Recent Submissions

  • Crashworthiness analysis of bio-inspired thin-walled tubes based on Morpho wings microstructures

    Nikkhah, H; Crupi, V; Baroutaji, A (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-23)
    © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Innovative thin-walled structures, bio-inspired by the microstructure of Morpho wings, were proposed as energy absorbing devices in this study. A finite element model, experimentally validated, was used to investigate the crush responses and deformation modes of 18 multi-layered tubes with different geometrical configurations. The crashworthiness parameters were determined for the bio-inspired structures and compared with the traditional structures. Furthermore, a multi-criteria decision-making method was employed in order to identify the best crashworthiness design. It was found that the multi-layered bio-inspired tube with square cross sections and reinforcement walls outperformed all other designs and exhibited the best energy absorption capability.
  • Slenderness-based design for sigma sections subjected to interior one flange loading

    Almatrafi, Meshal; Theofanous, Marios; Bock, Marina; Dirar, Samir (Elsevier, 2020-10-15)
    Due to their thin-walled nature and complex geometry, cold-formed steel purlins are prone to a variety of instabilities. Sigma purlins are a family of cold-formed steel members with folding-lines along their webs. The non-straight geometry of their web is beneficial in terms of reducing the susceptibility of the web to local buckling, however, it increases their susceptibility to web crippling when the purlins are subjected to concentrated transverse loads and hence it may reduce their overall moment resistance. This paper reports a series of experiments on sigma purlins under the interior-one-flange (IOF) loading condition. Two different section geometries and three different bearing plate widths were examined. To investigate further the effect of web geometry on the IOF web crippling strength of sigma sections, an FE model was developed and validated against the reported test results. Following successful replication of the experimental observations, a comprehensive parametric study was performed, and several sigma sections covering a wide range of cross-sectional geometries and slenderness were numerically modelled. Finally, a slenderness-based (or direct strength) design approach previously developed for the web crippling design of channel and hat sections is extended to sigma.
  • Design for occupational safety and health: A theoretical framework for organisational capability

    Adaku, E; Ankrah, NA; Ndekugri, IE (Elsevier, 2020-09-24)
    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd For several decades, scholars and practitioners have searched for the underlying causes of occupational safety and health (OSH) incidents on construction projects. One of the insights from the investigations is the fact that the seeds of accidents, fatalities and occupational related ill-health are sown across various design and procurement decisions made during the pre-construction stage of project development. This insight has given rise to the design for occupational safety and health (DfOSH) initiative which has even informed regulations in certain countries, particularly the UK. However, knowledge and understanding of what, specifically, constitutes the organisational capability of design firms of generating designs which are inherently safe is very limited. Hence, this study undertakes a systematic review of prior conceptualisations of organisational capability, carries out contents analyses of the conceptualisations and provides a robust conceptualisation of the construct. The robust conceptualisation underpins the development of a nomological network to operationalise the construct organisational capability in respect of design firms’ ability to ensure design for occupational safety and health (DfOSH). Organisational capability is presented as a multi-dimensional construct that can be operationalised at various levels of specificity. The proposed framework can support the identification of organisational capability gaps that design firms seeking to build their DfOSH capability can address while at the same time assisting project clients to clarify the organisational capability of design firms in the procurement process.
  • Seismic collapse of self-centering steel MRFs with different column base structural properties

    Kamperidis, VC; Papavasileiou, GS; Kamaris, GS; Vasdravellis, G (Elsevier, 2020-09-19)
    © 2020 Elsevier Ltd The effect of the strength and stiffness characteristics of a previously proposed novel column base on the seismic performance and collapse capacity of steel self-centering moment-resisting frames is evaluated in this paper. This is done through three normalised parameters that represent the initial stiffness, post-yield stiffness, and strength of the column base, which can be independently adjusted. For these evaluations, a prototype steel building, which serves as a case study, is designed with sixteen different cases of a self-centering moment-resisting frame with different column base stiffness and strength characteristics (SC-MRF-CBs). A self-centering moment-resisting frame with conventional column bases and the same members and beam-column connections as those of the SC-MRF-CBs, named SC-MRF, serves as a benchmark frame. A set of 44 ground motions was used to conduct non-linear dynamic analyses and evaluate the seismic performance of the frames. Incremental dynamic analyses were also performed with the same ground motions set to evaluate the collapse capacity of the frames. Collapse capacity fragility curves and adjusted collapse margin ratios of the frames were derived and used for the comparison of the seismic risk of the frames. The results show that the new self-centering column base significantly improves the seismic performance of the SC-MRF, demonstrating the potential of the SC-MRF-CBs to be redesigned with smaller member sections. Moreover, the SC-MRF-CBs achieve significant reduction in collapse risk compared to the SC-MRF. Finally, the results show that increasing the base strength and stiffness improves the seismic performance and collapse capacity of the SC-MRF-CBs.
  • Deformation and energy absorption of additively manufactured functionally graded thickness thin-walled circular tubes under lateral crushing

    Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Stanford, Mark; Robinson, John; Olabi, Abdul Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-10-10)
    Functionally graded thickness (FGT) is an innovative concept to create light-weight structures with better material distribution and promising energy absorption characteristics suitable for vehicle crashworthiness applications. Accordingly, this paper suggests innovative circular tubes with in-plane thickness gradient along their perimeter and assesses their crashworthiness behaviour under lateral loading. Three different designs of circular tubes with thickness gradient were considered in which the locations of maximum and minimum thicknesses are varied. Selective laser melting method of additive manufacturing was used to manufacture the different tubes. Two different bulk powders including titanium (Ti6Al4V) and aluminium (AlSi10Mg) were used in the manufacturing process. Quasi-static crush experiments were conducted on the laser melted tubes to investigate their crushing and energy absorption behaviour. The energy absorption characteristics of the different FGT tubes were calculated and compared against a uniform thickness design. The results revealed that the best crashworthiness metrics were offered by FGT titanium tube in which the maximum thickness regions were along the horizontal and vertical directions while the minimum thickness regions were at an angle of 45° with respect to the loading direction. The aforementioned tube was found to absorb 79% greater energy per unit mass than its uniform thickness counterpart. Finally, with the aid of numerical simulations and surrogate modelling techniques, multi-objective optimisation and parametric analysis were conducted on the best FGT tube. The influences of the geometrical parameters on the crashworthiness responses of the best FGT structure were explored and the optimal thickness gradient parameters were determined. The results reported in this paper provide valuable guidance on the design of FGT energy absorption tubes for lateral deformation.
  • Baricitinib in rheumatoid arthritis – real world cross-sectional study

    Sagdeo, Amol; Askari, Ayman; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (Bentham Open, 2020-12-31)
    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common cause of inflammatory polyarthritis. In RA, increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the overall symptomatology of fatigue, pain, and joint stiffness. Baricitinib is an orally administered biologic DMARD, used in RA patients, inhibiting signaling via JAK1/JAK2 inhibition, reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Objective: To explore the efficacy and tolerability for baricitinib in a local population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to review data of RA patients on Baricitinib from the researchers’ own clinic, since its approval in August 2017. The data was collected from an anonymized electronic patient records report. The clinical response was then classified into mild, moderate, and significant improvement. Results and Discussion: Overall, 27 out of 37 patients (72.9%) showed clinical improvement with baricitinib. In 9(24.3%) out of 37 patients, the dose had to be reduced to either 2mg/day or 2mg/day - 4mg/day on alternate days. In four of the 9 patients’ where the dose was reduced due to infections (UTI or sinuses), they subsequently experienced fewer infections while maintaining moderate improvement in their RA. Conclusion: There is a need for longer-term and larger studies to evaluate the full side effects profile of baricitinib in the local population.
  • First report of leucism for the kraits Bungarus walli Wall, 1907 and B. niger Wall, 1908, with updates on their geographic distribution in Nepal (Serpentes, Elapidae)

