• A conceptual framework for the design and analysis of first-person shooter audio and its potential use for game engines

      Grimshaw, Mark; Schott, Gareth (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2008)
      We introduce and describe a new conceptual framework for the design and analysis of audio for immersive first-person shooter games, and discuss its potential implications for the development of the audio component of game engines. The framework was created in order to illustrate and acknowledge the direct role of in-game audio in shaping player-player interactions and in creating a sense of immersion in the game world. Furthermore, it is argued that the relationship between player and sound is best conceptualized theoretically as an acoustic ecology. Current game engines are capable of game world spatiality through acoustic shading, but the ideas presented here provide a framework to explore other immersive possibilities for game audio through real-time synthesis.
    • A philosophical memoir: notes on Bhaskar, realism and cultural theory

      Roberts, John (Taylor and Francis, 2016-04-04)
      In this philosophical memoir I trace out the part that Roy Bhaskar's philosophy of science played in the development of a non-reductive account of realism in art and cultural theory in the 1970s and 1980s in the UK, and the part his Dialectic (1993) played in the theorization of the concept of the philistine developed by myself and Dave Beech between 1996 and 1998. Our de-positivization of the concept as a symptomatic negation of the bourgeois ‘aesthete’ drew extensively on Bhaskar's notion of absence (in this instance of cultural skill and sensitivity) as a real absence. This in turn, allowed us to bring Bhaskar's realism and Theodor Adorno's Aesthetic Theory into alignment, where the philistine plays a similar, if undeveloped and untheorized role. Overall, the article marks a recognition of the continuing possibilities of Dialectic for a theory of negation in contemporary art and cultural theory.
    • Acoustic heritage and audio creativity: the creative application of sound in the representation, understanding and experience of past environments

      Murphy, Damian; Shelley, Simon; Foteinou, Aglaia; Brereton, Jude; Daffern, Helena (Council for British Archaeology, 2017-06-05)
      Acoustic Heritage is one aspect of archaeoacoustics, and refers more specifically to the quantifiable acoustic properties of buildings, sites and landscapes from our architectural and archaeological past, forming an important aspect of our intangible cultural heritage. Auralisation, the audio equivalent of 3D visualization, enables these acoustic properties, captured via the process of measurement and survey, or computer based modelling, to form the basis of an audio reconstruction and presentation of the studied space. This paper examines the application of auralisation and audio creativity as a means to explore our acoustic heritage, thereby diversifying and enhancing the toolset available to the digital heritage or humanities researcher. The Open Acoustic Impulse Response (OpenAIR) library is an online repository for acoustic impulse response and auralisation data, with a significant part having been gathered from a broad range of heritage sites. The methodology used to gather this acoustic data is discussed, together with the processes used in generating and calibrating a comparable computer model, and how the data generated might be analysed and presented. The creative use of this acoustic data is also considered, in the context of music production, mixed media artwork and audio for gaming. More specifically to digital heritage is how these data can be used to create new experiences of past environments, as information, interpretation, guide or artwork and ultimately help to articulate new research questions and explorations of our acoustic heritage.
    • After Moscow conceptualism: reflections on the center and periphery and cultural belatedness

      Roberts, J (MIT Press, 2020-03-25)
      © 2020 ARTMargins and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Conceptual art is not only subject to a striking unevenness and a range of diverse forms across national territories during its emergence, but each national-cultural context in which it emerges is also exposed to the general belatedness of conceptual art’s relationship to its own avant-garde past. Each national-cultural formation was working with, and through, very different cultural and historical materials on the basis of very different kinds of awareness of the avant-garde past and the recent conceptual present. This article addresses this unevenness and belatedness by looking at the case of Moscow conceptualism in the 1970s and 1980s. In a period of post-Thaw and late Soviet ‘stagnation’, conceptual art takes the form in Russia of a gen ralised apophatic withdrawal from the ‘public sphere’, in which the absences, phlegmatic silences, and textual ambiguities of (some) conceptual art, assume a kind of heightened moral and poetic antipode to the (failed) rhetoric of Stalinist productivism. Yet, despite, its modernist reverence for indeterminancy, this work, nevertheless, retains an active ‘working’ relationship to the avant-garde (collective practice, the critique of the artistic monad). As such, this article examines the active and revenant links of Moscow Conceptualism to the memory of the avant-garde, based on Russian art’s contemporary sense of itself as a once major (revolutionary) centre of avant-garde production.
    • Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycle

