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  • Improving survival of probiotic bacteria using bacterial poly-γ-glutamic acid

    Bhat, A.R.; Irorere, V.U.; Bartlett, T.; Hill, D.; Kedia, G.; Charalampopoulos, D.; Nualkaekul, S.; Radecka, I. (Elsevier, 2015-03)
  • Strategies for antimicrobial drug delivery to biofilm.

    Martin, Claire; Low, Wan Li; Gupta, Abhishek; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Radecka, Iza; Britland, Stephen T; Raj, Prem; Kenward, Ken M A (2015)
    Biofilms are formed by the attachment of single or mixed microbial communities to a variety of biological and/or synthetic surfaces. Biofilm micro-organisms benefit from many advantages of the polymicrobial environment including increased resistance against antimicrobials and protection against the host organism's defence mechanisms. These benefits stem from a number of structural and physiological differences between planktonic and biofilm-resident microbes, but two main factors are the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and quorum sensing communication. Once formed, biofilms begin to synthesise EPS, a complex viscous matrix composed of a variety of macromolecules including proteins, lipids and polysaccharides. In terms of drug delivery strategies, it is the EPS that presents the greatest barrier to diffusion for drug delivery systems and free antimicrobial agents alike. In addition to EPS synthesis, biofilm-based micro-organisms can also produce small, diffusible signalling molecules involved in cell density-dependent intercellular communication, or quorum sensing. Not only does quorum sensing allow microbes to detect critical cell density numbers, but it also permits co-ordinated behaviour within the biofilm, such as iron chelation and defensive antibiotic activities. Against this backdrop of microbial defence and cell density-specific communication, a variety of drug delivery systems have been developed to deliver antimicrobial agents and antibiotics to extracellular and/or intracellular targets, or more recently, to interfere with the specific mechanisms of quorum sensing. Successful delivery strategies have employed lipidic and polymeric-based formulations such as liposomes and cyclodextrins respectively, in addition to inorganic carriers e.g. metal nanoparticles. This review will examine a range of drug delivery systems and their application to biofilm delivery, as well as pharmaceutical formulations with innate antimicrobial properties such as silver nanoparticles and microemulsions.
  • Desert reclamation using Yellow River irrigation water in Ningxia, China

    Fullen, Michael A.; Fearnehough, W.; Mitchell, D.J.; Trueman, I.C. (Wiley, 1995-06)
    The effects of silt-laden Yellow River irrigation water on the properties of reclaimed dune sands were investigated at the Shapotou Research Station in Ningxia Autonomous Region, China. The practice resulted in distinct and rapid improvements in the physical and chemical properties of reclaimed desert soils. Irrigation led to the development of sandy loam topsoils, with up to 39 cm accumulating over 25 years of treatment. These topsoils had improved structure, greater soil organic matter contents and smaller bulk densities than buried desert sands. Geochemical analyses suggested river silt and sheep manure were making distinctive contributions to the improved soil fertility, with older topsoils having progressively greater concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn and Zn. Soil Cr concentrations are increasing and it seems appropriate that changes in heavy metal concentrations in irrigated soils are monitored.
  • Gully erosion as a natural and human-induced hazard

    Ionita, Ion; Fullen, Michael A.; Zgłobicki, Wojciech; Poesen, Jean (Springer, 2015-11-02)
  • Germination of Seeds of Selected Leguminous Tree Species Moistened with Varying Concentrations of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil Water Extracts

    Adelusi Oyedeji, Ayodele; Kayode, Joshua; Besenyei, Lynn; Fullen, Michael A. (Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2015-06)
    The study investigates the germination of selected leguminous tree species (LTS) native to the forest ecosystem and oil producing areas of Nigeria. Germination experiments of 250 seeds from each of the selected members of the Fabaceae family: Bauhinia monandra (Kurz), Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.) Raf. and Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) Taubert were conducted in petri dishes double-layered with Whatman No. 1 filter papers for 10 days and moistened with varying concentrations of crude oil contaminated soil water extracts (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml), with a view to determining the ability of these plants to germinate and establish in soil polluted with crude oil. The mean percentage germination of each tree species was thus determined. All the LTS germinated, but germination was concentration dependent, as percentage germination decreased with increased oil concentrations. Evaluation of the initial growth responses and tolerances of these LTS in oil-polluted soil may provide useful information about the potential of these plant species for phytoremediation.
  • Agro-environmental Sustainability of the Yuanyang Rice Terraces of Yunnan Province, China

