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Aqueous bark extracts of terminalia arjuna stimulates insulin release, enhances insulin action and inhibits starch digestion and protein glycation in vitroThompson, HAJ; Ojo, Opeolu; Flatt, PR; Abdel-Wahab, YHA (Austin Publishing Group, 2014-01-20)Scientific evidence for the effects of Terminalia arjuna on diabetes mellitus is lacking. This study investigated the anti-diabetic efficacy and mode of action of the bark extract of Terminalia arjuna. Insulin-release from BRIN-BD11 cells was assessed in the absence or presence of T. arjuna extracts and modulators of insulin-secretion. Insulin concentration and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) were measured by radioimmunoassay and FLEXstationTM respectively. Adipocyte glucose-uptake with 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, starch digestion with α–amylase and protein glycation were assessed in vitro. Terminalia arjuna extract stimulated insulin-release alone (p<0.001), in combination with known modulators but not without extracellular Ca2+. It increased intracellular calcium but had no effects on depolarised cells. Glucose-uptake was enhanced in the presence of T. arjuna (P< 0.001). At higher concentrations, the extract decreased starch digestion and inhibited protein glycation (p<0.001). Terminalia arjuna extract possesses antidiabetic potential and may provide new opportunities for the treatment of diabetes.