Now showing items 1-20 of 604

    • Altered drop jump landing biomechanics following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

      Tsatalas, T; Karampina, E; Mina, MA; Patikas, DA; Laschou, VC; Pappas, A; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Giakas, Giannis; Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, 382 21 Trikala, Greece. (MDPI, 2021-02-05)
      Limited research exists in the literature regarding the biomechanics of the jump-landing sequence in individuals that experience symptoms of muscle damage. The present study investigated the effects of knee localized muscle damage on sagittal plane landing biomechanics during drop vertical jump (DVJ). Thirteen regional level athletes performed five sets of 15 maximal eccentric voluntary contractions of the knee extensors of both legs at 60◦/s. Pelvic and lower body kinematics and kinetics were measured preand 48 h post-eccentric exercise. The examination of muscle damage indicators included isometric torque, muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. The results revealed that all indicators changed significantly following eccentric exercise (p< 0.05). Peak knee and hip joint flexion as well as peak anterior pelvic tilt significantly increased, whereas vertical ground reaction force (GRF), internal knee extension moment, and knee joint stiffness significantly decreased during landing (p< 0.05). Therefore, the participants displayed a softer landing pattern following knee-localized eccentric exercise while being in a muscle-damaged state. This observation provides new insights on how the DVJ landing kinematics and kinetics alter to compensate the impaired function of the knee extensors following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and residual muscle soreness 48 h post-exercise.
    • Effects of cardiovascular, resistance and combined exercise training on cardiovascular, performance and blood redox parameters in coronary artery disease patients: An 8-month training-detraining randomized intervention

      Tofas, T; Fatouros, IG; Draganidis, D; Deli, CK; Chatzinikolaou, A; Tziortzis, C; Panayiotou, G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (MDPI, 2021-03-09)
      It is well-documented that chronic/regular exercise improves the cardiovascular func-tion, decreases oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant capacity in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the chronic effects of different types of training and detraining on cardiovascular function and the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in these patients. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the effects of cardiovascular, resistance and combined exercise training followed by a three-month detraining period, on cardiovascular function, physical performance and blood redox status parameters in CAD patients. Sixty coronary artery disease patients were randomly assigned to either a cardiovascular training (CVT, N = 15), resistance training (RT, N = 11), combined cardiovascular and resistance training (CT, N = 16) or a control (C, N = 15) group. The training groups participated in an 8-month supervised training program (training three days/week) followed by a 3-month detraining period, while the control group participated only in measurements. Body composition, blood pressure, performance-related variables (aerobic capacity (VO2max ), muscle strength, flexibility) and blood redox status-related parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (PC)) were assessed at the beginning of the study, after 4 and 8 months of training as well as following 1, 2 and 3 months of detraining (DT). CVT induced the most remarkable and pronounced alterations in blood pressure (~9% reduction in systolic blood pressure and ~5% in diastolic blood pressure) and redox status since it had a positive effect on all redox-related variables (ranging from 16 to 137%). RT and CT training affected positively some of the assessed (TAC, CAT and PC) redox-related variables. Performance-related variables retained the positive response of the training, whereas most of the redox status parameters, for all training groups, restored near to the pre-exercise values at the end of the DT period. These results indicate that exercise training has a significant effect on redox status of CAD. Three months of detraining is enough to abolish the exercise-induced beneficial effects on redox status, indicating that for a better antioxidant status, exercise must be a lifetime commitment.
    • Associations between nutrition, energy expenditure and energy availability with bone mass acquisition in dance students: A 3-year longitudinal study