    Fullen, Michael A. (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2014)
    The Hani minority people of Yunnan Province (south-west China) have developed a complex and sustainable agro-environmental system of terraced rice paddy fields in Yuanyang (22°49’-23°19’N, 102°27-103°13’E). The Hani people have maintained this intricate and elaborate system for over 1,300 years, with some 3,000 terraces covering about 11,000 hectares. Hence, during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the Emperor awarded the Hani people the title of “Magic Mountain Sculptors” for “building their ladders to Heaven.” However, geographic isolation and proximity to the, until recently, politically-sensitive border with Vietnam, has meant the Yuanyang terraces have attracted scant scientific attention. If we can understand how this system is sustained, we can learn lessons which hopefully can be applied more generally.
  • Guide to Cradle to Cradle Inspired Business Sites

    Ott, Markus; Winter, Gerd; Hoffmann, Franz Josef (McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry, LLC (MBDC)., 2014-11-01)
    The guide provides systematic and practical guidance on how to implement C2C on business sites. As each site development has its unique framework conditions, the Guide has a flexible structure that can be used independently, according to specific needs. In the past four years, experts all over the North-West of Europe have been creating tools to help entrepreneurs and policymakers to implement the Cradle to Cradle (C2C) principles on business sites. The Guide explains these tools in detail, provides specific documents, databases and worksheets that have been applied to pilot projects.
  • The effects of biological geotextiles on gully stabilization in São Luís, Brazil

    Guerra, A. J. T.; Bezerra, J. F. R.; Fullen, Michael A.; Mendonça, J. K. S.; Jorge, M. C. O. (Springer Verlag, 2014-10)
    This paper analyses the contribution of biological geotextiles to gully stabilization in the urban area of Sa˜o Luis City (Sacave´m District). Biological geotextile mats were constructed from palm leaves. At Sacave´m, gully rehabilitation included the following techniques: (1) installation of Buriti geotextiles, in association with barriers of wooden stakes and the construction of contoured terraces; (2) analysis of sediment particle size and (3) photograph comparison of the development of vegetal cover. Rehabilitation used *30 kg of grass seeds (Brachiaria decumbens) on slopes, in combination with geotextiles. Besides recuperating a degraded area, income has been generated to poor people, who live around Sacave´m gully, either by producing the geotextiles or by applying them on the soil, together with grass seeds, lime and NPK to improve soil properties.
  • Weaving ethics into academic research

    Fullen, Michael A.; Marcinkonos, Saulius (EAIE, 2014)
    The college/UAS sector is traditionally oriented towards professional studies, and the incorporation of applied research is a more recent development. Therefore, the sector has specific foci of research, including income from applied research, compliance between applied research and other disciplines, practical applications of applied research results, applied research in collaboration with socio-economic partners and purposeful dissemination of applied research results to promote regional development. Our brief overview concludes that the young college/UAS sector in Lithuania has exiting opportunities and potential to be pioneers and to take advantage of developing structures for research ethics support in newly built research structures. In contrast, traditional universities and research centres must incorporate research ethics within existing research structures.

    Williams, Craig D.; Roberts, Clive L.; Rios Reyes, Carlos (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2011)
    low-silica zeolitic materials like sod, can and jbw crystallized after hydrothermal transformation of kaolinite in the system na2o-al2o3-sio2-h2o at 200°c, with or without the addition of a structure-directing agent. the synthesis products were characterized by xrd, sem, ftir, 29si and 27al mas-nmr and tga. after dissolution of kaolinite in alkaline medium, co-crystallization of sod and can, likely via a metastable lta intermediate, was followed by a transformation to jbw-type structure.
  • Influence of vehicular traffic on a major trunk road on rural air quality in UK

