Recent Submissions

  • Effects of deep brain stimulation on postural control in Parkinson's disease

    Patel, Mitesh; Nilsson, Maria H.; Rehncrona, Stig; Tjernström, Fredrik; Magnusson, Måns; Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders (Elsevier, 2020-05-29)
    The standard approach to the evaluation of tremor and stability control in medical practice is subjective scoring. The objective of this study was to show that signal processing of physiological data, that are known to be altered by tremor and other cardinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), can quantify the postural dynamics of this disease and the effects of DBS technology. We measured postural control and its capacity to adapt to balance perturbations with a force platform and perturbed balance by altering visual feedback and using pseudo-random binary sequence perturbations (PRBS) of different durations. Our signal processing involved converting the postural control data into spectral power with Fast-Fourier Transformation across a wide bandwidth and then subdividing this into three bands (0–4 Hz, 4–7 Hz and 7–25 Hz). We quantified the amount of power in each bandwidth. From 25 eligible participants, 10 PD participants (9 males, mean age 63.8 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria; idiopathic PD responsive to l-Dopa; >1 year use of bilateral STN stimulation. Seventeen controls (9 males, mean age 71.2 years) were studied for comparison. Participants with PD were assessed after overnight withdrawal of anti-PD medications. Postural control was measured with a force platform during quiet stance (35 s) and during PRBS calf muscle vibration that perturbed stance (200 s). Tests were performed with eyes open and eyes closed and with DBS ON and DBS OFF. The balance perturbation period was divided into five sequential 35-s periods to assess the subject's ability to address postural imbalance using adaptation. The signal processing analyses revealed that activating the DBS device did not significantly change the dynamics of postural control in the 0–4 Hz spectral power but the device reduced the use of spectral power >4 Hz; a finding that was present in both anteroposterior and lateral directions, during vibration, and more so in eyes open tests. Visual feedback, which usually improves postural stability, was less effective in participants with PD with DBS OFF across all postural sway frequencies during quiet stance and during balance perturbations. The expected adaptation of postural control was found in healthy participants between the first and last balance perturbation period. However, adaptation was almost abolished across all spectral frequencies in both the anteroposterior and lateral directions, with both eyes open and eyes closed and DBS ON and OFF in participants with PD. To conclude, this study revealed that the DBS technology altered the spectral frequency dynamics of postural control in participants through a reduction of the power used >4 Hz. Moreover, the DBS device tended to increase the stabilizing effect of vision across all spectral bands. However, the signal processing analyses also revealed that DBS was not able to restore the adaptive motor control abilities in PD.
  • Identifying data sharing and reuse with Scholix: potentials and limitations

    Khan, Nushrat; Pink, Catherine J.; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2020-04-10)
    The Scholexplorer API, based on the Scholix (Scholarly Link eXchange) framework, aims to identify links between articles and supporting data. This quantitative case study demonstrates that the API vastly expanded the number of datasets previously known to be affiliated with University of Bath outputs, allowing improved monitoring of compliance with funder mandates by identifying peer-reviewed articles linked to at least one unique dataset. Availability of author names for research outputs increased from 2.4% to 89.2%, which enabled identification of ten articles reusing non-Bath-affiliated datasets published in external repositories in the first phase, giving valuable evidence of data reuse and impact for data producers. Of these, only three were formally cited in the references. Further enhancement of the Scholix schema and enrichment of Scholexplorer metadata using controlled vocabularies would be beneficial. The adoption of standardized data citations by journals will be critical to creating links in a more systematic manner.
  • Effect of thermal comfort on cccupant productivity in office buildings: A response surface analysis approach

    Kaushik, Amit; Arif, Mohammed; Tumula, Prasad; Ebohon, John Obas (Elsevier, 2020-12-01)
    Thermal environment is one of the main factors that influence occupants’ comfort and their productivity in office buildings. There is ample research that outlines this relationship between thermal comfort and occupant productivity. However, there is a lack of literature that presents mathematical relationship between them. This paper presents a research experimental study that investigates effects of indoor environmental quality factors on thermal comfort and occupant productivity. This study was conducted by collecting indoor environmental quality parameters using sensors and online survey for twelve months. Data analysis was done using Response Surface Analysis to outline any mathematical relationship between indoor environmental quality and occupant productivity. The outlined relationships confirmed dependencies of occupant thermal comfort and productivity on various indoor environmental factors. These dependencies include the effect of CO2 concentration, VOC concentration. These relationships were analysed to rank nine indoor environmental parameters as per the degree of effect on occupant thermal comfort and productivity. These findings would help design professionals to design better office design that would improve occupants’ comfort and their productivity. Study results have different implications for professionals working in design, construction and operation of office buildings. It is recommended that design guidelines for office buildings should consider occupant productivity and incorporate recommended range for indoor environmental quality parameters in respective categories and criteria.
  • Marginalization of end-user stakeholder’s in public private partnership road projects in Nigeria

