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Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycleRedox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11), trained adults (TA, N=12), and untrained adults (UA, N=10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.
Evidence of blood and muscle redox status imbalance in experimentally induced renal insufficiency in a rabbit modelChronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied by a disturbed redox homeostasis, especially in end-stage patients, which is associated with pathological complications such as anemia, atherosclerosis, and muscle atrophy. However, limited evidence exists about redox disturbances before the end stage of CKD. Moreover, the available redox literature has not yet provided clear associations between circulating and tissue-specific (muscle) oxidative stress levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate commonly used redox status indices in the blood and in two different types of skeletal muscle (psoas, soleus) in the predialysis stages of CKD, using an animal model of renal insufficiency, and to investigate whether blood redox status indices could be reflecting the skeletal muscle redox status. Indices evaluated included reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), protein carbonyls (PC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Results showed that blood GSH was higher in the uremic group compared to the control (17.50 ± 1.73 vs. 12.43 ± 1.01, p = 0.033). In both muscle types, PC levels were higher in the uremic group compared to the control (psoas: 1.086 ± 0.294 vs. 0.596 ± 0.372, soleus: 2.52 ± 0.29 vs. 0.929 ± 0.41, p < 0.05). The soleus had higher levels of TBARS, PC, GSH, CAT, and GR and lower TAC compared to the psoas in both groups. No significant correlations in redox status indices between the blood and skeletal muscles were found. However, in the uremic group, significant correlations between the psoas and soleus muscles in PC, GSSG, and CAT levels emerged, not present in the control. Even in the early stages of CKD, a disturbance in redox homeostasis was observed, which seemed to be muscle type-specific, while blood levels of redox indices did not seem to reflect the intramuscular condition. The above results highlight the need for further research in order to identify the key mechanisms driving the onset and progression of oxidative stress and its detrimental effects on CKD patients.