Now showing items 1-20 of 823

    • Definition modelling for English and Portuguese: a comparison between models and settings

      Dimas Furtado, Anna Beatriz; Research Institute of Information and Language Processing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-06)
      Definitions are key for many areas of knowledge; they convey meaning, refer to product conceptualization and naming, facilitate communication, provide clarity, and pervade all areas of human activity. Hence, having access to definitions is essential for many professions, but it is crucial for translation and interpreting. Definition Modelling (DM) is a task concerned with automatically generating definitions from embeddings. While most approaches to DM covers only English, this project aims at generating definitions for both Portuguese and English. DM is tackled with two deep-learning models as a sequence-to-sequence task in this research. Experiments are performed in three different settings - monolingual, cross-lingual, and multilingual based on various corpora and different embeddings. Given the lack of resources, the first dataset for Portuguese DM is developed. Both intrinsic and extrinsic evaluation is conducted. Results show that adopting the pre-trained MT5 model yield better results than non-pre-trained models for monolingual settings. Besides that, Flair-embeddings fare better than both character-based and transformer-based embeddings in non-pre-trained embedding. Human evaluation suggests that automatically generated glosses are useful for translators, although post-editing may be required to achieve optimal quality.
    • Teacher talk and pupil talk: a case study of a thinking skills approach to learning in an English primary academy

      Lavender, Peter; Matheson, David; Gurton, Paul; School of Education, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-07)
      This thesis is an exploratory case study of how talk is used by teachers and pupils through a thinking skills approach to learning in a primary academy. It investigates the inter-relationship between curriculum and pedagogy using lesson observations, interviews with teachers and pupil focus groups. Findings suggest that an enquiry-oriented approach to curriculum, together with a dialogic stance amongst teachers, can result in an emancipatory consciousness-raising experience for children (Freire, 1974). Using the techniques of Philosophy for Children, pupils develop their understanding by bringing their life experiences to bear on curricular topics studied. Reflecting together in small group and whole class discussions, facilitated by teachers, enables them to give voice to their ideas and build on those of others, corresponding to the development of ‘communicative competence’ (Habermas,1984). Children’s development of criticality is seen to be enhanced in this approach to learning by the gradual introduction of conceptual or abstract vocabulary. However, a corollary is the risk that some may not engage in spoken enquiries or indeed that this curriculum may not provide them with the skills to achieve as well in national tests. An essential requirement of this counter cultural approach to teaching is the adoption of a fallibilist stance by teachers in discussion with children. Classroom relationships, which reduce the social distance and develop a more symmetrical power balance, foster collaboration and a sense of classroom community. The study concludes with implications for teacher education and professional development, namely: curriculum planning which takes account of pupils’ own experiences and capital; opportunities for children to develop their communicative competence which forges links between everyday and school language; and teacher focus on praxis, acting wisely and carefully in a particular situation.
    • Under one banner: The General Federation of Trade Unions c. 1899-1926

      Gildart, Keith; Nicolson, Edda; Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-08)
      This thesis is a study of the early history of the General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU) from their creation in 1899 until the events surrounding the 1926 general strike. The GFTU were created by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) to bring together all trade unions under one banner by acting as an arbitration committee for industrial disputes and administrators of a national strike fund. They quickly grew to be an autonomous organisation that worked alongside the TUC and the fledging Labour Party, and briefly represented British trade unionists on the international stage. Despite this central role, and a peak membership of more than 1.5 million workers in the early 1920s, their contribution to the labour movement has been largely ignored in favour of the much larger TUC. The GFTU was perhaps marginalised due to being more of a committee than an organisation, and for its moderation in industrial politics. Although the principal aim of this thesis is to shed light on an ignored institution, it also posits that an emotions history approach can offer a new lens with which to view organisations. It uses the extensive archival records of the GFTU – including their annual reports, management committee records, newspaper articles, special investigative reports, and council meeting minutes – to reveal a more complex reading of trade union politics and culture in the first three decades of the twentieth century, and highlights the use of emotions as a way in which a sense of community was formed. Although much of labour history has tended to focus on more industrially militant organisations and high profile strikes as a way of understanding the organised working class, considering the more conciliatory voices of trade union organisations such as the GFTU reveals a more nuanced picture of the history of British labour movement. This thesis uses a broad definition of emotions that includes culture and experience, and uses five emotions to uncover more about the people involved in the GFTU during this period: hope, friendship, patriotism, exclusion, and hostility. Using these feelings as a lens reveals much about how the GFTU constructed an idea of shared feelings and experiences that was intended as a way of growing and maintaining their membership levels and support of their policies.
    • Reducing medication errors in Kuwaiti government hospitals through pharmacovigilance

      Morrissey, Hana; Saada, Mohammad; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Background: Reducing medication errors in Kuwaiti government hospitals through pharmacovigilance involves the improvement of medication management practices to achieve the desired outcome. Medication management practices were assessed and based upon the findings, training to enhance healthcare professional’s awareness was developed, and recommendations for improvement of medication safety practices to reduce medication errors through pharmacovigilance were made. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of medication errors in the Kuwaiti government healthcare system, to gauge the healthcare professional’ awareness about medication safety culture and assess the healthcare professional’s attitudes towards medication error reporting. Methods and design: The study design included five distinct phases. A medical records/systems audit, for healthcare professionals an observation study, survey and development and piloting of a training package, plus the development of a framework for a medication error reporting and recording system. Results: The study revealed important findings at all five steps of the research process. The audit revealed that almost half of identified errors occurred during the prescribing stage (46.1%). The observation study of professionals revealed low compliance with basic standards of good practice such as (68%) updating patient information and (68%) double-checking prescribed medication. The professionals’ survey results revealed that (53.3%) were not aware of the existence of a medication error reporting system. The results of the training program implementation showed that (58%) of professionals indicated that they would like this training to be offered once a year and (39%) felt that the training session should last for at least one day. Finally, the study made recommendations with regards to the suggested algorithm for medication management process, clinical governance and a culturally safe reporting system. Conclusion: This multifaceted research study on reducing medication errors in Kuwaiti government hospitals through pharmacovigilance involved audits, observation studies, surveys, trainings, and the development of system recommendations for future enhancement in terms of recording systems, audit of reports, feedback to staff and development of an open, no blame, error-averse healthcare culture.
    • Measurement of calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) and S100A12 in serum: method development, analytical validation, and clinical application