    Toriola-Coker, Luqman Olalekan; Alaka, Hafiz; Agbali, Mohammed; Bello, Wasiu Adeniran; Pathirage, Chaminda; Oyedele, Lukmon (Taylor & Francis, 2020-05-19)
    The operational phase of public private partnership (PPP) projects in Nigeria has consistently witnessed serious challenges. Researches by various authors suggest that the major factors militating against the successful growth and development of PPP projects in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world is the marginalization of end-user stakeholder in PPP projects. As such, this study set out to reveal factors affecting the successful management of the diverse interests of end-user stakeholders of the PPP road projects in Nigeria. Using factors from related literature, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to users of two major PPP road in operation in Nigeria: Lekki/Epe Toll and Apakun Murtala Mohammed PPP toll road. A total of 282 questionnaires were returned representing 70.5% response rate. Cronbach’s alpha test was used to check reliability levels of the questionnaire variables (i.e., Likert scale questions) while factor analysis was used to establish the underlying factors affecting the successful participation of end-users stakeholders in PPP road in Nigeria. These underlying factors were fully discussed. It was concluded that active involvement of end-users stakeholders in decision-making from inception to conclusion will solve the problem of marginalization of end-user stakeholder’s in Nigeria PPP road projects.
  • All downhill from the PhD? The typical impact trajectory of US academic careers

    Thelwall, Michael; Fairclough, Ruth (MIT Press, 2020-12-01)
    Within academia, mature researchers tend to be more senior, but do they also tend to write higher impact articles? This article assesses long-term publishing (16+ years) United States (US) researchers, contrasting them with shorter-term publishing researchers (1, 6 or 10 years). A long-term US researcher is operationalised as having a first Scopus-indexed journal article in exactly 2001 and one in 2016-2019, with US main affiliations in their first and last articles. Researchers publishing in large teams (11+ authors) were excluded. The average field and year normalised citation impact of long- and shorter-term US researchers’ journal articles decreases over time relative to the national average, with especially large falls to the last articles published that may be at least partly due to a decline in self-citations. In many cases researchers start by publishing above US average citation impact research and end by publishing below US average citation impact research. Thus, research managers should not assume that senior researchers will usually write the highest impact papers.
  • The “broken escalator” phenomenon: Vestibular dizziness interferes with locomotor adaptation

    Patel, Mitesh; Roberts, Ed; Arshad, Qadeer; Bunday, Karen; Golding, John F.; Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (IOS Press, 2020-05-18)
    BACKGROUND:Although vestibular lesions degrade postural control we do not know the relative contributions of the magnitude of the vestibular loss and subjective vestibular symptoms to locomotor adaptation. OBJECTIVE:To study how dizzy symptoms interfere with adaptive locomotor learning. METHODS:We examined patients with contrasting peripheral vestibular deficits, vestibular neuritis in the chronic stable phase (n = 20) and strongly symptomatic unilateral Meniere’s disease (n = 15), compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 15). We measured locomotor adaptive learning using the “broken escalator” aftereffect, simulated on a motorised moving sled. RESULTS:Patients with Meniere’s disease had an enhanced “broken escalator” postural aftereffect. More generally, the size of the locomotor aftereffect was related to how symptomatic patients were across both groups. Contrastingly, the degree of peripheral vestibular loss was not correlated with symptom load or locomotor aftereffect size. During the MOVING trials, both patient groups had larger levels of instability (trunk sway) and reduced adaptation than normal controls. CONCLUSION:Dizziness symptoms influence locomotor adaptation and its subsequent expression through motor aftereffects. Given that the unsteadiness experienced during the “broken escalator” paradigm is internally driven, the enhanced aftereffect found represents a new type of self-generated postural challenge for vestibular/unsteady patients.
  • Vitamin D has an aetiological role in dementias; myth or fact ?

