From Marius de Zayas to David Rabinowitch Richard Huelsenbeck and, and from Arthur Danto to David Kuspit art is declared dead every time it goes through a critical stage in its course of development. Post-modern stylistic plurality posed as the end of art history but recently relational aesthetics placed Pluralism under dispute and in doing so signaled the dawn of a new era. Instead of joining conservative historians in a post-apocalyptic religiosity about the loss of all that was great in art we need to turn to critical self-reflective strategies that echo the spirit of conceptualism.
The intention of this group of works is not to simply demonstrate ways by which there can be art after the ‘end of art’ and thus to seek for means to satisfy Arthur Danto’s uncertainty about the future of art after Plurality by sustaining a purist approach to art history. Rather, each work included in the Ends of Art deals solely with the nature of a given discipline through another and, thus investigates the potential for an even more radical and thorough process of examination of the changing nature of art through interdisciplinarity; expanding the field of each discipline is the methodology of this exhibition, not the aim. At the core of this methodology is the intention to eradicate the last remaining traces of humanism in art history: the dissolution of distinct art disciplines for the means of theoretical analysis.
Cold exposure and exercise may increase thermogenic capacity of white adipose tissue (WAT), which could subsequently enhance energy expenditure and body weight loss. We aimed to identify possible alterations in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)—the main biomarker of thermogenic activation—in human WAT due to both cold exposure and exercise, as well as the link between environmental temperature and thermogenic capacity of human WAT. MATERIAL & METHOD: We conducted four human experimental studies and two systematic reviews and meta-analyses—PROSPERO registration CRD42019120116, CRD42019120213. RESULTS: UCP1 mRNA was higher in winter than in summer [t(30) = 2.232, p = 0.03] in human WAT and our meta-analysis showed a main effect of cold exposure on human UCP1 mRNA [standard mean difference (Std-md) = 1.81, confidence interval (CI) = 0.50–3.13, p = 0.007]. However, UCP1 mRNA/protein expressions displayed no associations with %fat mass or BMI (p > 0.05, Cohen’s f2 < 0.20). Both a 2-hour cooling and a non-cooling protocol preceding the positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) measurements revealed no association between environmental temperature and standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of human WAT, as well as no mean differences in SUVmax-WAT-activity between winter and summer. An 8-week exercise program had no effect on UCP1 of human WAT or on body composition. Our meta-analysis also revealed: (a) no effect of chronic exercise on human UCP1 mRNA, (b) a main effect of chronic exercise on UCP1 protein concentrations (Std-md = 0.59, CI = 0.03–1.16, p = 0.04) and UCP1 mRNA (Std-md = 1.76, CI = 0.48–3.04, p = 0.007) in WAT of normal diet animals, c) a main effect of chronic exercise on UCP1 mRNA (Std-md = 2.94, CI = 0.24–5.65, p = 0.03) and UCP1 protein concentrations (Std-md = 2.06, CI = 0.07–4.05, p = 0.04) of high-fat diet animals. CONCLUSIONS: Cold exposure represents a main stimulus for increased thermogenic capacity in human white adipocytes; however, this may have no impact on body weight loss. Chronic exercise may represent no major stimulus for UCP1 induced in human white adipocytes, while in animals it increases UCP1 gene independently of their diet. Therefore, evidence from animal studies regarding UCP1 gene activation in white adipocytes may not be applicable in humans. Finally, the identification of human WAT thermogenic capacity via PET/CT examination may be optimal with both a cooling and a non-cooling protocol.
Kelland, Dean (http://www.deankelland.com/films/#just-like-that, 2014-11)
Ikon, in partnership with Hippodrome Plus, presents an exhibition of international video art in the Southside district, showcasing a wide variety of free night-screenings by artists from the UK and abroad, in unusual urban spaces.
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