      Zalavras, A; Fatouros, IG; Deli, CK; Draganidis, D; Theodorou, AA; Soulas, D; Koutsioras, Y; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (Hindawi Limited, 2015-04-06)
      Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11), trained adults (TA, N=12), and untrained adults (UA, N=10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.
    • All Work, No Play…: Representations of Child Labour in Films of the First World War

      HOCKENHULL, STELLA (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-21)
      This article analyses the representation of children in short documentary films of the First World War. It suggests that, rather than adopting sentiment which might evoke emotion and mobilise public protest, the films were more pragmatic, aimed at conscripting children for the war effort. Indeed, they deployed a non sentimental approach, instead favouring military order which chimed with the predominating ‘structure of feeling’ of that period. Examining the campaign to encourage children to form part of the workforce and support the patriotic cause, this essay analyses a number of newsreel documentaries within the context of contemporaneous visual culture.
    • An analysis of undergraduate motivations, perceptions of value and concerns in pursuing higher popular music performance education

      Hall, Rich (SAGE, 2019-04-11)
      The popular music performance undergraduate degree is a growing area within UK higher education. These courses carry a vocational emphasis and are popular with students looking to establish professional performing careers. As such, they are often marketed as an intermediary step towards this aspiration but, despite their popularity, there has been little critical review into their effectiveness. This article, based on doctoral research conducted by the author, draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 second- and third-year undergraduates studying popular music performance-based courses. The article presents data and analysis concerning the motivations for study, perceptions of vocational value and the concerns around establishing professional careers. Concerns across four key areas are identified: (a) issues of negative public perception; (b) problematic conceptions of the popular music industries (PMI); (c) the value of practical experience over and above qualifications; and (d) negative narratives concerning developments in digital technologies and their effect on career opportunities. Implications from the article include the need for higher education providers (HEPs) to challenge students’ misconceptions concerning professional careers in the new popular music industries.
    • Animated images and animated objects in the Toy Story franchise: Reflexively and intertextually transgressive mimesis

      Geal, Robert; University of Wolverhampton, UK (Sage, 2018-03-01)
      This article explores how animation can manipulate a reflexive intertextual framework which relates to religious prohibitions on artistic mimesis that might replicate and threaten God’s creative act. Animated films are most intertextually reflexive, in these terms, when they narrativize the movement of diegetic objects from another medium which also transgresses God’s prohibition: sculpture. In the media of both sculpture and animation, the act of mimesis is transgressive in fundamentally ontological terms, staging the illusion of creation by either replicating the form of living creatures in three-dimensional sculpture, or by giving the impression of animating the inanimate in two-dimensional film. Both media can generate artworks that directly comment on these processes by using narratives about the creative act which not only produce the illusion of life, but which produce diegetically real life itself. Such artworks are intensely reflexive, and engage with one another in an intertextual manner. The article traces this process from the pre-historic and early historic religious, mythic and philosophical meditations which structure ideas about mimetic representations of life, via Classical and Early Modern sculpture, through a radical proto-feminist revision crystallizing around the monstrous consequences of the transgression in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, and finally into film and more specifically animation. The article culminates with a relatively detailed account of these processes in the Toy Story franchise, which is a heightened example of how animation can stage a narrative in which ostensibly inanimate sculpted toys move of their own volition, and of how this double form of animation does this reflexively, by ontologically performing the toys’ animating act. The animated films analysed also engage with the transgressive and monstrous consequences of this double form of animation, which derive from the intertextual life of those narratives that challenge God’s prohibition on mimesis.
    • Anomalous foreknowledge and cognitive impenetrability in Gnomeo and Juliet