      Gama, Rousseau; Udegbune, Michael; School of Biomedical Science & Physiology, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-12)
      Background Faecal biomarkers of intestinal inflammation, in particular faecal calprotectin and to a lesser extent faecal S100A12, are used to discriminate between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and categorise active from inactive disease in established IBD. Faecal biomarkers have limitations including intra–individual and inter–individual variability, spot variability in the same sample and reluctance of some patients to provide stool samples. These issues may be overcome by using serum samples for the measurement of calprotectin and S100A12. This offers the prospect that serum calprotectin and serum S100A12 could replace or supplement faecal calprotectin and faecal S100A12 in the identification and assessment of IBD. The measurement in serum calprotectin and serum S100A12, however, requires method development, validation of assays for serum and evaluation of the validated assays for their diagnostic and prognostic utility in IBD. Method development switches between two processes. It may necessitate adapting an existing method to ensure its suitability for application in a new assay or devising a suitable method by integrating the expertise and experience of the personnel undertaking the task of method development. Assay validation process for commercially available serum immunoassay kits is necessary to underpin assay measurement in order to confirm accuracy of test results, cut costs of undertaking unnecessary and repeat testing procedures, reinforce analytical claim that assay measurement is devoid of uncertainty to justify 'fit for purpose' and confer additional benefit of good reputation to a clinical laboratory. Validation of an assay in serum confirms or disproves kit manufacturer’s analytical claim to robust assay performance characteristics that include accuracy, precision, dilution linearity/parallelism, recovery, sensitivity, interference and stability. Aim/Objectives This project was designed to (1) Develop and analytically validate a faecal S100A12 assay (ImmunodiagnostikTM AG, Stubenwald–Allee 8a, D–64625 Bensheim, Germany) for measurement of S100A12 in serum. Analytically validate serum calprotectin assays provided by Bühlmann (serum BMN®-Cp; Bϋhlmann Laboratories AG, Baselstrasse 55, CH – 4124 Schönenbuch, Switzerland) and ImmunodiagnostikTM (serum IDK®- Cp; ImmunodiagnostikTM AG, Stubenwald–Allee 8a, D–64625 Bensheim, Germany). (2) Assess whether serum BMN®-Cp, serum IDK®-Cp and serum S100A12 could replace or supplement faecal calprotectin and faecal S100A12 in excluding IBD in patients presenting with chronic diarrhoea. (3) Evaluate the utility of serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp in discriminating between active and inactive IBD. (4) Study the effect of the acute phase response (APR) on serum calprotectin determined with two different immunoassays kits (i.e., serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp), and to assess and compare the diagnostic performance of the two assays in APR. Methods (1) ELISA assays for faecal S100A12 were developed and optimised for measurement of S100A12 in serum. The serum BMN®-Cp, serum IDK®-Cp and serum IDK®-A12 were validated by determining analytical sensitivity, functional sensitivity, dilution linearity/parallelism, recovery, precision, and interference. (2) The diagnostic performances of the serum BMN®-Cp, serum IDK®-Cp and serum IDK®-A12 assays were compared against faecal calprotectin, as the diagnostic ‘gold standard’, in 40 patients with IBD and 5 control patients. (3) Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp and other conventional inflammatory blood biomarkers (serum CRP and platelets) were compared to faecal calprotectin in discriminating between active and inactive disease in a cohort of 175 patients with IBD. (4) The effect of APR, as determined by serum CRP, and serum calprotectin was assessed by measuring serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp before and after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients. Results Analytical validation Analytical validation of the assays showed a dynamic working range in serum of 10 to 25000 ng/mL, good precision (%CV for intra– and inter–assay variability for the kits were < 10% respectively, for each assay) and good reproducibility. There was no interference from bilirubin, haemoglobin, or lipid in the assays. There was no significant carryover or cross–reactivity across the assays. Assay kits were stable over 12 months. Analytical sensitivity ranged from 0.673 to 577 ng/mL for limit of the blank (LoB), and 1.119 to 597 ng/mL for lower limit of detection (LLoD). Functional sensitivity or limit of quantitation (LoQ) ranged from 522 to 3615 ng/mL. Measured to Expected ratios for dilution linearity/parallelism and recovery for the kits ranged from 98.4% to 103.7%, and from 82.1% to 126.5% respectively. Method comparison showed 19% positive proportional bias of the BMN®-Cp assay compared to the IDK®-Cp assay. Serum BMN®-Cp, serum IDK®-Cp and serum S100A12 in identifying IBD Using faecal calprotectin as the ‘gold standard’ for identifying IBD, the AUC from ROC curves for serum IDK®-Cp (AUC = 0.793) was greater than that for serum BMN®-Cp (AUC = 0.771) and these were greater than that for serum S100A12 (AUC = 0.700). Faecal calprotectin correlated best with serum IDK®-Cp (r = 0.69), then serum BMN®-Cp (r = 0.66) and least with serum S100A12 (r = 0.44). Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp in discriminating between active and inactive IBD. The cohort of 175 patients with IBD consisted of 101 (57.7%) patients with Crohns disease (CD), 71 (40.6%) with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 3 (1.7%) inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU). The clinical classification of disease activity was largely based on faecal calprotectin which indicated that the disease was quiescent in 99 (56.6%) patients, active in 73 (41.7%) patients and in 3 (1.7%) patients were IBDU. Faecal calprotectin was, therefore, higher (p < 0.0001) in active CD than in quiescent CD, and similarly higher (p < 0.0001) in active UC compared to quiescent UC. Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp in 175 IBD patients were highly correlated (r = 0.97). Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp were higher (p < 0.006) in active CD than in quiescent CD but were similar (p > 0.1) in active and quiescent UC. Serum CRP was higher (p = 0.0095) in active CD compared to quiescent CD but similar (p = 0.0638) in active and quiescent UC. Platelets were similar (p = 0.0579) in active and quiescent CD and similar (p = 0.8055) in active and quiescent UC. Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in active CD than quiescent CD at the ileal and upper GI, and the colonic and ileo–colonic sites of the ileum. Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp concentrations were similar (p > 0.05) in active UC and quiescent UC involving the rectum, distal colon and pancolon. Based on ROC curve analysis, the performance of serum CRP (AUC = 0.699) was marginally superior to that of serum BMN®-Cp (AUC = 0.662) and serum IDK®-Cp (AUC = 0.656), and these were superior to platelets (AUC = 0.547) in all patients with IBD. In patients with CD, none of the blood biomarkers performed well; serum CRP (AUC = 0.585), serum BMN®-Cp (AUC = 0.585), serum IDK®-Cp (AUC = 0.556) and platelets (AUC = 0.609). In patients with UC, the performance of serum CRP (AUC = 0.752) was superior to that of serum BMN®-Cp (AUC = 0.670) and serum IDK®-Cp (AUC = 0.660), and these were superior to platelets (AUC = 0.487). The effect of an APR on serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp Following elective knee and hip surgery in 30 patients, serum CRP, serum BMN®-Cp, serum IDK®-Cp and blood neutrophils increased (p < 0.0001); serum albumin and serum total protein decreased (p < 0.0001). The mean (SD) post–operative increase in serum BMN®-Cp (3.0 (1.9) fold) and serum IDK®-Cp (2.8 (1.8) fold) were similar (p = 0.6575) but these were both lower (p < 0.0001) than serum CRP (82.0 (60.8) fold). Logarithmically transformed serum CRP correlated positively with serum BMN®-Cp (r = 0.64), serum IDK®-Cp (r = 0.65) and neutrophil count (r = 0.66), and negatively with serum total protein (r = –0.43) and serum albumin (r = –0.70). Serum BMN®-Cp correlated positively with serum IDK®-Cp (r = 0.97) and neutrophil count (r = 0.68), and negatively with serum albumin (r = –0.54). Serum IDK®-Cp correlated positively with neutrophil count (r = 0.67), and negatively with serum albumin (r = –0.55; p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between serum total protein and either serum BMN®-Cp or serum IDK®-Cp. Conclusions The developed and optimised serum IDK®-Cp, serum BMN®-Cp and serum S100A12 assays have good analytical performance and compared favourably to manufacturer stated performance characteristics, where available. The large numerical difference between serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp values indicate that results and any derived cut–offs between assays are not directly inter–changeable. The serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp assays have acceptable diagnostic accuracy for the identification of IBD and these were superior to serum S100A12. Although serum BMN®-Cp results were 1.7–fold higher than matched serum IDK®-Cp results, for diagnostic purposes this was accounted for by their manufacturer provided cut–offs of >3900 ng/mL and >3000 ng/mL respectively. Serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp, however, are unlikely to replace faecal calprotectin but may have a role supplementing faecal calprotectin in the identification of IBD. An elevated serum calprotectin in patients with chronic diarrhoea would be an indication for endoscopy since it has a low false positive rate, but a normal serum calprotectin does not exclude IBD. In the cohort of 175 patients with IBD, serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp were significantly associated with disease activity in patients with CD irrespective of site of disease. There was, however, no significant association between serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp and disease activity in patients with UC. ROC curves analyses indicated that serum CRP performed better than serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp in discriminating between active and inactive disease in patients with CD and UC. In this patient cohort, serum calprotectin offers no advantages over serum CRP in discriminating between active and inactive IBD, particularly since serum CRP is easily available and less expensive. Serum calprotectin is a positive acute phase protein, and both the serum BMN®-Cp and serum IDK®-Cp assays perform equally well during an APR elicited by orthopaedic surgery. The increase in serum calprotectin elicited by trauma and previously reported increase in sepsis indicates that serum calprotectin is a non–specific biomarker of inflammation. At two days following an inflammatory insult, serum CRP may be a better discriminatory biomarker of the APR than serum calprotectin based on a much greater incremental response.
    • A Delphi study exploring stakeholder perceptions of the role of the biomedical scientist in patient outcomes