    Devkota, Kamal; Mandal, Dev Narayan; Sah, Ganesh; O'Shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich (Societas Europaea Herpetologica, 2020-10-08)
    Six species of kraits, genus Bungarus, have been recorded in Nepal (e.g., Schleich and Kästle, 2002; Sharma et al., 2013), including B. bungaroides (Cantor, 1839), B. caeruleus (Schneider, 1801), B. fasciatus (Schneider, 1801), B. lividus Cantor, 1839, B. niger Wall, 1908, and B. walli Wall, 1907. These species occur from the lowland habitats of the Terai Plains along the Nepal-India border into habitats at intermediate elevations in the Siwalik Hills and into the Mahabharat Range (Joshi et al., 2019), extending in the case of B. caeruleus, the most commonly encountered krait in Nepal, up to elevations of at least 1525 m, and up to 1730 m in B. bungaroides (Schleich and Kästle, 2002; Sharma et al., 2013). All of these species appear to be of medical importance as a cause of snakebite mortality and morbidity (e.g., Bhetwal et al., 1998; Pandey, 2015). It is noteworthy that confirmed records of kraits in Nepal display a patchiness consistent with intermittent sampling: while some species probably have a countrywide distribution, records tend to exist primarily for areas of high human population concentration where sampling and the incidence of snakebite can be expected at greater frequency (e.g., B. caeruleus, B. fasciatus, B. lividus). On the other hand, some species cluster only in the southeasternmost extreme of the country (B. bungaroides, B. walli), and given their distribution in neighbouring countries, this sampling may reflect reality.
  • A Thematic analysis of highly retweeted early COVID-19 tweets: Consensus, information, dissent, and lockdown life

    Thelwall, Michael; Thelwall, Saheeda (Emerald, 2020-10-23)
    Purpose: Public attitudes towards COVID-19 and social distancing are critical in reducing its spread. It is therefore important to understand public reactions and information dissemination in all major forms, including on social media. This article investigates important issues reflected on Twitter in the early stages of the public reaction to COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: A thematic analysis of the most retweeted English-language tweets mentioning COVID-19 during March 10-29, 2020. Findings: The main themes identified for the 87 qualifying tweets accounting for 14 million retweets were: lockdown life; attitude towards social restrictions; politics; safety messages; people with COVID-19; support for key workers; work; and COVID-19 facts/news. Research limitations/implications: Twitter played many positive roles, mainly through unofficial tweets. Users shared social distancing information, helped build support for social distancing, criticised government responses, expressed support for key workers, and helped each other cope with social isolation. A few popular tweets not supporting social distancing show that government messages sometimes failed. Practical implications: Public health campaigns in future may consider encouraging grass roots social web activity to support campaign goals. At a methodological level, analysing retweet counts emphasised politics and ignored practical implementation issues. Originality/value: This is the first qualitative analysis of general COVID-19-related retweeting.
  • Chronic exercise training attenuates prostate cancer-induced molecular remodelling in the testis

    Matos, Barbara; Patricio, Daniela; Henriques, Magda; Freitas, Maria; Vitorino, Rui; Duarte, Iola; Howl, John; Oliveira, Paula; Seixas, Fernanda; Duarte, Jose; et al. (Springer, 2020-10-19)
    Purpose Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in males worldwide and, in addition to impairing prostate function, also causes testicular adaptations. In this study, we aim to investigate the preventive effect of exercise training on PCa-induced testicular dysfunction. Methods As a model, we used fifty Wistar Unilever male rats, randomly divided in four experimental groups. Prostate cancer was chemically and hormonally induced in two groups of animals (PCa groups). One control group and one PCa group was submitted to moderate intensity treadmill exercise training. Fifty weeks after the start of the training the animals were sacrificed and sperm, prostate, testes and serum were collected and analyzed. Sperm concentration and morphology, and testosterone serum levels were determined. In addition, histological analysis of the testes was performed, and testis proteomes and metabolomes were characterized. Results We found that prostate cancer negatively affected testicular function, manifested as an arrest of spermatogenesis. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, arising from reduced testis blood flow, may also contribute to apoptosis of germ cells and consequential spermatogenic impairment. Decreased utilization of the glycolytic pathway, increased metabolism of ketone bodies and the accumulation of branched chain amino acids were also evident in the PCa animals. Conversely, we found that the treadmill training regimen activated DNA repair mechanisms and counteracted several metabolic alterations caused by PCa without impact on oxidative stress. Conclusions These findings confirm a negative impact of prostate cancer on testis function and suggest a beneficial role for exercise training in the prevention of prostate cancer-induced testis dysfunction.
  • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

    Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
    Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
  • Implementing a HBIM approach to manage the translocation of heritage buildings