    Obara, Paul G.; Obara, Chizi E.; Roberts, Clive L.; Young, Christopher; Williams, Craig D. (Elsevier, 2011)
    Although poor air quality has long been linked to urban areas, it is seemingly apparent that many rural areas have locations where air quality strategy objectives may be threatened in the wake of increasing vehicular traffic. This study examined the contributions of traffic towards air quality status by conducting monthly assessment of rural air quality along the A49 trunk road. The aim is to observe differences in main pollutant concentrations depending on the distance from the road. Monthly data of particulate deposits were monitored at roadsides, 50 m and 100 m distance in proximity to the A49 trunk road over a 22-month period (June 2008–Apr 2010). Direct analysis by SEM-EDS, ICP-MS, PTrak and XRF revealed a seasonal, intra-and inter-site variations and a distance–decay relationship. However, at some locations with increased vehicular activities, this relationship was altered.
  • Validating the correlation of traffic-associated hydrocarbon and nitrogen dioxide with distance from a trunk road within a rural environment in UK

    Obara, Paul G.; Roberts, CLive L.; Young, Christopher; Williams, Craig D. (Elsevier, 2011)
    This study monitored traffic-associated air pollutants at four sampling sites within the A49 trunk road. Measurements of the gaseous air pollutants were carried out at various distances (roadside, 50m, and 100m) from the A49 trunk road using short term tubes at breathing heights. Data was collected over a 23-month period (June 2008–April 2010). Statistical analyses of hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) show positive r2 and p-values, and suggest seasonal, intra- and inter-site variations in a distance–decay relationship. Higher mean concentrations were obtained within the winter season and near the roadside with a gradual decline with distance from the emission source. However, at some locations with increased vehicular activities, this relationship was altered. Elevated mean concentrations were observed within 50m at Craven Arms (CA 50) and Strefford Road (SR 50); suggesting the influence of traffic on the concentration levels of the contaminants.

    Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, Colin A.; Hammond, Felix Nikoi; Tannahill, Kim; Awopetu, Sesan O.; Awopetu, Ronke G.; Coker, Akinwale O.; Awopetu, Michael S. (Contemporary Research Center, Australia, 2013-11)
    Waste is a global environmental issue that is becoming most noted in developing countries. Public attitudes towards reducing, reusing and recycling solid waste in the Makurdi Metropolitan area of Nigeria have been sought, in tandem with their awareness of waste management options, to determine the extent to which these various approaches are utilised and to identify strategic avenues for improvement. To date, the waste management strategies of the study area, which are typical of many developing countries, remain focused on more traditional waste collection and storage methods (dumped outside the city limits in an uncontrolled landfill site) that are not conducive to sustainable futures. Questionnaires were distributed (n = 560) throughout low (Zone I), medium (Zone II) and high density (Zone III) population areas, with different income levels, and the respondent data analysed (n = 545). These reveal that most respondents (>80%) in all of the three zones are aware of solid waste reuse, recycling and reduction from source and that many of them (>90%) are willing to participate in any associated schemes. Opinion on the responsibility for managing waste was divided, with the most affluent neighbourhood (Zone III) believing the government was accountable and the less affluent neighbourhoods disagreeing. Moreover, many from the least affluent neighbourhood (Zone I) considered solid waste to be both a serious environmental and public health risk. Concomitant with these findings, it is apparent that the infrastructure and the societal means to facilitate solid waste reduction, reuse and recycling is drastically lacking. Since there is a clear public knowledge and willingness to engage in sustainable waste management approaches, across all levels of society, it is recommended there is a shift in local authority strategy towards a sustainable hierarchy and federal government funding be forthcoming to make necessary infrastructure improvements and embrace public attitudes to solid waste reduction, reuse and recycling.
  • Soil Erosion and Conservation in Brazil