    Antoun Reyad, Ayman; Girgis, Eriny; Mishriky, Raafat (International Journal of Development Research, 2020-12-01)
    Vitamin D is produced through the cutaneous transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol by UVB-irradiation with multiple neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions, while regulating calcium-mediated neuronal excitotoxicity. Vitamin D acts mainly through binding to intracellular Vitamin D receptor (VDR) with a possible involvement of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP). This is a review of evidence for the aetiological role of vitamin D in dementias and other neurological disorders. There is contradictory evidence regarding vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of dementia progression. Adding vitamin D to the standard medications used in dementia may have a future role in dementia management. Key words: Vitamin D; Dementia; Aetiology; Memantine; Dementia Medications; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Vitamin D Receptor; Neurological Disorders
  • Additively manufactured AlSi10Mg inherently stable thin and thick-walled lattice with negative Poisson’s ratio

    Arjunan, Arun; Singh, Manpreet; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2020-05-18)
    Literature on the mechanical performance of additively manufactured (AM) negative Poisson’s ratio (−ν) structures has been primarily focused on beam-based re-entrant structures with chevron crosslinks. The walled variants of this architecture have been shown to exhibit lateral instability. This is where a layered framework can be advantageous as they provide increased lateral stability. Much less is known regarding the behaviour of such architecture, let alone their thin/thick-walled variants. This study explores the influence of design parameters namely wall thickness (t) and angle (θ) on the mechanical performance of thin and thick-walled inherently stable −ν lattices. The design is achieved through conceiving linearly arranged AlSi10Mg re-entrant unit-cells while discarding the traditional chevron crosslinks. The printed prototypes were experimentally tested and response surface (RS) models were generated to study the parametric influence on the elastic modulus (E), compressive strength (σc), failure strain (εf), − ν and relative density (ρr). The results demonstrate that both thin- and thick-walled structures exhibit ν of -0.108 to -0.257 despite the interaction effects between t and θ. The elastic modulus can be increased by either increasing t or θ without considering the interaction effects at 0.3 ≤ t ≤ 1 mm and 45° ≤ θ ≤ 85°. This study presents a new understanding regarding the fabrication and performance of re-entrant structures by AM.
  • Stable formation of powder bed laser fused 99.9% silver

    Robinson, John; Stanford, Mark; Arjunan, Arun (Elsevier, 2020-05-11)
    Additive manufacture (AM) of metals and alloys using powder-bed fusion (PBF) often employs a 400 W (1060–1100 nm wavelength) fibre laser as the primary energy source for Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Highly reflectie and thermally conductive materials such as pure silver (Ag) offer significant challenges for SLM due to insufficient laser energy absorption at the powder bed. Accordingly, this work pioneers the processing, analysis, and fabrication of 99.9% (pure) atomised Ag using PBF AM featuring a 400 W fibre laser system. The atomised pure silver powder is characterised for its morphology, size, shape, distribution and compared to current AM sterling silver. Laser-powder interaction is then investigated through single track fabrication to assess the feasibility of laser melting pure Ag. Varied process parameter single laser pass and single-track fabrication on both copper and steel build substrates are conducted and analysed with optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resulting SLM process parameters are then used to create pure Ag 3D structures and the effects of laser power, scan speed, hatch distance and layer thickness on material density is evaluated. Furthermore, SEM analysis of the 3D structures was conducted to identify optimum laser power, scan speed, hatch distance and layer thickness required to create dense pure Ag structures. The results of this study show that SLM processing of pure Ag utilising PBF AM is feasible. The optimum process parameters required for the generation of controlled track formation and 3D fabrication of pure Ag at a 97% density is reported.
  • Automatically detecting open academic review praise and criticism