      Amorim, Tânia; Freitas, Laura; Metsios, George S.; Gomes, Thayse; Wyon, Matthew; Flouris, Andreas D.; Maia, José; Marques, Franklim; Nogueira, Luísa; Adubeiro, Nuno; et al. (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose To determine whether risk factors normally associated with low bone mass in athletic populations (i.e. nutrition intake, energy expenditure and energy availability) are significant predictors of bone mass changes in vocational dance students. Methods The total of 101 vocational dancers (63 females, 12.8±2.2yrs; 38 males, 12.7±2.2yrs) and 118 age-matched controls (50 females, 13.0±2.1yrs; 68 males, 13.0±1.8yrs) were monitored for three consecutive years. Bone mass parameters were measured annually at impact sites (femoral neck – FN; lumber spine – LS) and non-impact site (forearm) using DXA. Nutrition (3-day record), energy expenditure (accelerometer), energy availability and IGF-1 serum concentration (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed. Results Female and male vocational dancers had consistently reduced bone mass at all anatomical sites (p<0.001) than controls. IGF-1 did not differ between male vocational dancers and controls, but female dancers showed it higher than controls. At baseline, calcium intake was significantly greater in female vocational dancers than controls (p<0.05). Male vocational dancers’ fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower than matched controls (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Energy availability of both female and male vocational dancers was within the normal range. A significant group effect was found at the FN regarding energy intake (p<0.05) in female dancers. No significant predictors were found to explain bone mass differences in males. Conclusion Our 3-years study revealed that both female and male vocational dancers displayed lower bone mass compared to controls, at both impact and non-impact sites. The aetiology of these findings may be grounded on factors different than those usually considered in athletic populations.
    • Rapport

      Hamilton, Judith (Oxford University Press, 2021-08-07)
    • Tracing HIV/AIDS representation through science in 120 BPM

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances (Routledge, 2021-12-31)
    • Innovating the frame: Kathryn Bigelow in close-up

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances (Routledge, 2021-09-02)
    • Resisting a “digital green revolution”: agri-logistics, India’s new farm laws and the regional politics of protest

      Singh, Tanya; Singh, Pritam; Dhanda, Meena (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-27)
      Recent laws introduced by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led government aim to centralise India’s federal structure, for the goal of a unified (Hindu) national market, and to corporatise its agro-food system at the expense of smallholder farming and small-scale trade. These laws are being challenged by mass mobilisations led by farmers’ unions from northwestern states—once-booming agricultural regions where, in recent decades and in the aftershocks of the Green Revolution, agrarian suicides have become endemic. The roots of this catastrophe are rapid marketisation in the 1960s (installing monocropping dependent on petrochemical inputs, destroying local agroecology) followed by post-1980s neoliberalism (with highly inequitable contract farming, alongside defunding of public infrastructure). Farmers and labourers now face interwoven crises of social reproduction—ecological depletion, precarisation, and chronic indebtedness, with no post-agricultural future in sight. The new laws claim to redress this by employing populist rhetoric against “exploitative middlemen”; in reality, markets are re-regulated in favour of large export-oriented agribusiness, thereby endangering food security, livelihoods and climate. The laws also herald digitalisation in agriculture and retail—further subsuming smallholders into productivist, financialised and outsourced logics. Their promulgation has triggered substantial FDI from global Big Tech, including Facebook and Google, aided by Indian conglomerates with close ties to the BJP built during PM Narendra Modi’s prior tenure as Chief Minister of Gujarat. This paper details the above and concludes by contextualising the ongoing protest movement. We focus on southern Punjab, a region that has suffered acute crises of health and ecology, as well as violent political conflict and state repression. Decades of left-wing rural union activity in this region, fighting debt and dispossession as well as in support of anticaste land struggles, have laid the organisational groundwork for hopeful new political trajectories, including potentials for grassroots red-green coalitions centring women and landless labourers.
    • Kantian guilt

      Satne, Paula (De Gruyter, 2021-10-25)
    • Introduction

      Satne, Paula; Scheiter, Krisanna; Satne, Paula; Scheiter, Krisanna (Springer, 2021-11-19)
    • La ética de la memoria: una perspectiva Kantiana

      Satne, Paula; Sanchez Madrid, Nuria; Villacañas, José Luis; Muñoz, Julia (Peter Lang, 2021-07-05)
      In this article, I address the issue of whether we have an obligation to remember past immoral actions. My central question is: are we oblige to remember past moral transgressions? I address this central question through three more specific questions. In the first section, I enquiry whether we have an obligation to remember our own past transgressions. In the second section, I ask whether we have an obligation to remember the wrongful actions that others have committed against ourselves. In the last section, I investigate whether we have a duty to remember the suffering of victims of crimes that have a political aspect, crimes such as state violence, oppression and racial discrimination, for example.
    • Does past experience effect balance in older women: a cross-sectional study comparing retired dancers and age-matched controls?