    Heesom, David; Boden, Paul; Hatfield, Anthony; De Los Santos Melo, Aneuris; Czarska-Chukwurah, Farida (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
    Purpose The purpose of the paper is to present a study which exploited synergies between the fields of Heritage BIM, conservation and building translocation to develop a new approach to support a digitally enabled translocation process. The translocation (or relocation) of buildings or structures is a niche area of the construction sector and much of the significant work in this field has focused on the relocation of heritage buildings. However, hitherto there was a paucity of work integrating translocation with the process and technology of BIM. Design/Methodology/Approach The study employed a Constructive Research approach to analyse the phenomenon of heritage translocation. As part of this approach, semi structured interviews were undertaken with professionals engaged in heritage translocation projects within the UK and this was supported by a multi-faceted review of literature within the cross cutting themes of translocation and HBIM. Building on the results, a BIM enabled process was implemented to support the translocation of a 19th Century timber framed building in the UK. Findings Following analysis of results of semi structured interviews, and supported by findings from prevailing literature in the field of translocation and HBIM, a HBIM for Translocation Conceptual Framework (TransHBIM) was developed. Building on the key constructs of the framework, a HBIM based workflow was implemented to develop a digitally enabled translocation process which provided a new approach to managing and documenting heritage translocation where disassembly and reconstruction is utilised. The workflow provided a more effective way of documenting individual elements of the building within a digital environment opening up potential for new simulation of the entire process. Originality/Value Current approaches to translocation involve manual methods of recording the building and cataloguing the key heritage elements for all aspects of the process. This new approach implements BIM technologies and processes along with the use of barcode or RFID tags to create a digital bridge between the physical elements of the building and the BIM database. This provides more accurate recording of the heritage and also opens up opportunities to support the process with additional digital simulation techniques enhancing the efficiency of the entire process.
  • Mechanical performance of additively manufactured pure silver antibacterial bone scaffolds

    Arjunan, Arun; Robinson, John; Al Ani, Enas; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2020-09-22)
    Implant infection is a serious complication resulting in pain, mortality, prolonged recovery, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Reducing the risk-of-infection associated with tissue implants require imminent attention, where pure silver (Ag) offers enormous potential. However, the printability, mechanical performance nor microbial resistance of additively manufactured (AM) pure Ag is unavailable in literature. This is critical as Ag is thought to play a vital role in the development of AM patient-specific infection resistant implants in the decade to come. The study therefore additively manufactured 99.9% pure-Ag through selective laser melting (SLM) and systematically investigates its mechanical performance. The validated SLM process parameters were then used to conceive two fully porous bone scaffold each at approximately 68 and 90% (wt.) porosity. While the study brings to attention the potential defects in SLM pure-Ag through X-ray nanotomography (X-ray nCT), the mechanical properties of porous Ag scaffolds were found to be similar to cancellous bone. The study achieved the highest SLM pure-Ag density of 97% with Young’s modulus (E), elastic limit (), yield strength (), ultimate strength () and ultimate strain () in the range of 15.5–17.8 GPa, 50.7–57.7 MPa, 57.6–67.2 MPa, 82.4–95.9 MPa and 0.07–0.10 respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of printed silver was tested against the common implant infection-causing Staphylococcus aureus and led to 90% and 99.9% kill in 4 and 14 h respectively. The study, therefore, is a first step towards achieving a new generation Ag-based AM infection resistant porous implants.
  • Open access books in the humanities and social sciences: an open access altmetric advantage

    Taylor, Michael (Springer, 2020-12-31)
    The last decade has seen two significant phenomena emerge in research communication: the rise of open access (OA) publishing, and evidence of online sharing in the form of altmetrics. There has been limited examination of the effect of OA on online sharing for journal articles, and little for books. This paper examines the altmetrics of a set of 32,222 books (of which 5% are OA) and a set of 220,527 chapters (of which 7% are OA) indexed by the scholarly database Dimensions in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Both OA books and chapters have significantly higher use on social networks, higher coverage in the mass media and blogs, and evidence of higher rates of social impact in policy documents. OA chapters have higher rates of coverage on Wikipedia than their non-OA equivalents, and are more likely to be shared on Mendeley. Even within the Humanities and Social Sciences, disciplinary differences in altmetric activity are evident. The effect is confirmed for chapters, although sampling issues prevent the strong conclusion that OA facilitates extra attention at whole book level, the apparent OA altmetrics advantage suggests that the move towards OA is increasing social sharing and broader impact.
  • Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Scopus, Dimensions, Web of Science, and OpenCitations’ COCI: a multidisciplinary comparison of coverage via citations