    Thelwall, Michael; Papas, Eleanor-Rose; Nyakoojo, Zena; Allen, Liz; Weigert, Verena (Emerald, 2020-12-01)
    Purpose: Peer reviewer evaluations of academic papers are known to be variable in content and overall judgements but are important academic publishing safeguards. This article introduces a sentiment analysis program, PeerJudge, to detect praise and criticism in peer evaluations. It is designed to support editorial management decisions and reviewers in the scholarly publishing process and for grant funding decision workflows. The initial version of PeerJudge is tailored for reviews from F1000Research’s open peer review publishing platform. Design/methodology/approach: PeerJudge uses a lexical sentiment analysis approach with a human-coded initial sentiment lexicon and machine learning adjustments and additions. It was built with an F1000Research development corpus and evaluated on a different F1000Research test corpus using reviewer ratings. Findings: PeerJudge can predict F1000Research judgements from negative evaluations in reviewers’ comments more accurately than baseline approaches, although not from positive reviewer comments, which seem to be largely unrelated to reviewer decisions. Within the F1000Research mode of post-publication peer review, the absence of any detected negative comments is a reliable indicator that an article will be ‘approved’, but the presence of moderately negative comments could lead to either an approved or approved with reservations decision. Originality/value: PeerJudge is the first transparent AI approach to peer review sentiment detection. It may be used to identify anomalous reviews with text potentially not matching judgements for individual checks or systematic bias assessments.
  • COVID-19 publications: Database coverage, citations, readers, tweets, news, Facebook walls, Reddit posts

    Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Michael (MIT Press, 2020-12-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic requires a fast response from researchers to help address biological, medical and public health issues to minimize its impact. In this rapidly evolving context, scholars, professionals and the public may need to quickly identify important new studies. In response, this paper assesses the coverage of scholarly databases and impact indicators during 21 March to 18 April 2020. The rapidly increasing volume of research, is particularly accessible through Dimensions, and less through Scopus, the Web of Science, and PubMed. Google Scholar’s results included many false matches. A few COVID-19 papers from the 21,395 in Dimensions were already highly cited, with substantial news and social media attention. For this topic, in contrast to previous studies, there seems to be a high degree of convergence between articles shared in the social web and citation counts, at least in the short term. In particular, articles that are extensively tweeted on the day first indexed are likely to be highly read and relatively highly cited three weeks later. Researchers needing wide scope literature searches (rather than health focused PubMed or medRxiv searches) should start with Dimensions (or Google Scholar) and can use tweet and Mendeley reader counts as indicators of likely importance.
  • (Bio)degradable polymeric materials for sustainable future—Part 3: Degradation studies of the PHA/wood flour-based composites and preliminary tests of antimicrobial activity

    Musioł, Marta; Jurczyk, Sebastian; Sobota, Michał; Klim, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Zięba, Magdalena; Janeczek, Henryk; Rydz, Joanna; Kurcok, Piotr; Johnston, Brian; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-05-11)
    The need for a cost reduction of the materials derived from (bio)degradable polymers forces research development into the formation of biocomposites with cheaper fillers. As additives can be made using the post-consumer wood, generated during wood products processing, re-use of recycled waste materials in the production of biocomposites can be an environmentally friendly way to minimalize and/or utilize the amount of the solid waste. Also, bioactive materials, which possess small amounts of antimicrobial additives belong to a very attractive packaging industry solution. This paper presents a study into the biodegradation, under laboratory composting conditions, of the composites that consist of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)] and wood flour as a polymer matrix and natural filler, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the degradation progress of the obtained composites with different amounts of wood flour. The degradation products were characterized by multistage electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Also, preliminary tests of the antimicrobial activity of selected materials with the addition of nisin were performed. The obtained results suggest that the different amount of filler has a significant influence on the degradation profile.
  • Strategies for improving construction craftspeople apprenticeship training programme: Evidence from the UK

    Daniel, Emmanuel; Oshodi, Olalekan; Arif, Mohammed; Henjewele, Christian; Haywood, Kristian (Elsevier, 2020-05-11)
    This study seeks to address two research questions: (i) what are the factors responsible for the noncompletion of craftspeople apprentice training program? and (ii) how can the non-completion of construction craftspeople apprenticeship programmes be improved? Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders involved apprenticeship in the UK. The finding reveals that multiplicity of factors contribute to the non-completion of craftspeople apprenticeship. The study reveal that , 'underestimation of the apprentice programme', 'poor career guidance' and inappropriate placement' have not been previously mentioned in literature as factors responsible for the non-completion. Also, it was found that ‘improvements in recruitment methods’ and ‘improvements in learner’s experiences during apprenticeship’ are vital strategies for improving completion rates of craftspeople apprenticeships. By understanding these strategies, the construction sector would have a better chance of attracting and training a young workforce to meet its future needs. Young workforce is vital for improving productivity and organisational sustainability in the construction sector. The research contributes to current body of knowledge by providing in-depth understanding of challenges faced in craftspeople apprenticeship training and how to improve its outcome.
  • Mid-career field switches reduce gender disparities in academic publishing