      Matheson, David; Muir, Faith; Dudley, Kathryn; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-11)
      Biomedical Scientists (BMSs) work in healthcare laboratories providing diagnostic testing and monitoring therapeutic effects on patients. The standards that govern the profession refer to working in the best interests of the patient and service user, yet BMSs have little or no patient contact. This raises the question of how BMSs relate their role to patient outcomes and how they evidence that they meet these requirements. This study explored stakeholder perceptions of the BMS role to determine whether there was a shared understanding of how the BMS role contributes to patient outcomes and how BMSs demonstrate that they work in the best interests of the patient and service user. Round 1 of the Delphi study involved qualitative interviews and focus groups with staff and students on the BSc Biomedical Science programmes, practising BMSs within the National Health Service (NHS), and representatives from the Professional, Statutory and Regulatory Bodies (PSRB). Thematic analysis of the 1st round responses generated statements which participants scored using a Likert scale in round 2. The degree of divergence or consensus amongst stakeholders was assessed using a 70% consensus level. In the 2nd round, there was evidence of divergence of opinion across the stakeholder groups. This demonstrated a gap between education and laboratory-based practice in both the student and academic groups which was described as a theory-practice gap. This was most evident in topics such as the BMS role in patient care, professional registration and multi-disciplinary team (MDT) working. This is the first time a theory-practice gap has been identified with respect to the BMS workforce. This demonstrates a contribution to knowledge and practice of this study as students may not be adequately prepared for their role.
    • Social media use and potential in formal and informal science learning: a multiple case study of three Palestinian educational institutions