      Wyon, Matthew; Reeve, Eileen; Ambegaonkar, Jatin; Cloak, Ross; Clarke, Frances; Davies, Paul (Springer Nature, 2021-05-24)
      Background: Falls are increasing prevalent in the elderly but little data has been reported on the effect of previous life experience on balance ability. Aims: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine whether participants with historically highly developed postural control (retired dancers) provided protection after activity had stopped by comparing their balance abilities with age-matched sedentary counterparts. Methods: Ten retired dancers [RD] 65 ±7.36yrs and 10 sedentary controls[C] 66 ±5.66yrs carried out a series of balance tests in a laboratory setting in a set order: Romberg, Functional Reach, Timed Up and Go, Berg and Tinetti. Results: The RD group performed significantly better solely in the static balance tests (Romberg and Berg Balance) (p<0.05). Therefore, past exercise history of the individual possibly needs to be considered when selecting a balance test battery with a need to use tests that have multiple constructs of balance. Conclusion: The RD group performed significantly better at static balance tests suggesting a possible skill retention from their dance careers
    • Anti-establishment language humour and creativity in the Czech-speaking lands, 1938 to 1989

      Dickins, Tom (Modern Humanities Research Association, 2021-04-23)
      This article addresses a phenomenon that has been downplayed (especially in publications aimed at non-Czech speakers) — anti-establishment language humour and creativity in the Czech-speaking lands from 1938 to 1989. The study begins with a discussion of the motivation behind the humour and wordplay, with particular reference to their linguistic and comedic functions. This is followed by an examination of the principal themes and targets of the humour, or its message(s). A distinction is drawn here between anti-German humour, which sought to defend Czech identity, and humour critical of Communism, which was aimed mainly at political reform. In the final and longest section, the focus switches to the medium of the humour, which is analysed in detail under two defining headings: metalinguistic playfulness, and intertextual and encoded referents. In conclusion, the article stresses, inter alia, the symbolic importance of the anti-regime humour as a means of subversion, and the pleasure and solace that people took from it, both as a form of escapism and as an aesthetic experience.
    • Kathryn Bigelow: new action realist

      Gaine, Vincent M. (Routledge, 2021-09-02)
      This article argues that Kathryn Bigelow is an auteur of new action realism, a distinct sub-genre within contemporary action cinema. As a new action realist, Bigelow and her collaborators create films that feature unresolved narratives and an aesthetic characterised by claustrophobic immediacy and obscuration. Through discussion of theory, genre, narrative and style in The Hurt Locker (2008) and Zero Dark Thirty (2012), I argue that, as a new action realist, Bigelow problematises notions of film realism. Bigelow’s work brings the viewer into intimate and sometimes uncomfortable proximity with the violent action depicted onscreen, this proximity being a key feature of new action realism. The presentation is explicit and sudden, the graphic presentation creating a discomforting nearness which is partially created through immediacy. Such imagery, particularly evident in The Hurt Locker and Zero Dark Thirty, echoes footage captured by military personnel, news reporters and civilians on portable cameras and smart phones, recalling news reports of 9/11 and similar reports of crisis. With this aesthetic of intimacy and immediacy, Bigelow’s new action realism hints at as much as it explicitly presents. This incomplete visual display imbues her films with a sense of confusion and hopelessness and consequently presents a world of fear and paranoia that is simultaneously familiar and unfamiliar, captured by and yet obscured by its medium.
    • Between man and machine: the liminal superhero body

      Gaine, Vincent M. (Routledge, 2021-04-02)
      This article discusses the liminal bodies of superheroes in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with a focus upon the blending of the biological and the technological. The article covers the commercial and aesthetic logic of contemporary Hollywood cinema, engaging with discourses around embodiment and digital effects as well as the relationship between visual text and viewer. Furthermore, the article identifies the Marvel franchise’s exploration of the politics of social identity and technology, an exploration that is played out over the superhero bodies.
    • Sway of the sea: Kathryn Bigelow's imperial eco-eschatology

