• Jack’s Jumper: designing a sensibility for sustainable clothing communities

      Hackney, Fiona; Hill, Katie; Saunders, Clare (IFFTI, 2019-12-31)
      Jack’s Jumper is a short film co-produced by an emergent community of participant researchers and film-makers R&A Collaborations as part of S4S Designing a Sensibility for Sustainable Clothing, an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded research project. The need to improve the sustainability of fashion has been widely noted by academics (Black 2012; Fletcher 2008 and 2016), activist campaigns (Greenpeace and Fashion Revolution) and policy makers (Environmental Audit Committee Report on the Sustainability of the Fashion Industry, 2019). In this project the authors combine arts and social science methods, including film making, to develop a methodology for pro-environmental behaviour change and sustainable fashion through, literally and metaphorically, making a new relationship with clothes. The paper outlines the aims and purpose of the project and its methods, which include fashion design workshops designed to mimic phases of the lifecycle of clothing (making fibre and fabric, pattern cutting, mending, modifying, repurposing and clothes), films, wardrobe audits, clothing diaries and surveys. It focuses on the series of over twenty short films, including Jack’s Jumper, to consider how they might function not only as reflective devices for those involved in the project and emotional prompts for future action, but also as an affective means of building and developing a sustainable fashion sensibility among wider audiences, and the role of aesthetics and emotion in this. As such, we argue that creative participatory fashion design practices are potentially an important tool for generating a sensibility of sustainability and therefore for informing policy on behaviour change.
    • Tools for interpreters: the challenges that lie ahead

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (University of Helsinki, 2018-12-31)
      This paper intends to outline the state of the art of language tools applied to interpreting and discusses the challenges and new opportunities ahead. Unlike translators, interpreters have rarely benefited from language technologies and tools to make their work more efficient. However, nowadays there are some tools and resources already available. Computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) represents a significant new trend for the profession. While CAI tools will definitely reshape interpreters’ work conditions, new skills for the related job profiles will also bring dramatic changes to the training agenda.
    • Simple or not simple? A readability question

      Sjaner, Sanja; Mitkov, Ruslan; Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Springer, 2014-11-12)
      Text Simplification (TS) has taken off as an important Natural Language Processing (NLP) application which promises to offer a significant societal impact in that it can be employed to the benefit of users with limited language comprehension skills such as children, foreigners who do not have a good command of a language, and readers struggling with a language disability. With the recent emergence of various TS systems, the question we are faced with is how to automatically evaluate their performance given that access to target users might be difficult. This chapter addresses one aspect of this issue by exploring whether existing readability formulae could be applied to assess the level of simplification offered by a TS system. It focuses on three readability indices for Spanish. The indices are first adapted in a way that allows them to be computed automatically and then applied to two corpora of original and manually simplified texts. The first corpus has been compiled as part of the Simplext project targeting people with Down syndrom, and the second corpus as part of the FIRST project, where the users are people with autism spectrum disorder. The experiments show that there is a significant correlation between each of the readability indices and eighteen linguistically motivated features which might be seen as reading obstacles for various target populations, thus indicating the possibility of using those indices as a measure of the degree of simplification achieved by TS systems. Various ways they can be used in TS are further illustrated by comparing their values when applied to four different corpora.
    • Measuring post-editing time and effort for different types of machine translation errors

      Zaretskaya, Anna; Vela, Mihaela; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Seghiri, Miriam (International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies, 2016-01-01)
      Post-editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) is becoming more and more common in the professional translation setting. However, many users refuse to employ MT due to bad quality of the output it provides and even reject post-editing job offers. This can change by improving MT quality from the point of view of the PE process. This article investigates different types of MT errors and the difficulties they pose for PE in terms of post-editing time and technical effort. For the experiment we used English to German translations performed by MT engines. The errors were previously annotated using the MQM scheme for error annotation. The sentences were post-edited by students in translation. The experiment allowed us to make observations about the relation between technical and temporal PE effort, as well as to discover the types of errors that are more challenging for PE.
    • Erosion and illegibility of images: ‘beyond the immediacy of the present’

      Mieves, Christian (Routledge, 2018-07-01)
      The focus of this special journal issue ‘Erosion and Illegibility of Images’ is to explore the relationship of erosion and visibility through contemporary artistic practices at a moment when everything, as Latour suggests, is smashed to pieces. The essays in this issue deploy the notion of erosion as a conceptual tool in order to explore the shifting and depositing of materials, which is observed both on a formal visual level (the breaking up of the image surface) and a critical revaluation of memory, visibility and artistic tools. From an instrumentalist understanding of tools and material, I set out to explore the impact of a radical restriction and limitation of traditional skills and craftsmanship on the artistic process. While recent research has focused predominantly on art theoretical understandings of ruins, the articles collected here aim to interrogate the relationship between artists, artistic tools and the materials of production in contemporary artistic practice by putting them in conversation with each other and scrutinizing interventions such as ‘preservation’, remaking, retro-recuperations and nostalgia work of several kinds.
    • ‘It doesn’t reveal itself’: erosion and collapse of the image in contemporary visual practice