    Fullen, Michael A.; Guerra, Antonio J. T.; Jorge, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Alexandre, Silvia Teixeira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2014)
    Brazil covers 8,547,403 km2 and is divided into five regions (Northern, North Western, Central Western, South Eastern and Southern). The diversity of climate, geology, topography, biota and human activities have contributed to the considerable diversity of soil types and thus soil erosion problems. National soils can be classified into 12 classes. These are: Oxisols (38.7%), Alfisols (20.0%), Inceptisols (2.7%), Mollisols (0.5%), Spodosols (1.6%), Gleysols (3.7%), Aridisols (2.7%), Entisols (14.5%), Vertisols (2.0%), Ultisols (1.8%), Plinthosols (6%) and Alisols (4.3%). The erodibility of these Soil Orders is reviewed and is mainly related to soil texture. Sands and loamy sands are especially erodible. Soil erosion patterns are complex, being influenced by rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, land use and management characteristics. Urban areas have specific erosion problems and there are illustrated using a case study from São Luis (north-east Brazil). Soil erosion rates can be excessive, in some cases exceeding 100 tonnes per hectare per year. Particularly serious soil erosion is associated with six regions. These are north-western Paraná State; the Central Plateau, in the Centre Western Region; Western São Paulo State; the Paraíba do Sul middle drainage basin, in Rio de Janeiro State; Campanha Gaúcha in Rio Grande do Sul State and Triângulo Mineiro, in western Minas Gerais State. Examples of effective soil conservation are presented, using case studies from both Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Integrated management of drainage basins offers a promising way forward for effective soil conservation in Brazil.
  • A dynamic approach to urban road deposited sediment pollution monitoring (Marylebone Road, London, UK)

    Crosby, C.J.; Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, C.A.; Searle, D.E. (Elsevier, 2014-06)
    The use of mineral magnetic measurements (χLF, χARM and SIRM) as a potential pollution proxy using road deposited sediment (RDS) is explored as an alternative means of monitoring pollution on a busy city road. Comparison of sediment-related analytical data by correlation analysis between mineral magnetic, particle size and geochemical properties is reported. Mineral magnetic concentration parameters (χLF, χARM and SIRM) reveal significant (p < 0.001; n = 61) associations with PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10. Significant associations were also found with mineral magnetic concentrations (χLF and SIRM) and specific concentrations of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn (p < 0.001; n = 61). Inter-geochemical correlation analysis found strong associations (p < 0.001; n = 61) between Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn and suggest anthropogenic enrichment influences. Low χFD% measurements imply an influence of multi-domain mineralogy, indicative of anthropogenic combustion processes. SEM micrographs also support this, as all samples contain Fe spherules indicative of vehicular combustion processes. This study advocates rapid and simple initial assessment of urban pollution episodes using mineral magnetic measurements as a dynamic explorative technology.
  • Emission factors for ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions following immediate manure incorporation on two contrasting soil types

    Webb, J.; Thorman, R.E.; Fernanda-Aller, M.; Jackson, D.R. (Elsevier, 2014-01)
    We carried out four replicated field experiments to measure the impacts of immediate incorporation of solid manures on emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Four manures: cattle farmyard manure (FYM); pig FYM; layer manure and broiler manure were applied to the soil surface or immediately incorporated by mouldboard plough, disc or tine. Two of the experiments were carried out on a clay soil and two on a sandy soil to find out whether soil type interacted with incorporation technique to influence emissions of NH3 or N2O. Ammonia emissions were measured for 1 or 2 weeks while N2O emissions were measured for 60 days in one experiment and for a complete year in the other three experiments. Immediate incorporation by plough reduced NH3 emissions by c. 90% and by c. 60% by disc and tine (P < 0.001). There was no effect of soil type on NH3 abatement efficiency by plough or tine but the disc was less effective on the coarse sandy soil. Cross-site analysis indicated no effect of incorporation by disc or tine on emissions of N2OeN after 60 days but incorporation by plough increased direct emissions of N2OeN compared with surface application of manure (P < 0.001). Direct emissions of N2OeN, at c. 0.67% of total N applied, were substantially greater at the coarse-textured site than at the heavy clay site (0.04% of total N applied; P < 0.001). The impact of incorporation on total annual direct emissions of N2OeN differed in the three experiments where emissions were measured for a full year. There was no effect of incorporation on N2OeN emissions in the first experiment on the clay soil, and in the second experiment at this site incorporation by plough or disc, but not tine, reduced direct emissions of N2O (P ¼ 0.006). However on the sandy soil direct emissions of N2OeN were increased when manures were incorporated by plough (P ¼ 0.002) but not when incorporated by disc or tine. These results confirm that immediate incorporation of solid manures by plough is the most effective means of reducing NH3 emissions following the application of solid manures. The results also indicate that immediate incorporation of solid manures to reduce NH3 emissions does not necessarily increase emissions of N2O. However, the impacts of immediate incorporation on emissions of N2O may be related to soil type with a greater possibility of emission increases on coarse sandy soils.
  • SportEX medicine