    Martín-Martín, Alberto; Thelwall, Michael; Orduna-Malea, Enrique; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio (Springer Nature, 2020-09-21)
    New sources of citation data have recently become available, such as Microsoft Academic, Dimensions, and the OpenCitations Index of CrossRef open DOI-to-DOI citations (COCI). Although these have been compared to the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS), Scopus, or Google Scholar, there is no systematic evidence of their differences across subject categories. In response, this paper investigates 3,073,351 citations found by these six data sources to 2,515 English-language highly-cited documents published in 2006 from 252 subject categories, expanding and updating the largest previous study. Google Scholar found 88% of all citations, many of which were not found by the other sources, and nearly all citations found by the remaining sources (89–94%). A similar pattern held within most subject categories. Microsoft Academic is the second largest overall (60% of all citations), including 82% of Scopus citations and 86% of WoS citations. In most categories, Microsoft Academic found more citations than Scopus and WoS (182 and 223 subject categories, respectively), but had coverage gaps in some areas, such as Physics and some Humanities categories. After Scopus, Dimensions is fourth largest (54% of all citations), including 84% of Scopus citations and 88% of WoS citations. It found more citations than Scopus in 36 categories, more than WoS in 185, and displays some coverage gaps, especially in the Humanities. Following WoS, COCI is the smallest, with 28% of all citations. Google Scholar is still the most comprehensive source. In many subject categories Microsoft Academic and Dimensions are good alternatives to Scopus and WoS in terms of coverage.
  • Aspirin related platelet reactivity as a determinant of ten year survival in high risk non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients

    Khan, Nazish; Mamas, Mamas A; Moss, Alexandra; Gorog, Diana A; Nightingale, Peter; Armesilla, Angel; Smallwood, Andrew; Munir, Shahzad; Khogali, Saib; Wrigley, Ben; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-09-10)
    Background Aspirin forms a cornerstone of management in patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite proven efficacy, variability of aspirin response has long been recognised, with early studies suggesting rates of high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) as ranging between 5 and 45%. Whether aspirin responsiveness relates to long-term prognosis in patients with CVD is unknown. Methods A prospective, single-centre analysis of 224 troponin positive non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients undergoing coronary angiography. Aspirin-naive patients were loaded with 300 mg aspirin and maintained on 75 mg daily. Blood samples were obtained at the time of angiography and the VerifyNow Aspirin assay utilised to determine aspirin effect. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 10 years. Results Time from aspirin loading (or admission on aspirin) to angiography was 4.9 ± 2.7 days. Platelet aggregation results, expressed as aspirin reaction units (ARU) were divided into tertiles: T1 (ARU 363–405) ( n = 76), T2 (ARU 406–436) (n = 76), T3 (ARU 437–596) ( n = 72). Higher ARU values were associated with increased mortality (log rank, p = 0.009), with those in the T3 having a 3-fold higher rate of events than those in the T1 (HR 3.03 [95% CI 1.33–6.99], p = 0.009) over a 10-year follow up. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that aspirin responsiveness is directly related to 10-year survival and may identify patients who may benefit from additional antithrombotic therapy. Further, ARU values less than the previously defined cut off 550 are associated with reduced survival at 10 years.
  • A brief report of the epidemiology of obesity in the inflammatory bowel disease population of Tayside, Scotland

    Steed, Helen; Walsh, Shaun; Reynolds, Nigel (Karger Publishers, 2009-12-17)
    Aim: Obesity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn’s disease (CD), has previously been considered unusual (3%). CD patients who are obese tend to have increased perianal complications and a higher level of disease activity on an annual basis. Obesity in Scotland has been documented to have increased over the last decade, and over half all men and women in Scotland are now considered to be overweight. This study aims to assess obesity prevalence in the IBD community in Tayside, Scotland. Methods: All IBD patients (n = 1,269) were considered for inclusion. Inclusion criteria required a weight measurement taken from the preceding 12 months and a height measurement within the last decade. 489 patients were included in the analysis. Results: 18% of the Tayside IBD population were obese in comparison to approximately 23% of the Scottish population on a whole. A further 38% of patients were over-weight, the same percentage as the general population. In the overweight and obese ulcerative colitis patients there were higher levels of surgery, but the converse was true in the CD group, where the normal-weight group had the highest levels of surgery. There were significantly more obese men and women with CD than with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.05). Conclusion: Obesity prevalence has increased in IBD patients. This is significant because of the known increased levels of postoperative complications, perianal disease and requirement for more aggressive medical therapy. Research needs to be done to look at the effects of obesity on the co-morbid associations of other diseases with IBD, in particular colorectal cancer, and to ascertain whether or not screening frequency should be altered depending on BMI.
  • AmpliTaq Gold improves short tandem repeat amplifications of highly degraded DNA