      Mieves, Christian (Routledge, 2018-07-19)
      The article explores the extent to which ‘pictorial art’ resists legibility, transparency and coherence. The analysis of three artistic case studies, Idris Khan, Maria Chevska and Jane and Louise Wilson, serves to investigate established hierarchies in our perception of visual referents. In the discussion, the article inquires the means of erosion, veiling and dissemblance as ways to critique assumption of the homogeneity of the image. All artists cast a view of the external world by diverting it, defacing it and distancing themselves from the external environment. However, the distancing is never disconnected from the everyday and never succumbs to abstraction. The article argues that the crisis of the image offers a productive framework that allows artists to draw attention to the absence of logical structure and the instability of the visual sign.
    • Art as the topic, process and outcome of research within higher education

      Prior, Ross W. (Intellect, 2018-09-07)
      Using Art as Research in Learning and Teaching explores various multidisciplinary visual and performing art forms, including creative writing, as ways to provide a rich contribution and understanding to research, learning, and teaching. Key figures in the field share their art-based research, arts practice, and philosophy, bringing the arts to life within their taught and learned contexts across a variety of art forms and levels of post-compulsory education.
    • Introduction: Artist-Educator-Researcher

      Prior, Ross W. (Intellect, 2018-09-07)
      Using Art as Research in Learning and Teaching explores various multidisciplinary visual and performing art forms, including creative writing, as ways to provide a rich contribution and understanding to research, learning, and teaching. Key figures in the field share their art-based research, arts practice, and philosophy, bringing the arts to life within their taught and learned contexts across a variety of art forms and levels of post-compulsory education.
    • Signifying Trauma in the Post-9/11 Combat Film: The Hurt Locker and In the Valley of Elah

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances (Routledge, 2019-12-31)
      This article addresses two Iraq War films, The Hurt Locker (Bigelow 2008) and In the Valley of Elah (Haggis 2007), through the lens of trauma theory. Uniquely, it engages with Slavoj Žižek’s account of the Real in its analysis of how victim/perpetrator trauma is signified in their respective narrative structures and visual style. The primary argument is that the pattern of traumatic memory is reflected in their narrative modes. At the same time, it claims that the unfolding narrative of In the Valley of Elah mimics certain forms of trauma treatment, operating in a therapeutic mode for its characters (as well as offering narrative resolution for spectators). Such analysis of trauma differs from other scholarly approaches to these films that have variously considered them from perspectives of: embodiment in the war film (Burgoyne 2012); the ethics of viewing traumatic suffering (Straw 2011); the de-politicisation of torture by the inclusion of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Barker 2011); indifference to post-9/11 war films as an inability to respond to the trauma and loss that terrorism poses (Toffoletti and Grace 2010); trauma and the militarised body (Andreescu 2016); and the narration of trauma in Iraq War Films (Kopka 2018).
    • Seeing with one's own ears: soundtrack as interface for theatre

      Dalgleish, Mat; Reading, Neil (University of Aveiro, 2019-03-30)
    • A philosophical memoir: notes on Bhaskar, realism and cultural theory

      Roberts, John (Taylor and Francis, 2016-04-04)
      In this philosophical memoir I trace out the part that Roy Bhaskar's philosophy of science played in the development of a non-reductive account of realism in art and cultural theory in the 1970s and 1980s in the UK, and the part his Dialectic (1993) played in the theorization of the concept of the philistine developed by myself and Dave Beech between 1996 and 1998. Our de-positivization of the concept as a symptomatic negation of the bourgeois ‘aesthete’ drew extensively on Bhaskar's notion of absence (in this instance of cultural skill and sensitivity) as a real absence. This in turn, allowed us to bring Bhaskar's realism and Theodor Adorno's Aesthetic Theory into alignment, where the philistine plays a similar, if undeveloped and untheorized role. Overall, the article marks a recognition of the continuing possibilities of Dialectic for a theory of negation in contemporary art and cultural theory.
    • Digital realities & virtual ideals: Portraiture, idealism and the clash of subjectivities in the post-digital era

      Altintzoglou, Euripidis (Taylor and Francis, 2019-02-26)
      All portraits play host to a number of antithetical tensions, such as ‘private’ and ‘public’, ‘real’ and ‘ideal’, without which they would be reduced to a type of unassuming identification of subjects. Whereas in premodern times the artist was subject to the demands of the commissioner, after modernism the representational desires of the sitter began to clash with the creative intentions of the artist. Prior to the introduction of digital formats, this clash of subjectivities manifests itself in photography during the production of the work, the shooting of a portrait. Digital photography and post-production editing have expanded the methods for idealising external appearance; a desire stimulated by the recent technological acceleration of production and circulation of more ‘manipulated’ portraits than ever. In what ways, therefore, does the introduction of digital post-production editing and composite images affect this double-clash in portraiture, between the real and ideal, and the desires of the sitter against the intentions of the artist? Moreover, how does the evolution of self-portraiture in the ‘selfie’ affect the epistemological character of the genre? As such, is conceptual and aesthetic subservience a matter of technological possibility or creative determination?
    • Art-led communitas for developing improved mental health in higher education in a time of rapid change