      Traxler, John; Scott, Howard; Muhtaseb, Rami; School of Education, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-11)
      This study explores the extent to which social media tools and resources are used in formal and informal science education in Palestine, the influence of culture on their use and their potential to enhance educational experiences. It accordingly investigates educators’ perceptions of the use of social media in undergraduate science education and informal community learning. The conceptual framework that guided this study includes Siemens’s theory of Connectivism and Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions theory. The study adopts an exploratory multiple case-study research design. It begins with a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, and then undertakes semi-structured interviews with 18 educators at three Palestinian educational institutions who apply different teaching modes, specifically informal community learning, formal campus learning and formal blended learning. The study uses an iterative coding process to analyse the interviews, the qualitative analysis reveals educators’ perceived affordances and limitations, and also provides insight into their concerns about the integration of social media in education. Some differences in use and perceptions were found to be connected to the nature of learning activities at each institution, along with institutional policies, assessment methods and the given science topic. Social media offers various science-related tools and resources to Palestinian students, educators and the community. It has also helped to overcome some of the challenges that confront Palestinian educators and students, including a lack of science resources and mobility restrictions. Of the cultural aspects that influence educators’ perceptions of social media and its use for educational purposes, some are found to be connected to three of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. The findings reveal other cultural aspects that are not directly connected to Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions theory, and this serves to underline that it only provides a partial or incomplete understanding of how culture influences educational technology use in the Palestinian context. Some examples demonstrate the influence of culture on some Connectivist practices in the Palestinian context. However, it is found cultural aspects exert different, and sometimes competing, influences on educators and students’ practices in online educational environments. Other factors, such as a traditional school education and a lack of digital literacy, were found to affect students’ and educators’ practices. This study provides recommendations and reflects on practical implications with the aim of benefitting educators, educational institutions and policymakers. It also considers issues related to changes at the institutions that occurred after the coronavirus pandemic broke out.
    • Researching with children experience social and emotional and mental health needs: their views on LEGO® based play intervention

      Brewster, Stephanie; Barrie, Amanda; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-02)
      Child development and the role that play has in child development are central to my professional role and as such lead me to my choice of research. This research focusses on the concept of pupil voice and gaining children’s views of a play-based intervention - LEGO® Based Therapy (LeGoff et al, 2014). The literature review considers how early development relationships, children’s wider social experiences and play impact on their social and emotional development. It examines the concept of pupil voice and how it sits within a humanitarian view of education. Further it focuses on Attachment Theory (Bowlby, 1969,1973) and Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model (1979, 1992) as a lens through which to view child social and emotional development. The importance of how play supports child development (Winnicott, 1971) and its value as a therapeutic tool (Axline, 1974; LeGoff, et al, 2014) is also considered. A case study based on a Mosaic Approach (Clark, 2017) was adopted for the methodology and a range research methods were adopted including children’s and researcher photographs, semi-structured photo elicitation interviews (Collier and Collier, 1986; Epstein, 2006). The research took place in three primary schools with twelve participants aged between eight and ten years, each with an element of SEMH as identified by the school SENCO. Thematic analysis (Boyatzis, 1998. Braun and Clarke, 2021) identified a number of themes that were eventually fixed as play, social skills, emotions and emotional literacy, place and time and relationships. Findings revealed from analysis were that the children had developed a range of social and emotional skills as well as noting the importance of the time and place in which an intervention takes place. Additional findings revealed the importance of play in the lives of children and their social and emotional development beyond the foundation stage of education.
    • How do community nurses make sense of their experiences of providing end-of-life care for patients with dementia? An interpretative phenomenological analysis

      Matheson, David; Foster, Will; Ganga, Griffin; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-04)
      Aim: This research study aims to explore first-hand experiences of community nurses providing end-of-life dementia care (EOLDC) and the meanings they attribute to their experiences. Literature Review: An integrative review was conducted to gain an understanding of prevailing research and prevailing debates in EOLDC. Three themes emerged from the review namely; challenges in forming a therapeutic relationship in EOLDC, lack of specialist knowledge and skills in EOLDC and death anxiety and stress in EOLDC. Methodology and Methods: The study utilised a qualitative research approach; specifically, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). A purposive sample of six qualified community nurses with experience nursing terminally ill patients with dementia was recruited. Data were collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews, audio taped and transcribed for analysis. Rather than an interview schedule, interview themes were utilised. Data were analysed in line with IPA, and transcripts were read multiple times. Emergent themes from individual transcripts were clustered into subordinate themes. Themes observed across multiple participant transcripts were clustered into superordinate themes. Findings: Findings from this study highlight the following superordinate themes: 1) pride and pleasure, 2) it is overwhelming, 3) objectification, and 4) upskilling. The superordinate themes are supported by the following ordinate themes: ‘it is gratifying to be a nurse’ and ‘there is no better feeling’; ‘it is stressful’ and ‘anguish and bad feelings’; ‘syringe driver’ and ‘that’s probably my coping mechanism’; ‘before it was just cancer’ and ‘a little more training’. Recommendations: Recommendations for professional practice emerging from this study are; use of the conceptual frame work in supporting nurse education in EOLDC and suggestions for policy makers to consider generic nurse education to bridge the skills gap highlighted in this study. Conclusion: This study showed that there are lines of tension in EOLDC. Although nurses found their work rewarding, they also claimed that it simultaneously exposed them to work-related stress, resulting in the use of self-care strategies to mitigate the consequences of the emotional labour involved. Finally, this study highlighted a gap in specialist EOLDC knowledge and skills among community nurses.
    • Additive manufacturing of stiffness optimised auxetic bone scaffold using cobalt-chromium-molybdenum superalloy