      Geal, Robert (Oxford University Press, 2017-05-27)
      This essay locates film adaptations of well-known originals within the context of two interrelated perceptual processes. The first of these is Richard Gerrig’s notion of anomalous suspense, in which audiences experience suspense even if they know the outcome of a film through repeat viewings. The second of these is Jerry Fodor’s concept of cognitive impenetrability, in which the human brain can have multiple responses to the same visual information. Lower level non-conscious brain functions can respond to visual stimuli in automated ways even if higher level conscious brain functions understand that the automated responses are being deceived. The essay explores how a loose film adaptation of a canonical ‘original’, Gnomeo and Juliet, manipulates these perceptual anomalies at the aesthetic and narrative levels. The film has two interrelated reflexive bundlings of anomalous suspense and cognitive impenetrability. The first is foreknowledge about certain well-known elements of the adapted narrative which characters comment on, and which are eventually transcended. The second is the film’s link between animation’s ontological perceptual illusion which makes the inanimate become animated, and the diegetic status of the supposedly inanimate garden gnomes being able to move of their own volition. Both of these elements exploit the brain’s modular distinctions between automated and conscious perceptual responses.
    • Anti-Castism and Misplaced Nativism: Mapping caste as an aspect of race

      Dhanda, Meena (Radical Philosophy Group, 2015-07-31)
      From September 2013 to February 2014 I led a project on ‘Caste in Britain’ for the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). [*] It culminated in two research reports. [1] The remit of the project was, first, to review existing socio-legal research on British equality law and caste, and, second, to conduct two supporting events with the aim of bringing together interdisciplinary expertise and a range of stakeholder views on caste, and discrimination on the basis of caste, in the UK. In April 2013, MPs and peers had voted in both Houses of Parliament to enact the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Bill, Section 97 of which requires government to introduce a statutory prohibition of caste discrimination into British equality law by making caste an aspect of the protected characteristic of race in the Equality Act 2010 (EA 2010). [2] Following direction by the government, the EHRC contracted a team of academics from different universities, led by me, to carry out an independent study on caste in Britain. We set out to identify concerns and common ground in relation to the implementation of the statuary prohibition on caste discrimination in advance of and in anticipation of the required secondary legislation that will make caste ‘an aspect of race’ in the EA 2010.
    • Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy improves insulin sensitivity in normal-weight but not in obese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

      Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A; Metsios, GS; Panoulas, VF; Nightingale, P; Koutedakis, Y; Kitas, GD (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2012-07-05)
      Introduction: Insulin resistance (IR), a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, is common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation, and especially tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), has been associated with IR, and the administration of anti-TNFα agents is suggested to improve insulin sensitivity. However obesity, a potent contributor to IR, may limit the beneficial effects of anti-TNFα medication on IR. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of anti-TNFα therapy on IR between normal-weight and obese patients with RA.Methods: Patients who were normal-weight with IR (N+IR) or obese with IR (O+IR) and had embarked on anti-TNFα treatment, participated. Assessments included body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA and the Quantitative Insulin sensitivity Check Index, QUICKI), and RA disease characteristics before and following six months of anti-TNFα treatment. Their results were compared to matched (for age, gender, BMI, disease duration and smoking status) normal-weight patients without IR (N-IR) and obese without IR (N-IR), respectively. In total, 32 patients were assessed for this study, with 8 in each group.Results: Following six months of treatment, disease activity was significantly reduced in all groups (P < 0.05) to a similar extent (P for differences between groups > 0.05 in all cases). In the total population, changes in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.088) and QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.03 ± 0.022; P = 0.092) after treatment were not statistically significant, though a trend towards improvement was observed. However, N+IR patients showed a significant decrease in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.54 ± 0.2; P = 0.002) and increase in QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.046 ± 0.02; P = 0.011). These changes were significantly different compared to the other groups (P < 0.05 in all cases). Multivariable analyses showed that the change in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and the change in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) associated with the improvement in HOMA (ESR: F 1-7 = 5.143, P = 0.019; CRP: F 1-7 = 3.122, P = 0.022) and QUICKI (ESR: F 1-7 = 3.814, P = 0.021; CRP: F 1-7 = 2.67; P = 0.041) only in the N+IR group.Conclusions: Anti-TNFα therapy, through controlling inflammation, seems to improve insulin sensitivity in normal-weight RA patients with insulin resistance, but is not sufficient to achieving the same beneficial effect in obese RA patients with insulin resistance. © 2012 Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Art, Virtual Worlds and the Emergent Imagination