      Prior, Ross W. (IJICC, 2018-11-30)
      Aimed at those who have a responsibility for policy and practice in relation to education, health improvement and community, this position paper explores how the corporatization of the modern university has arguably shifted how students see themselves – and how academics see students and how students see academics. Increasingly, education is being economized in an age of neo-liberalist ideology. Universities spend considerable resources on recruiting students, promoting why students should attend university but arguably spend far less on how they enable students to be effective learners. The author argues that it is time to pay attention to two key responsibilities in higher education: well-doing and well-being. However, it is argued in this paper that universities are far too focused on behavioural well-doing agendas and not sufficiently focused on experiential wellbeing of staff and students. This paper concludes that there is an urgent case for realigning higher education through acknowledging the fundamental importance of communitas – defined as “inspired fellowship” to enable human, personal, spiritual and social well-being. It is argued that universities must take seriously the mental health of their staff and students, and in so doing, the role of the arts may provide plausible answers in realigning the culture of higher education.
    • Book Review The Kindred of the Kibbo Kift by Annebella Pollen

      Hackney, Fiona (Oxford University Press, 2019-01-23)
      This is a beautiful and intriguing book that tells a fascinating story about a little-known form of alternative modernist design and craft practice. Published by the independent Donlon Books and written by Annebella Pollen as part of an Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded Fellowship, it draws on numerous archival sources from public and private collections, and includes over a hundred largely unseen images in black and white, and colour.
    • Book Review C. Fowler The Modern Embroidery Movement

      Hackney, Fiona (Intellect Books, 2019-01-23)
      This meticulously researched, well-illustrated and lucidly written book provides a detailed critical history of the work and lives of a group of American women artists who chose to work in embroidery in the first half of the twentieth century.
    • A life in balance: Sattvic food and the art of living foundation

      Jacobs, Stephen (MDPI, 2018-12-21)
      Many modern forms of yoga can be located in the holistic milieu. Discourses of health and wellbeing for mind, body and soul are central in the holistic milieu. Ideas about food and diet are frequently significant aspects of this therapeutic discourse. This paper focuses on ideas about food and diet in the Art of Living Foundation (AOL), a modern transnational yoga movement. AOL legitimises its beliefs about food through an appeal to concepts found in traditional texts on yoga and ayurveda. ¯ In particular, the concept of sattva, which can be translated as balance or harmony—both significant tropes in the holistic milieu—is central to discourses about food choices in AOL and other writers in the holistic milieu.
    • "The National Anthem", terrorism and digital media

      Pheasant-Kelly, Frances (Palgrave, 2019-12-31)
    • Choosers: The design and evaluation of a visual algorithmic music composition language for non-programmers

      Bellingham, Matt; Holland, Simon; Mulholland, Paul (Psychology of Programming Interest Group, 2018-09-06)
      Algorithmic music composition involves specifying music in such a way that it is non-deterministic on playback, leading to music which has the potential to be different each time it is played. Current systems for algorithmic music composition typically require the user to have considerable programming skill and may require formal knowledge of music. However, much of the potential user population are music producers and musicians (some professional, but many amateur) with little or no programming experience and few formal musical skills. To investigate how this gap between tools and potential users might be better bridged we designed Choosers, a prototype algorithmic programming system centred around a new abstraction (of the same name) designed to allow non-programmers access to algorithmic music composition methods. Choosers provides a graphical notation that allows structural elements of key importance in algorithmic composition (such as sequencing, choice, multi-choice, weighting, looping and nesting) to be foregrounded in the notation in a way that is accessible to non-programmers. In order to test design assumptions a Wizard of Oz study was conducted in which seven pairs of undergraduate Music Technology students used Choosers to carry out a range of rudimentary algorithmic composition tasks. Feedback was gathered using the Programming Walkthrough method. All users were familiar with Digital Audio Workstations, and as a result they came with some relevant understanding, but also with some expectations that were not appropriate for algorithmic music work. Users were able to successfully make use of the mechanisms for choice, multi-choice, looping, and weighting after a brief training period. The ‘stop’ behaviour was not so easily understood and required additional input before users fully grasped it. Some users wanted an easier way to override algorithmic choices. These findings have been used to further refine the design of Choosers.
    • There are no universal interfaces: how asymmetrical roles and asymmetrical controllers can increase access diversity

      Dalgleish, Mat (Culturale Ludica, 2019-12-31)
      Many people with a disability play games despite difficulties in relation to access or quality of experience. Better access is needed, but there has been limited industry interest. For players with motor impairments the focus has been on the controller. Numerous solutions have been developed by third parties, but all are likely unsuitable for at least some users and there remains space for radically alternative angles. Informed by my experiences as a disabled gamer, concepts of affordance and control dimensionality are used to discuss the accessibility implications of controller design from the Magnavox Odyssey to the present. Notions of incidental body-controller fit and precarious accessibility are outlined. I subsequently draw on Lévy’s theory of collective intelligence and example games Keep Talking and Nobody Explodes and Artemis Spaceship Bridge Commander to develop a model that uses asymmetrical roles and diverse input to fit individual abilities and thereby expand participation.