      Arjunan, Arun; Wanniarachchi, Chameekara; School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-09)
      Auxetic materials offer unconventional strain behaviour owing to their negative Poisson’s ratio (−𝜐) leading to deformation modes and mechanical characteristics different to traditional porous architecture. This can lead to favourable outcomes for load-bearing tissue engineering constructs, such as bone scaffolds for critical-size defects. Emerging early-stage studies have shown the potential of auxetic architecture in increasing cell proliferation and tissue reintegration due to their −𝜐. However, research on the development of stiffness optimised auxetic architecture for biomedical applications including bone scaffolds or implants is yet to be reported. In this regard, the thesis puts forward an open innovation framework for the selective laser melting (SLM) of auxetic bone scaffolds that offer the strength and porosity requirements while offering stiffness matching to a tibia host section. CoCrMo has been chosen as the biomaterial of choice due to its high elastic modulus and density which offered the potential for conceiving highly porous architectures. CoCrMo stiffness matched auxetic bone scaffolds optimised under two scenarios for their potential to offer near-zero and high negative Poisson’s ratio are demonstrated in this thesis. Overall, the investigations carried out in this thesis suggest that CoCrMo auxetic bone scaffolds can be additively manufactured with targeted Poisson’s ratio, mechanical performance and porosity characteristics by algorithmically modifying the design parameters. The surrogate model developed in this thesis can be used for user-defined scenarios to generate scaffolds with near-zero and high −𝜐, respectively while offering stiffness matching to host bone. Manufacturers and research institutions can use the validated methodology proposed in this thesis to further refine and generate alternate prototypes to inform further developments in the field of meta-biomaterials.
    • The Wolverhampton Express and Star and the depiction of the volunteer soldier in the First World War, 1914-1916

      Badsey, Stephen; Faber, Adrian; School of Social, Historical and Political Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-11)
      This thesis examines Britain’s provincial evening press during the era of voluntarism in the First World War. It uses as its example, the Express and Star, the evening newspaper in the Black Country industrial town of Wolverhampton. The newspaper harnessed the home front’s fascination with the volunteer soldier for its own commercial purposes. The study demonstrates that the commercial nature of the press was a central element in shaping the newspaper’s depiction of the volunteer soldier between the outbreak of war in August 1914 and the introduction of conscription in January 1916. Using both advertising and journalistic techniques, the Express and Star adopted the figure of the volunteer soldier as a commercial mascot in order to attract readership and generate favourable publicity to satisfy advertisers. The newspaper was fortunate in that the volunteer also fitted its Liberal tenets of self-determination and freedom of the individual. The study explains the significance of the wartime provincial evening press as being the daily newspaper reading of people in a working-class town like Wolverhampton. It sets the patriotic figure of the volunteer in the context of the commercial press, the development of human-interest journalism and the Liberal views held by the owners and Editor of the Express and Star. The evidence shows how the patriotic figure of the volunteer soldier was absorbed into, and then shaped by, the increasingly sophisticated business model of the provincial evening press. This required constant effort to maintain and increase readership to attract advertising. The volunteer soldier became a central figure in this sales drive.
    • Post-partum mental health and exercise in ethnically diverse ‘priority’ groups