      Doyle, Denise (MIT Press, 2015-06)
      This paper presents a framework for the emergent imagination that arises out of the transitional spaces created in avatar-mediated online space. Through four categories of transitional space identified in artworks created in virtual worlds, the paper argues that, as the virtual remains connected to time, the imagination becomes connected to space. The author’s analysis of the imaginative effects of artworks presented in the two virtual (and physical) gallery exhibitions of the Kritical Works in SL project demonstrates a mode of artistic exploitation of the particular combination of user-generated and avatar-mediated space.
    • Art-led communitas for developing improved mental health in higher education in a time of rapid change

      Prior, Ross W. (IJICC, 2018-11-30)
      Aimed at those who have a responsibility for policy and practice in relation to education, health improvement and community, this position paper explores how the corporatization of the modern university has arguably shifted how students see themselves – and how academics see students and how students see academics. Increasingly, education is being economized in an age of neo-liberalist ideology. Universities spend considerable resources on recruiting students, promoting why students should attend university but arguably spend far less on how they enable students to be effective learners. The author argues that it is time to pay attention to two key responsibilities in higher education: well-doing and well-being. However, it is argued in this paper that universities are far too focused on behavioural well-doing agendas and not sufficiently focused on experiential wellbeing of staff and students. This paper concludes that there is an urgent case for realigning higher education through acknowledging the fundamental importance of communitas – defined as “inspired fellowship” to enable human, personal, spiritual and social well-being. It is argued that universities must take seriously the mental health of their staff and students, and in so doing, the role of the arts may provide plausible answers in realigning the culture of higher education.
    • Assessing the Usability for Arabic Language Websites

      Arif, Mohammed; Gupta, Aman; School of the Built Environment, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK; College of Business, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Worldwide, Daytona Beach, FL, USA (2014-07)
    • Associations between balance ability and dance performance using field balance tests

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2019-09-01)
      Purpose: Although balance is a key element of dance, it remains to be confirmed which balance components are associated with dance performance. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between different balance field tests and dance performance in an in-house measure in ballet, contemporary and jazz genres. Methods: 83 female undergraduate dance students (20±1.5 years; 163.04±6.59 cm; 60.97±10.76 kg) were subjected to the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the Airplane test, a dance-specific pirouette test, the modified Romberg test, and the BioSway Balance System (Biodex, USA). The results from these balance tests were compared to the participants’ technique and repertoire performance scores in ballet, contemporary, and jazz genres. Results: Ballet scores were best predicted by SEBT 90˚ and Romberg for technique (r = 0.4, p = 0.001, SEE ±2.49) and Romberg, SEBT 90˚, and SEBT 225˚ for repertoire (r = 0.51, p = 0.001, SEE±1.99). Contemporary data indicated SEBT 90˚ and Romberg for technique (r = 0.37, p = 0.001, SEE±2.67) and SEBT 225˚ for repertoire (r = 0.27, p = 0.015, SEE±2.29). Jazz indicated SEBT 90˚, Romberg, SEBT 315˚, and SEBT 225˚ for technique (r = 0.51, p = 0.001, SEE±2.28) and SEBT 225˚ and Romberg for repertoire (r = 0.41, p = 0.001, SEE±2.29). Conclusion: The present study suggests that balance ability has a limited influence on dance performance, with existing field balance tests demonstrating low to moderate associations with dance technique and repertoire.
    • Audience as community: Corporeal knowledge and empathetic viewing