      Halligan, Benjamin (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-02)
      In a 2013 public letter to Bigelow, which concerned Zero Dark Thirty, Naomi Wolf wrote: ‘Like Riefenstahl, you are a great artist. But now you will be remembered forever as torture’s handmaiden’. This essay will expand on this condemnatory Riefenstahl/Bigelow association - but not through a straight likening of Riefenstahl’s exaltation of the Nazi Party in Triumph of the Will to Bigelow’s apologetics for torture in the ‘War on Terror’. Rather, the concern will be that of aesthetics in relation to landscapes and ecology, that is, the parallel is to Riefenstahl of her earlier ‘Mountain Films’ period. Bigelow, at times, reaches for a feminised, New Age mysticism through which her characters are momentarily lifted out of their mundane earthly concerns to commune with the wider universe. And it is this wider universe which seems the ultimate arbitrator of their actions, rather than any (Geneva-based) concerns around human rights. Thus different paths to psychic fulfilment seem to determine Point Break, or the idea of the restless spirit against the failings of the Repressive State Apparatus in Zero Dark Thirty, or soul against the system in Detroit. And thus, and most tellingly, in Last Days of Ivory, Bigelow advocates for military action against African tribal people in the name of conservation, on the grounds (soon revealed to be highly questionable) that the illegal ivory trade funds the terrorist group, Al-Shabaab. The crudity of Bigelow’s propaganda in Last Days of Ivory, which chimed with Hillary Clinton's position on the same (a greenwashed liberal interventionism) is lent the approval of elephants, and of the wider ecology, in Bigelow's film. In the same way that Riefenstahl once repurposed German Romanticism for a sequence of Hitler descending from the clouds as the saviour of Germany from its enemies, Bigelow reworks such Romanticism in the name of the ‘white woman’s burden’: the Western imperial feminist speaks out on the part of the oppressed, and summons the ecosphere as her witness.
    • The vile eastern European: ideology of deportability in the British media discourse

      Radziwinowiczowna, Agnieszka; Galasinska, Aleksandra (Centre of Migration Research, University of Warsaw and the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-03-31)
      Pre-Brexit media discourse in the UK focused extensively on the end of free movement, the governance of European mobility, and its relationship with state sovereignty. This article, methodologically anchored in Critical Discourse Analysis, discusses how the potential post-Brexit deportee, namely the ‘Vile Eastern European’, is depicted by the leading pro-Leave British press. The Vile Eastern European is juxtaposed with a minority of hard-working and tax-paying migrants from the continent, as well as with unjustly deported Windrush and Commonwealth migrants. As the newspapers explain, the UK has not been able to deport the Vile Eastern European because of the EU free movement rights. The press links the UK’s inability to remove the unwanted citizens of EU countries with its lack of sovereignty, suggesting that only new immigration regulations will permit this deportation and make the UK sovereign again. The article concludes that the media discourse reproduces and co-produces the UK ideology of deportability that has been the basis for the EU Settlement Scheme and new immigration regulations.
    • 'What About Love?': claiming and re-claiming LGBTQ+ spaces in 21st century musical theatre

      Lovelock, James; Whitfield, Sarah (Red Globe Press, 2019-03-08)
    • Injury incidence and severity in pre-professional musical theatre dancers: a 5-year prospective study

      Stephens, Nicola; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2021-06-07)
      Dance injury research has mainly focused on ballet and modern dance with little data on musical theatre dancers. The purpose was to assess the incidence and severity of injuries in a musical theatre dance college over a 5-year period; 198 pre-professional musical theatre dancers (3 cohorts on a 3-year training course) volunteered for the study; 21 students left the course over the study period. Injury aetiology data were collected by an in-house physiotherapy team. Differences between academic year and sex were analysed using a Poisson distribution model; significant difference was set at p≤0.05. In total 913 injuries were recorded, more injuries occurred in academic year 1 than year 2 and 3. Overall injury incidence was 1.46 injuries per 1000 hours (95%CI 1.34, 1.56); incidence significantly decreased between year 1, 2 and 3 (p<0.05). There was no significant sex difference for incidence or severity. Most injuries were classified as overuse (71% female, 67% male). Pre-professional musical theatre dancers report a high proportion of lower limb and overuse injuries that is comparable to other dance genres. Unlike other studies on pre-professional dancers; injury incidence and severity decreased with academic year, even though workload increased across the course.
    • Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match

      Draganidis, D; Chatzinikolaou, A; Avloniti, A; Barbero-Álvarez, JC; Mohr, M; Malliou, P; Gourgoulis, V; Deli, CK; Douroudos, II; Margonis, K; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015-06-04)
      We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.