    Wyon, Matthew A. (Centor Publishing Ltd, 2008)
    Sports medicine is a continually expanding discipline. Buckner & Khan (1), in defining sports medicine, move away from it relating solely to the management of sporting injuries, to a broader definition of „the medicine of exercise‟ or „the total core of the exercising individual‟. Dance is often described as the embodiment of both artist and athlete (2), and yet a disparity exists between sport and dance, which can lead to resistance of the implementation of sports medicine principals within the dance world as the dancer often see themselves as primarily an artist. By adopting the definition of “the exercising individual” it is clear to see where sports medicine has a role to play in the management of dancers, but the need to differentiate between dance and sport is as pertinent as differentiating between individual sports. The management of an elite level marathon runner may be distinctly different to that of an international rugby player. The key to optimal management is underpinned by the needs of the discipline and its demands, and this is certainly true of dance. Whilst it may not be unusual to hear of an athlete undergoing a „return from injury fitness test‟ as late as the day of competition, the nature of dance makes this largely impossible. Rehearsals for shows can begin 4-6 weeks prior to performance (sometimes while performing another show). A dancer generally needs to have participated in most, if not all of the rehearsals, not only for the expected benefits of skill acquisition, which is an integral part of a dancer‟s armoury in injury prevention, but also 2 because of the interaction with other cast members and props. Injury to one dancer can result in entire cast changes. This can be made even more complicated if dancers are cast in more than one role. This paper aims to introduce the concepts of dance and dance medicine and to look at particular issues involved with the management of dancers, using the results of our own epidemiological study.
  • The geomorphology of Angra dos Reis and Paraty Municipalities, Southern Rio de Janeiro State

    Fullen, Michael A.; Jorge, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Bezerra, J. F. R.; Guerra, Antonio J. T. (2013)
    This paper analyses the geomorphology of Angra dos Reis and Paraty municipalities, Southern Rio de Janeiro State, regarding both environmental and anthropogenic characteristics. Several analytical procedures were adopted. These included bibliographic and cartographic surveys; geomorphological survey (with the aid of Rapideye images from 2012, at 1:50,000 scale); the construction of altitude class maps, cross-section diagrams and slope angle maps (using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at a spatial resolution of 90 m). The two contiguous municipalities are very similar in terms of environmental characteristics (i.e. geological formation, geomorphological features, soils, climate and vegetation). Serra do Mar mountain range has two distinct morphological units: (1) the Crystalline Atlantic Plateau, related to tectonic activity within the Serra do Mar, and (2) Paraíba do Sul Valley, related to tectonic episodes within the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. The other geomorphological units which constitute part of Paraty and Angra dos Reis are the fluvial terraces and fluvio-marine plains, and the main rivers, such as the Mateus Nunes and Perequê Açu (Paraty) and Mambucaba and Bracuhy (Angra dos Reis). The presence of four Conservation Units is another major factor promoting sustainable development in the study area. These Units are under pressure and, consequently, experience many forms of land degradation. Therefore, we hope to demonstrate the importance of understanding geomorphology for the sustainable development of these two municipalities
  • Integrated response of intercropped maize and potatoes to heterogeneous nutrients and crop neighbours

