomical stiffness matched design that maybe suitable for SBD repair of a tibial segment that can be manufactured using DMLS. The developed implant exhibits Young's Modulus (E) of 12.03, 11.94 and 14.58 GPa using Maxwell's criterion, FEA and experimental (highest) methodologies respectively. This is slightly lower than the segmented bone that exhibited 18.01 GPa (ETibia) to allow for stiffness matching following a period of osseointegration depending on ‘critical size’. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the implant was found to be favourable for osteoblasts attachment.
Investigation of Ti64 sheathed cellular anatomical structure as a tibia implantVance, Aaron; Bari, Klaudio; Arjunan, Arun (IOP Publishing, 2019-03-12)In order to reduce stress shielding following a segmental bone replacement surgery requires stiffness matching strategies between the host bone and the implant are required. Carefully engineered implant geometry that can mimic the mechanical performance of the host bone is required to achieve this. The development of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) techniques such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) allows for the fabrication of complex geometries that can achieve targeted mechanical performance. Consequently, this work introduces a sheathed Ti6Al4V additively manufactured tibial implant that mimics the circumferential anatomy of the host bone. Performance evaluation of the implant was carried using experimental and numerical technique under axial compression. Furthermore, the influence of sheathing strategy and sheath thickness on the compressive performance of the implant is parametrically analysed. The results of this study shows a promising sheathed implant that can replace a defective tibia bone segment. The implant is superior to conventional porous implants as it allows for easy implantation in surgical operation and allows for the reduction of stress shielding.