    Hummel, Susanne; Burger, Joachim; Rameckers, Jens; Lassen, Cadja; Schmerer, Wera; Herrmann, Bermd (PE Biosystems, 1996-01-01)
  • Investigating future pharmacists' understanding of vaccines and myths surrounding vaccination

    Zahid, Sidrah; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2020-09-18)
    Objective: The United Kingdom has lost its measles, mumps and rubella free status due to a decline in vaccination uptake. There are several beliefs such as safety concern and media influence that discourage people from having vaccinations. To identify gaps in knowledge of vaccination within 3rd year pharmacy students, and to observe whether they can spot myths about vaccines, in particular the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Methods: A questionnaire-based approach was used after gaining ethical approval which included a range of open and closed questions. Results: None of the participants could identify the six common myths reported by the World Health Organisation and 40% failed to accurately identify the type of vaccine of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. There were clear gaps in knowledge on vaccines in participants particularly from black, Asian and minority ethnic group participants compared to white students. Educating participants about the myths could have positive future implications on their scientific knowledge when they work as pharmacists. Conclusion: Many students did not accurately identify the myths surrounding vaccines and were provided informative leaflets to enhance their scientific knowledge. The gaps in knowledge identified, demonstrates that further teaching sessions should be implemented to cover the grey areas, allowing them to appropriately recommend vaccinations in the future.
  • COVID-19 in haematology patients: A multi-centre West Midlands clinical outcomes analysis on behalf of West Midlands Research Consortium

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Mandal, Anandadeep; Nevill, Alan; Paneesha, Shankara; Basu, Supratik; Karim, Farheen; Imran, Mohammed; Phillips, Neil; Khawaja, Jahanzeb; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
  • Survey of nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding medication administration using enteral tubes

    Tillott, Harry; Barrett, Diane; Ruan, Jingjing; Li, Vincent; Merrick, Sue; Steed, Helen; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (Wiley, 2020-09-29)
    Aim and objectives The aim was to identify the practice variation of the individual practitioners in medications’ formulation modification for patients using enteral feeding tubing; to support health practitioners involved in this process. Background Blockage of enteral tubes is a common problem that can sometimes be resolved but may require replacement of the tube. Medications are a common culprit. Design A survey of 73 registered nurses’ practices around medication administration via enteral feeding tubes. Methods A questionnaire study was undertaken within a district general hospital across a broad variety of wards to explore nurses’ experiences of medication administration via enteral tubes. The study is reported in accordance with the SQUIRE 2.0 guidelines from the EQUATOR network. Results Seventy‐three nurses responded. Twenty‐six percent reported never checking about drug modification for administration via a tube, 12% check every time and 61% when unsure about a new drug. The volume of fluid flushes administered after medication ranged from 7.5‐150mls. Seventy‐one percent of participants reported stopping feed when medications are required, varying from 1‐60 minutes. Sixty percent had experienced a blocked tube and 52% the tube being removed for these reasons. The clinical nurse specialist was the commonest first point of call to help. Staff named 15 medications as the most problematic to administer, lactulose and omeprazole were the top two. Conclusions Practice varies significantly amongst nurses around medication administration. Theoretically this may contribute to blocked tubes and excessive fluid administration to some patients. Barriers to medication administration were thematically grouped into: time, difficulty modifying medication, medication interactions and knowledge. Areas identified to support staff include training, devices to crush medications, medication suitability, multidisciplinary approach to streamline care and quick reference guides. Relevance to clinical practice Health professionals may use these results to reduce and ultimately avoid problems with administering medications through feeding tubes. Organisations may use these results to develop their local practice pathways for prescribing, dispensing and training around administration of medications through enteral tubes. In a community setting, this paper may improve the awareness of patients, caregivers and prescribers of the possible implications of tubing blockages.

View more