      Nevill, Alan M.; Devonport, Tracey; Row, Mary-Anthea; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-11)
      Background: Ethnically diverse post-partum women living in deprived, urban, multi-ethnic neighbourhoods in developed countries are one of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable populations of the developed world. Even women not in receipt of a diagnosis of mental illness, the majority sub-set of this population, experience considerable biological, material and social challenges to mental wellness, which are not well understood or addressed in healthcare or research. Exercise could present a useful, relatively low resource, non-pharmacological option to strengthen such women’s mental health. However, as a population with intersecting life-stage, social, cultural and material challenges to exercise participation, there is little to guide what intervening with exercise in this context should look like. Specifically, not enough is known about the efficacy of exercise in non-illness orientated post-partum mental health contexts; not enough too about how efficacy could be meaningfully measured and delivered. This programme of research set out to design an effective place-based exercise intervention for the mental health of non-clinical, ethnically diverse (predominantly Black and Minority Ethnic) post-partum women from a deprived neighbourhood of the United Kingdom [UK] to understand whether exercise could be efficacious in this context. In course of this, understandings of intervention design and effectiveness would be gained, offering potential to meaningfully inform practice. Research design: An exploratory sequential mixed methods design was adopted. Reflective of the Medical Research Council’s complex intervention guidance, qualitative (Study 1) and quantitative (Study 2) studies were conducted in sequence so that Study 1 informed Study 2. Methods: For Study 1, the principles of grounded theory were employed. Data from focus groups and interviews with stakeholders (end-users and professionals) (n=25) were obtained and analysed to inform a model for intervention and intervention content.and enjoyment are key motives, and an indoors group a preferred format, for exercise. Findings led to a model with three tenets, ‘core activity’, ‘acceptability and appeal’ and ‘structural factors’, and pointed to the need for a multi-component intervention designed to agree with women’s motives for post-partum exercise. Social support emerged as holding potential to modify and enhance participation and mental health, and thus worthy of being tested in the context of a multi-component intervention. Study 2 results indicate that mental health (as SWB, statistically analysed via repeated measures AVOVA) can improve significantly, in favour of one intervention permutation. The combined exercise and social support multi-component group intervention was more effective in terms of participation and mental health than multi-component group interventions based around exercise and social support individually. Additional statistical analyses using delta values show significance for the combination of exercise and social support (interaction). Conclusion: This programme of research indicates that an appropriately designed multi-component intervention based around exercise and social support can improve the mental health of post-partum women without mental illness but facing considerable biological, social and material challenges to mental wellness, such as ethnically diverse (BAME) post-partum women living in deprived neighbourhoods in developed countries. It also points to an enhanced effect for the combination of exercise and social support, which had not been previously adequately quantified: as the basis of a design principle it represents new knowledge with wide applicability. Knowledge contributions are in an understudied domain. The results of the research could inform the re-shaping domain of post-partum mental healthcare. They offer a model for effective intervention with post-partum women in this, and other deprived neighbourhoods in the UK and other developed countries, and hold promise for intervention and mental health promotion with other special, ‘priority’, populations. The research also contributes to the domains of exercise for mental health and social prescribing, with particular focus on multi-component intervention design, evaluation, and social support. The model privileged multi-component intervention designed to support women’s multi-faceted needs, and engage with their motives for exercise in conducive social conditions. Social support was identified as having potential to modify outcomes. Thus, for Study 2, along with exercise, social support was varied and evaluated via different multi-component group intervention permutations. Study 2 was based on a cluster Randomised Controlled Trial design. Women 8-16 weeks post-partum at baseline (n=41) were allocated to one of four study groups: 1) Exercise [E] group, 2) Social support [SS] group, 3) Exercise + Social Support [Ess] group, and 4) a non-intervention Control group [C]. Mental health as subjective well-being [SWB] was measured using SF-36v2 (version2, Short-form 36-tem questionnaire) and MYMOP2 (Measure yourself medical outcomes profile) over 12 weeks. An attendance register measured participation. Results: Study 1 indicates that the focal women believe in the benefits of exercise and are keen to participate. Health benefits, social benefits
    • “It’s a whole load of not giving up”: individual and organisational factors that contribute to UK based women achieving professor status in STEM

      Wesson, Caroline; Stevens-Gill, Debbie; Jebsen, Julie Marie; School of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-07)
      In the UK, women are increasingly underrepresented in academic STEM careers. Of all Professors in STEM in the UK, only 22% are women. This thesis conducted an exploratory investigation into the individual and organisational factors that contribute to women’s successful career progression in academic STEM careers. Semi-structured interviews with 71 UK based women who had all been promoted to Professor or more senior roles in STEM led to the identification of five master themes: 1 – Gendered experiences in academic career progression; 2 – The promotional process to professor; 3 – Role models are good, mentors are better, but sponsors are best; 4 – Workload Overload, 5 – Work-Life Balance. This also led to a proposed model of layered barriers to career progression. Structural, organisational factors were identified as having far more impact on inequality in retention and career progression of women in STEM than their individual characteristics.
    • A critical analysis of the effectiveness of the corporate rescue provisions under Sch B1 of Insolvency Act 1986

      Walton, Peter; Jacobs, Lezelle; Chanakira, M Pride; University of Wolverhampton Law School, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-05)
      In 1982, the Insolvency Law and Practice: Report of the Review Committee (“the Cork Committee”) recommended the preservation of viable commercial enterprises, as an alternative to company winding up, in appropriate circumstances. Although the primary purpose of administration, which was subsequently enacted to foster a “rescue culture”, is to rescue a company as a going concern, under the third statutory purpose, an administrator may realise the company’s assets to make a distribution to one or more secured or preferential creditors. Thereafter, the administration may be converted to a liquidation or move directly to dissolution where all the assets have been liquidated during administration. The three purposes of administration are listed in order of primacy which means the third purpose can only be adopted if the administrator thinks that it is not reasonably practicable to either achieve company rescue or a better result for the company’s creditors as a whole than would be likely in an immediate winding up. The administrator’s function of making distributions and the ability to move the administration into winding up or dissolution cannot be reconciled with the theory of corporate rescue which was envisaged by the Cork Committee. In light of the fundamental principles and purposes of insolvency law and empirical evidence, this thesis argues that the administration regime, under Schedule B1 of Insolvency Act 1986, is not fit for purpose and is frequently used by insolvent companies as ‘quasi-liquidation’ and dissolution of the company. In short, the rescue approach adopted under the administration framework is inconsistent and obscures the distinction between the concepts of creditor enforcement, corporate rescue and winding up.
    • The immediate impact of viewing positive and negative online news on core belief examination