    Thelwall, Mike (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-05-06)
    The continuing low proportions of women in most STEM fields in many countries is an ongoing concern, with no agreement about the fundamental causes or effective remedial actions. One previous study has found that professional women are more likely to switch from a (not necessarily academic) STEM career than professional women in comparable non-STEM jobs, reducing the overall numbers of STEM women. This study investigates whether the same is true for long term academics, and hence could partly account for current gender disparities. Based on the Scopus subject categories of the first and last five publications 2001–2018 of people in 31 countries with publishing careers starting after 2000, female researchers switching fields mid-career tend to move to fields with fewer women, relative to men switching fields mid-career. Thus, mid-career field changes within academia do not help to explain continuing gender disparities in publishing and other explanations must be sought.
  • Continuous exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases: Prevalence, burden, and economic costs

    Karimi, Seyed M; Maziyaki, Ali; Ahmadian Moghadam, Samaneh; Jafarkhani, Mahtab; Zarei, Hamid; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Pouran, Hamid (Walter de Gruyter, 2020-04-22)
    Studies that assess the connection between the prevalence of chronic diseases and continuous exposure to air pollution are scarce in developing countries, mainly due to data limitations. Largely overcoming data limitations, this study aimed to investigate the association between the likelihood of reporting a set of chronic diseases (diabetes, cancer, stroke and myocardial infarction, asthma, and hypertension) and continuous exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10). Using the estimated associations, the disease burden and economic costs of continuous exposure to air pollutants were also approximated. A 2011 Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool survey from Tehran, Iran, was used in the main analyses. A sample of 67,049 individuals who had not changed their place of residence for at least 2 years before the survey and reported all relevant socioeconomic information was selected. The individuals were assigned with the average monthly air pollutant levels of the nearest of 16 air quality monitors during the 2 years leading to the survey. Both single- and multi-pollutant analyses were conducted. The country’s annual household surveys from 2002 to 2011 were used to calculate the associated economic losses. The single-pollutant analysis showed that a one-unit increase in monthly CO (ppm), NO2 (ppb), O3 (ppb), and PM10 (μg/m3) during the 2 years was associated with 751 [confidence interval (CI): 512–990], 18 (CI: 12–24), 46 (CI: −27–120), and 24 (CI: 13–35) more reported chronic diseases in 100,000, respectively. The disease-specific analyses showed that a unit change in average monthly CO was associated with 329, 321, 232, and 129 more reported cases of diabetes, hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction, and asthma in 100,000, respectively. The measured associations were greater in samples with older individuals. Also, a unit change in average monthly O3 was associated with 21 (in 100,000) more reported cases of asthma. The multi-pollutant analyses confirmed the results from single-pollutant analyses. The supplementary analyses showed that a one-unit decrease in monthly CO level could have been associated with about 208 (CI: 147–275) years of life gained or 15.195 (CI: 10.296–20.094) thousand US dollars (USD) in life-time labor market income gained per 100,000 30-plus-year-old Tehranis.
  • Optimising neonatal service provision for preterm babies born between 27 and 31 weeks gestation in England (OPTI-PREM), using national data, qualitative research and economic analysis: A study protocol

    Pillay, T; Modi, N; Rivero-Arias, O; Manktelow, B; Seaton, SE; Armstrong, N; Draper, ES; Dawson, K; Paton, A; Ismail, AQT; et al. (BMJ, 2019-08-22)
    Introduction In England, for babies born at 23-26 weeks gestation, care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as opposed to a local neonatal unit (LNU) improves survival to discharge. This evidence is shaping neonatal health services. In contrast, there is no evidence to guide location of care for the next most vulnerable group (born at 27-31 weeks gestation) whose care is currently spread between 45 NICU and 84 LNU in England. This group represents 12% of preterm births in England and over onr-third of all neonatal unit care days. Compared with those born at 23-26 weeks gestation, they account for four times more admissions and twice as many National Health Service bed days/year. Methods In this mixed-methods study, our primary objective is to assess, for babies born at 27-31 weeks gestation and admitted to a neonatal unit in England, whether care in an NICU vs an LNU impacts on survival and key morbidities (up to age 1 year), at each gestational age in weeks. Routinely recorded data extracted from real-time, point-of-care patient management systems held in the National Neonatal Research Database, Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics, for January 2014 to December 2018, will be analysed. Secondary objectives are to assess (1) whether differences in care provided, rather than a focus on LNU/NICU designation, drives gestation-specific outcomes, (2) where care is most cost-effective and (3) what parents' and clinicians' perspectives are on place of care, and how these could guide clinical decision-making. Our findings will be used to develop recommendations, in collaboration with national bodies, to inform clinical practice, commissioning and policy-making. The project is supported by a parent advisory panel and a study steering committee. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval has been obtained (IRAS 212304). Dissemination will be through publication of findings and development of recommendations for care. Trial registration number NCT02994849 and ISRCTN74230187.
  • The impact of level of neonatal care provision on outcomes for preterm babies born between 27 and 31 weeks of gestation, or with a birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g: a review of the literature