    Wu, Bozhi; Fullen, Michael A.; Li, Jianbin; An, Tongxin; Fan, Zhiwei; Zhou, Feng; Zi, Suhui; Yang, Youqiong; Xue, Guofeng; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Kaixian (Springer Netherlands, 2013-08)
    Background and Aims In communities, plants often simultaneously interact with intra- and inter-specific neighbours and heterogeneous nutrients. How plants respond under these conditions and then affect the structure and function of communities remain important questions. Methods Maize (Zea mays L.) was intercropped with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). In the field experiment, we applied fertilizer both homogeneously and heterogeneously under monocropping and intercropping conditions. The heterogeneous nutrient treatment in intercropping was designed with different fertilizer placements, at intraspecific and interspecific rows, respectively. In the pot experiment, crops were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous nitrogen conditions with single plant, intraspecific and interspecific competition. Shoot and root biomass and yield were measured to analyse crop performance. Results In the field experiment, the heterogeneous nitrogen, compared with the homogenous one, enhanced the performance of the intercropped crop. Importantly, this effect of heterogeneous nitrogen was greater when fertilizer was applied at interspecific rows, rather than at intraspecific rows. Moreover, in pot experiments, the root foraging precision of the two crops was increased by interspecific neighbours, but only that of potatoes was increased by intraspecific neighbours. Conclusions The integrated responses of plants to heterogeneous neighbours and nutrients depend on the position of nutrient-rich patches, which deepen our understanding of the function of plant diversity, and show that fertilizer placement within multi-cropping systems merits more attention. Moreover, the enhanced utilization of heterogeneous nitrogen could drive overyielding in multi-cropping systems.
  • Using palm-mat geotextiles for soil conservation: II. Effects on in situ soil particle size distribution and nutrient concentration

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Fullen, Michael A.; Booth, C.A.; Black, A.W.; Townrow, D. (Elsevier, 2013)
    Although geotextile mats have considerable potential for soil conservation, field studies on their impacts on soil particle size distribution and nutrient conservation are scant. Hence, field experiments were conducted at Hilton, east Shropshire, U.K. (52°33′5.7″N, 2°19′18.3″W) during 2007–2009, to study the impacts of palm-mat geotextiles on topsoil (0–5 cm) particle size distribution and changes in selected nutrients (total P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Cl). Geotextile-mats constructed from Borassus aethiopum (Borassus palm of West Africa) and Mauritia flexuosa (Buriti palm of South America) leaves are termed Borassus mats and Buriti mats, respectively. Ten runoff plots (10×1 m on a 15° slope) were established, with duplicate treatments. The treatments were: (i) bare soil; (ii) permanent grass; (iii) bare soil with 1 m Borassus-mat buffer zones (area coverage ~10%) at the lower end of the plots; (iv) bare soil with 1 m Buriti-mat buffer zones (area coverage ~10%) at the lower end of the plots; and (v) completely-covered with Borassus mats. Initial and final topsoil samples were collected and analysed for sand (fine, medium and coarse), silt (fine, medium and coarse), clay and selected nutrients. Results revealed that soil silt and clay contents significantly (Pb0.05) decreased in the Borassus completely-covered plots with a concomitant increase in proportion of sand content after ~2 years. Both Borassus and Buriti buffer strip plots also had lower soil clay contents, indicating that palm-mat geotextile cover significantly affected particle size distribution, even after only 2 years. Buriti mat-cover within the buffer strip plots resulted in notably higher decrease in mean (n=2) clay content, with a concomitant increase in mean (n=2) sand contents compared with mean (n=18) clay and sand contents of bare soils within the same plots. Data indicate that total P and total K contents with Borassus completely-covered plots significantly (Pb0.01) increased and total Ca content decreased after ~2 years. However, except grassed plots, all plots had significant (Pb0.05) increases in total P concentrations. Borassus buffer strip plots also had significant (Pb0.05) decreases in total Ca contents over the initial contents. The increases in total P and K contents within Borassus complete-cover plots were significantly (Pb0.05) higher than both grassed and Buriti buffer strip plots. Borassus buffer strip plots significantly (Pb0.05) decreased total Ca content compared to bare and grassed plots. Treatments had no significant (P>0.05) effects on changes in other selected nutrients (total Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Cl) concentrations. In summary, it is evident that despite significant (Pb0.05) decreases in soil clay and total Ca contents, use of Borassus mats as buffer strips was very successful in conserving or improving other selected soil properties.

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