      Orchard, Lisa; Attrill-Smith, Alison; Alty, Sarah; Institute of Human Sciences, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-09)
      Aims This thesis aims to identify if online news content (ONC for short) relates to emotional and cognitive changes in consumers and whether there are protective factors, such as life satisfaction, strong sense of self and lack of social comparison making, against such changes. Methods With the increase consumption in negative ONC, there has been limited amount of research exploring the psychological impact of the consumption of this type of content on viewers. This thesis consists of two studies. Using a between-subject design, participants in study one were asked to complete an online questionnaire which collected self-reported quantitative data via Likert-scales before and after watching ONC. The questionnaire focused on measures of emotion and cognitive dissonance (CD for short). Participants viewed either negative or positive ONC. Study two used the same procedure but focused on the recall of positive and negative ONC instead. The questionnaire focused on measures of CD, life satisfaction, sense of self, social comparison behaviours and the frequency of ONC consumption. All participants were collected randomly via a convenience sample. Study one consisted of 73 participants (42% male, 58% female). Study two consisted of 106 participants (34% male, 64% female). Findings A 2 x 2 ANOVA tested the interaction between participants’ negative and positive emotional change and the type of ONC viewed (positive and negative ONC). The analysis showed that negative ONC influenced an increase in negative emotions and a decrease in positive emotions and caused greater emotion dysregulation compared to positive ONC. A t-test was used to analyse the difference between the type of ONC viewed (negative news or positive news) and examination to core beliefs. The analysis highlighted that there was no significant difference between the positive and negative ONC conditions in terms of the extent to which CD was experienced. However, a stepwise linear regression showed that specific discrete emotions were correlated to CD in each of these conditions. In study two, a mediation analysis demonstrated that people with a lower life satisfaction are more likely to watch a greater amount of negative ONC and this led to greater CD when negative ONC was recalled. People who have a stronger sense of self, were more likely to watch negative ONC and this led to greater CD when negative ONC was recalled. A greater consumption of negative ONC specifically was related to greater CD. Conclusion The findings of this thesis indicate that negative ONC has the potential to influence the emotional and cognitive state of individuals in a negative way and impacting their wellbeing. This could indicate a need to re-examine social media policies regarding the type of content shared online. Individuals might be able to protect their own vulnerabilities when viewing negative ONC. More research is required to develop insight into what protective factors can be enhanced in others, to reduce their vulnerability to the adverse impacts of negative ONC.
    • A case study review of equality in sport organisations

      Biscomb, Kay; Leflay, Kath; Forbes, Alison; Mackintosh, Chris; Dwight, Adam; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      This thesis explores inequality in sport with a particular focus on sports’ National Governing Bodies (NGBs) and other sports organisations. The thesis adopts a critical realist lens to embrace the multi-factorial nature of inequality influenced by Shaw’s (2007) challenge that sports researchers should adopt a broader perspective that will allow for an acknowledgement of multiple categories and different axes, such as gender or ethnicity, and appreciate their interrelationships. The thesis uses a mixed method approach to examine the impact of a significant policy initiative in relation to equality for sports organisations. It then uses a more in-depth case study for an intensive examination of the pervasive (and often covert) influence of organisational culture on equality in a sport NGB. Study One focuses on The Equality Standard for Sport that was devised in 2004 by the four UK Sports Councils and embraces the multiple nature of inequality. This Study provides a comparative analysis to the previous review of the Standard and takes the form of a survey questionnaire completed by 42 senior members of staff at Governing bodies to examine what difference it is making in terms of equality, diversity and inclusion within these sports organizations. Results indicate that despite some proactive work by some organisations, the Standards’ outcome and audit-based methodology is ill equipped to challenge and critique the organisational cultures that are so influential in exclusionary practices. Study Two and Three utilise an action research approach within a case study of a large NGB and seek to further investigate the influence of institutional culture on the organisation’s efforts to become more inclusive and representative of the communities they serve. Using a multi-method research approach, Study Two included an online survey questionnaire, participant observation, eight semistructured interviews, archival and documental analysis, and a focus group. Study Two identified five key themes linked to the exclusionary organisational culture of NGB as follows: Theme One: Denial of the need to widen diversity Theme Two - Closed shop and marginalisation of underrepresented groups Theme Three: Workload and lack of time for volunteers and the associated issues for women Theme Four: Need to work more collaboratively Theme Five: Lack of awareness of NGB work and particularly or girls’ football Study Three includes the recommendations that were made to the National Council of the NGB designed to challenge the themes that emerged in Study Two. This evidence in Study Three emerged from research methods that included participant observation, eight semi-structured interviews and further archival and documental analysis. Study Three included the details and rationale for these recommendations and the resistant response from the NGB provided further evidence of the strength of organisational culture in preventing organisations from becoming more diverse and inclusive.
    • Association between oral health and dementia

      Chen, Ruoling; Partridge, Martin; Tang, James; Nadim, Rizwan; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-03)
      Introduction: Dementia and oral diseases are two major public health problems in the world. There has been growing interest in examining their associations for disease prevention and health care. A few studies suggested that the association could be bidirectional, but the evidence is still inconclusive. This PhD study aimed to comprehensively assess whether poor oral health increased the risk of dementia while people with dementia had increased oral diseases regardless of other factors. Methods: A mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed, including meta-analysis from literature, analysing the data of a hospital-based case-control study and a population-based cohort study (i.e., English longitudinal study of ageing [ELSA]) and running three focus groups. The case-control study was carried out in Guangzhou, China, interviewing 233 patients with dementia and 233 controls without dementia. ELSA dataset included the participants from wave 3 (2006-07) to wave 9 (2018-19), each wave having around 9,800 participants and recording dementia and oral health problems. In standard methods of interview, the participants in the case-control study and ELSA had documented the data of demographics, lifestyles, cardiovascular risk factors, oral health and other disease risk factors. The associations between dementia and oral health problems were analysed in multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models. The three focus groups included 17 caregivers of people with dementia in Wolverhampton, UK, and their data were examined using thematic analysis. Findings: Both the case-control study and ELSA cohort study showed a significant association of poor oral health with dementia; multiple adjusted odds ratio (OR) of dementia in poor self-rated oral health (SROH) was 1.97 (95%CI 1.01-3.85) and 1.93 (1.00-3.72) respectively. The case-control study also demonstrated increased ORs of dementia in periodontal disease (PD) (OR 1.92, 95%CI 1.17-3.17) in no teeth (6.51, 2.47-17.15) and in other indicators of poor oral health. ELSA further found a non-significant increased OR of incident dementia in those oral impact variables. In examining the association of dementia with poor oral health, the case-control study, where 17.6% of participants reported poor SROH, 55.6% fair, and 26.8% good, showed a non-significantly increased OR of poor SROH in patients with dementia, but significantly increased ORs of moderate/severe PD, the number of teeth and less oral care. The ELSA study showed that dementia was not significantly associated with incident poor SROH; however, combined data of dementia and severe cognitive impairment (SCI) suggested a significant OR of incident poor SROH (1.90, 1.22-2.98) although increased ORs of the total score of oral impacts and edentulism were not significant. The overall quality of identified studies was good. In the meta-analysis, pooled data from ten studies showed an overall significant association of PD with dementia [relative risk (RR) 1.43, 95%CI 1.15-1.79] and the pooled RR from six studies for dementia and cognitive impairment was 1.54 (1.18-2.01). The data from the focus group supported the findings of quantitative studies by their theme relation, care and external factors. Conclusions: This PhD research has suggested that poor oral health may increase the risk of dementia, and people with dementia or SCI could increase the risk of poor oral health. Maintaining oral hygiene and care in people with dementia or SCI is needed to ensure a better quality of life in older people, while keeping good oral health in the general population would help reduce the incidence of dementia worldwide.
    • Audience engagement and immersion: the expanded narrative from the early works of La Monte Young and Terry Riley to the digital era