    Ismail, Abdul Qader Tahir; Boyle, Elaine M; Pillay, Thillagavathie; OptiPrem Study Group; Department of Health Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. (BMJ, 2020-03-18)
    Objective:There is evidence that birth and care in a maternity service associated with a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is associated with improved survival in preterm babies born at <27 weeks of gestation. We conducted a systematic review to address whether similar gains manifested in babies born between 27+0 and 31+6 weeks (hereafter 27 and 31 weeks) of gestation, or in those with a birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g. Methods:We searched Embase, Medline and CINAHL databases for studies comparing outcomes for babies born between 27 and 31 weeks or between 1000 and 1500 g birth weight, based on designation of the neonatal unit where the baby was born or subsequently cared for (NICU vs non-NICU setting). A modified QUIPS (QUality In Prognostic Studies) tool was used to assess quality. Results:Nine studies compared outcomes for babies born between 27 and 31 weeks of gestation and 11 studies compared outcomes for babies born between 1000 and 1500 g birth weight. Heterogeneity in comparator groups, birth locations, gestational age ranges, timescale for mortality reporting, and description of morbidities facilitated a narrative review as opposed to a meta-analysis. Conclusion:Due to paucity of evidence, significant heterogeneity and potential for bias, we were not able to answer our question-does place of birth or care affect outcomes for babies born between 27 and 31 weeks? This supports the need for large-scale research to investigate place of birth and care for babies born in this gestational age range.
  • Critical review and local audit of the prevalence of mental ill-health in heart failure patients

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Ahmed, Mariam (International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2020-05-01)
    Objective: To establish if depression results in poor adherence to therapy in patients with heart diseases. Methods: This concept scoping study was conducted in two phases; the first was a systematic review of the literature, and the second part was local data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan® V.5.3 (Cochrane Community). Results: Patients who received multidisciplinary collaborative care showed significantly reduced major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. They also demonstrated higher rates of self-reported remission of depression. The review also showed endpoint mortality after PCI was associated with patients having depression. Local population data showed that 26% of heart failure patients had mental ill health comorbidity, however, only 12% had a formal diagnosis recorded. Conclusion: Depression is associated with poor cardiac outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. It is widespread in patients with cardiovascular disease and must be screened for throughout the management plan.
  • The association between lifestyle and social factors with onset of depression, anxiety and stress

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Pandal, Gurveer (International Journal of Current Research, 2020-04-30)
    Background: Optimum treatment and prevention of mental illness appears a neglected area within healthcare, with continuous rise in diagnosed cases. Aim: The aim was to investigate whether social and lifestyle factors can be associated with the onset of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms amongst people 18 years and over. Methods: A self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, social factors and participants perceptions of experiencing depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. The demographics, lifestyle and social factors were then used to explore their association with reported depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Results: Depression symptoms had a greater association with the level of alcohol consumption (100%, 88% and 55% in high, medium-and low-level drinkers). Smoking was more prevalent in participants reporting depressive symptoms (80%) when compared to non-smokers (68%). Low income was found to be associated with a high prevalence of depressive and stress symptoms (73% and 91%) and high income was found to associated with stress symptoms only (75%). Lack of companionship was reported by 89% of participants who experienced symptoms of depression. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between alcohol consumption and depression and anxiety. In this study sample, smoking was associated with depression alone and not with anxiety or stress. Low income and depressive or stress symptoms association was significant, no strong association was found with anxiety. Stress was reported by high-income participants. Lack of companionship was reported by those who reported depressive symptoms more so than those reported anxiety and stress.

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