      Wood, Karen (2015-03-29)
      This essay focuses on community in the form of audiences, and in particular, screendance audiences. A specific focus is given to a collection of screendance experiences from viewing a selection of contemporary dance films. The term screendance is used in this research as suggested by Douglas Rosenberg as "stories told by the body" and "not told by the body." What follows, for this essay, are theories borrowed from the discipline of audience and reception research detailing what we may perceive audiences to be and how the idea of 'audience' as a community may influence the way filmmakers approach the very audiences they hope to reach. Kinesthetic empathy will be used as a framework to understand the pleasures and displeasures that are experienced by the viewer from an embodied perspective. While considering kinesthetic empathy with audience and reception research, the main focus for this essay is nuancing the idea of audiences as a community that is enriched with corporeal knowledge. This knowledge reveals itself as empathetic and sympathetic viewing of the media.
    • Autocrine motility-stimulatory pathways of oral premalignant lesion cells

      Young, M. Rita I.; Neville, Brad W.; Chi, Angela C.; Lathers, Deanne M. R.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Day, Terry A. (Springer, 2007-03-17)
      Patients with premalignant oral lesions have varying levels of risk of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), whose aggressiveness requires increased motility. Not known is if and how premalignant oral lesion cells acquire the increased motility characteristic of OSCC. This was addressed by immunohistochemical analysis of banked premalignant lesion tissues and by functional analyses using cultures established from premalignant oral lesions and OSCC. These studies showed premalignant oral lesion cells and OSCC to be more motile than normal keratinocytes. Concomitantly, levels of ceramide were reduced. The activity of the protein phosphatase PP-2A, which restricts motility and which can be activated by ceramide, was also diminished. This was due to IL-10 released from premalignant lesion cells. Treatment with a membrane-permeable ceramide restored PP-2A activity and blocked migration. These studies show an autocrine motility-stimulatory pathway that is mediated in premalignant lesion cells by IL-10 through its reduction of ceramide levels and inhibition of PP-2A activity.
    • Bacon and Bergson on Time and Motion

      Arya, Rina (Taylor & Francis, 2015-02-17)
      he bearing of Bergsonian thought on Bacon’s paintings has become apparent as a result of Deleuze’s study, Francis Bacon: Logique de la sensation (1981). But aside from Deleuze’s application, there is a lot to recommend constructing a parallel between Bacon and Bergson as figures in their own right. This article explores Bergson’s approaches to temporality and the idea of immediate experience, and applies these to Bacon’s oeuvre, especially with respect to the artist’s antithetical views about an interpretation of narrative, the violence in his work and the phenomenology of the body.
    • Balance in theatrical dance performance: a systematic review

      Clarke, Frances; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wilson, Margaret; Wyon, Matthew (Science & Medicine, 2018-12-01)
      AIM: Due to movement complexity and the use of interdisciplinary styles, all theatrical dance genres require dancers to have excellent balance skills to meet choreographic demands. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the experimental evidence for the relationship between balance and dance performance, including balance testing, balance training, and balance performance. The key focus was on balance and theatrical styles of dance, involving adult participants who were either in full-time dance training or professional dancers. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH terms postural balance, balance, postural, musculoskeletal equilibrium, and postural equilibrium, and used in combination with dance, between 1980 and 2016. PRISMA recommendations were applied in modifications to the search terms. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 1,140 published articles. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 47 articles were judged to be relevant for further assessment using the GRADE system. Results revealed only 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT); the remaining articles were experimental without randomisation or pre-experimental, thus achieving low scores. A total of 39 articles focused on balance ability, including postural sway and control; 5 were related to multi-joint coordination; and 3 investigated laterality and balance. Female ballet dancers were the most studied population, while a wide range of measurement tools and balance tasks were employed. CONCLUSION: The available material on balance and dance performance is of rather low quality. There is a need for more RCTs and intervention balance studies.