      Glover, Richard; Mills, Joanne; Wolverhampton School of Art, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-08)
      This investigation interprets the praxis of La Monte Young and Terry Riley’s early work during the 1960s to present both composers as pioneers of what we now consider immersive artistic practice. Through a consideration of multidisciplinary fields, and both composers’ innovative and engaging early works – which borrow much from the experimental, performative, and participative arts of the period – the subversion of the roles of audience and performer are placed within the concept of the ‘expanded narrative’. This expanded narrative is shown to demonstrate the relationship between an audience and an immersive artwork, which extends from the Wagnerian gesamtkunstwerk, and can be broken down into three elements – the active space, cross-disciplinary collaboration, and the active audience. Consideration is given to how advances in technology towards the end of the twentieth century led to new affordances in immersive experiences through the creation of new forms of active space, such as virtual reality, and collaborations at the intersection of art, design and technology. Through the analysis of three early works by both composers, this thesis evidences an investigation into two discrete areas within Minimalist music: the compositions themselves and their presentation/performance (the latter drawing parallels with the Minimalist artistic movement of the same time) – to contribute new knowledge on how the expanded narrative both facilitates an immersive experience and remains relevant today.
    • Characterisation and simulation of bidirectional multiphase flow in tubes

      Oduoza, Chike; Ekpedekumo, Richard Okosukeme; School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-07)
      The bidirectional flow reversal phenomenon results in liquid accumulation, causes significant increase in pressure drop and therefore, the pumping power. In pipelines, this poses significant problem due to the presence of slug to churn, especially in producing gas wells. To understand the bidirectional flow reversal phenomena of co-current to counter-current annular flow with a falling liquid film inside a vertical tube with internal diameter of 0.054 m, height of 10.5m length, and length of 40m horizontal section, was researched experimentally. Despite the significance of this problem, there is lack of reports in the literature of a generally accepted empirical correlation model that resolves the phenomenon of flow reversal and flooding in vertical tubes for gas / liquid flows with different fluids. Rather, experimental empirical model correlation developed so far relied on air/water flows. This research, therefore, has studied flow reversal phenomenon, using gas, light viscous oil, and water as working fluids, to compare experimentally obtained flow reversal, flooding superficial gas and liquid velocity conditions with existing works, established flow reversal and flooding correlations, in addition, CFD Ansys simulation to carry out experimental data analysis and reviewed methodologies that focus on the churn/annular-annular mist flow regimes transition explored by other researchers. The outcome was a valid empirical model that correlates flow reversal and flooding within the geometry under study and have establish a critical superficial gas velocity of 3.5 m/s to avoid a bidirectional flow in gas wells. Also achieved, was a programmed, flow regime recognition in two-phase flow reversal and flooding in tubes. The empirical model correlation curve and the critical superficial gas flow rate of 3.5 m/s derived in this work will enable oil and gas well engineers to establish whether a specific well has enough flow velocity to lift both gas and water sufficiently to the surface without flow reversal and resulting in liquid accumulation in a producing well. Further research is recommended to study the effect of fluid properties especially density and viscosity and liquid film thickness on the flow reversal and flooding phenomena.
    • Exploring associations between childhood emotional abuse, suicidal behaviour and deliberate self-harm: the mediating role of distress tolerance

      Boyda, David; Williams, Tara; Institute of Human Sciences, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022)
      Childhood Emotional Abuse (CEA) has been linked extensively with psychological difficulties such as deliberate self-harm (DSH), and suicidal behaviours (SB), indicating that they may represent considerable risk factors for later psychopathology. CEA is associated with poorer emotional coping skills, which may mediate the severity of later outcomes. Low distress tolerance (DT) is associated with DSH and an increased capacity for suicide that can be understood within a negative reinforcement framework. DT has been found to mediate associations between negative life events and maladaptive emotional coping. No study to date, however, has explored whether DT mediates the relationships between CEA and DSH, and CEA and SBs. The study reported here was conducted with a clinical population accessing psychological support (n=70) and aimed to explore whether experiencing CEA was associated with difficulties tolerating distressing situations, and maladaptive coping mechanisms such as DSH and SBs. Correlations found significant relationships between all variables. The study also investigated whether DT mediated the relationship between CEA and DSH, and CEA and SBs. Mediation analysis showed that DT did not mediate the relationship between CEA and DSH. However, DT significantly mediated the relationship between CEA and SBs. The study has implications for future clinical practise and makes suggestions regarding clinical interventions that focus on DT skills as a way of reducing SBs.