As a stratified social space Higher Education’s linguistic ‘habitus’ (Bourdieu, 1991) or ‘everyday use’ of literacy valorises and legitimates essayist literacy and its monologic addressivity, a discursive arena where, “it is the tutor’s voice that predominates, determining what the task is and how it should be done” (Lillis 2001, p.75) with an emphasis upon evaluation of text as finished product. Writing within dialogic practices of addressivity, where tutor and student writers, “engage in the construction of text as meaning making in progress” (Lillis 2001, p.44) illustrates the fabrication of literacies and of reflective stories where teacher identity may be seen “as a gradual ‘coming to know’” (Winter 2003, p.120) dependent in part upon social assembly and conversations.Such infidelity to monologicism demands a dynamic dialogic forum such as that supported by an electronic portfolio as a strategic act of interruption of essayist norms. The eportfolio system, pebblePAD, was piloted with a group of 15 PGCE (PCE) students in 2004-5. The system was used for teaching, learning and assessment and as a data collection tool. The data was generated from individual and shared artefacts: audits, journals, critical incident sharing, online questionnaires and from summative reflective assignments. The reflective writing within the emergent community of practice provide evidence of Lave and Wenger’s (1991, p.53) model which urges us to remember that, “learning involves the construction of identities” and that the conceptual bridge that peripheral participation in a community offers has the potential to allow us to take “a decentred view of master-apprenticeship relations.” The nurturing and enabling of such a community of practice within a professional course such as the PGCE has the potential to create politicised and engaged reflective writers and practitioners who view risk and uncertainty as positive factors who “take a decentred view of the master-apprentice…(leading) to an understanding that mastery resides not in the master but in the organization of the community of practice of which the master is part” (Lave & Wenger 1991, p.94)
Raymond, Graham J.(University of Wolverhampton, 2008)
This thesis investigates how the Conservative party coped with the far-reaching effects of democratic reform between 1867 and 1914. It analyses the performance of successive party leaders through their exploitation of high politics; and how ideology influenced their policy, and decision making. It also examines how the party’s organization was periodically revised to manage changing political circumstances. The relationships between these three elements, high politics, ideology, and organization are then analysed to explain the Conservative party’s appeal for electoral support during the period of study. The respective contributions made by the three elements to the party’s electoral performance are considered in relation to each other. Using this approach the thesis explains how the Conservative party managed to improve upon its dismal electoral record between 1832 and 1874; how it achieved electoral dominance between 1886 and 1906; and why its electoral fortunes declined so dramatically thereafter. The conclusions reached are threefold. Firstly, the importance attached to high politics by the Peterhouse school of thought may, in some respects, be exaggerated, certainly regarding elections. High politics, by its very nature seeks to exert influence at a level far removed from the mass electorate. Political rhetoric has obvious uses during elections, not least in the field of extra-parliamentary speech-making. But in the absence of any reliable indicators of what the electorate actually felt or desired, the effectiveness of political rhetoric could not be gauged a priori. The results of political manoeuvring at the highest levels may have been apparent to voters, but was of little concern to them. At worst, they were ignorant of it, and at best, ambivalent to it. Secondly, party leaders, whether knowingly or unknowingly, exploited the flexibility of Conservative ideology in their quest for votes. However, the core concepts of that ideology remained inviolable, only contingent values were successfully subjected to re-appraisal and revision to attract the voters. When ideological core values were misunderstood or misinterpreted the party suffered accordingly. Thirdly, the value of the Conservative party’s organization has been underestimated. High politics and ideology may have combined to produce a Conservative message for the voters, but the appeal of that message was unknowable. On the other hand, the party’s organization, when empowered to do so, adroitly and effectively utilized all the tools available to them to manage and maximize all potential Conservative support. Organization may be viewed as a make-weight, but like all make-weights it possessed the power to tip the electoral scales one way or the other.
Cloak, Ross James(University of Wolverhampton, 2011)
Ankle injuries are one of the most common injuries in sport, often leading to functional deficits and instability, a vicious cycle of recurrent sprains and time loss due to injury. Although research has been conducted on the best methods of treating such deficits and instability, new training methodologies are continually being sought to help improve clinical outcomes and with this comes a need for designed research to test such hypotheses. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of vibration training on balance and muscle function in physically active individuals suffering self reported functional ankle instability (FAI). Stage one of the research was to initially investigate the effect of a six week whole body vibration training (WBVT) exercise routine on 38 University dancers reporting FAI. An initial assessment of the severity of the instability was done using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT), to identify those who classed themselves functionally unstable but still able to participate in their chosen sport. The group was randomly arranged into one of two groups (treatment and control) and a pre/post test study was undertaken, with the control group asked to continue normal activity. The selection of participants was based on instability score from the CAIT. A larger sample of athletes was initially recruited across two accessible sports of football and dance due to access and availability. These groups then completed CAIT and where included if scoring criteria were met. The treatment group undertook six weeks of progressive vibration training on a stabile vibration system. Pre and post testing consisted of measures of static single leg balance, a Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and Electromyography (EMG) of peroneus longus in demi-pointe. Results indicated a significant improvement in static balance (p = .04) and certain SEBT directions within the treatment group compared to the control group (p <.05). Neither group reported any significant difference in mean power frequency for the peroneus longus (p >.05). The results of the study suggested six weeks vibration training improved certain balance parameters within FAI populations. These results although initially encouraging, identified the need for further research with not just a direct comparison between treatment and control, but a closer examination of the effect of vibration training in comparison to more classical methods of rehabilitation before it can be recommended as a serious methods of treatment for FAI. The second stage of the research involved the implementation of a new piece of rehabilitation equipment which combined a vibration unit within a wobble board (Vibrosphere TM, Sweden). The manufactures claim the combination of the two principles accelerates rehabilitation for numerous lower body injuries and disorders. This specially designed unit allowed direct analysis of the effect of the vibration component of the unit on balance and muscle function, by comparing those who used the combined vibration/wobble board and those who simply used the wobble board alone. A control group was also included to analyse any difference over time as the testing was done during a pre-season training cycle. The research consisted of 33 semi-professional footballers reporting FAI as confirmed by CAIT and taler tilt and an anterior drawer test, being randomly assigned to one of three groups; Vibration/wobble board, Wobble board alone and Control. Both Vibration/wobble board and Wobble board alone completed identical exercises on identical equipment so results could not be attributed to different equipment. The results of the study suggest a significant difference in static balance; modified SEBT and Single leg triple hop for distance between groups with the greatest improvement being within the combined vibration/wobble board group (p <.05). The results suggest the combination of vibration and wobble board improve balance and functional strength in those footballers reporting FAI compared to wobble board training alone. The precise mechanisms behind the current results are unclear. It has been suggested that it may be due to vibration having a positive effect on the stimulation of mechanoreceptors and the combination of that and unstable surface control seems to be optimal. It is difficult to compare studies but the research has highlighted certain areas for further research. The difference in static balance and SEBT scores between the dancers and footballers seems to suggest that the CAIT scores although similar may identify the need for more specific tests for each population. Also a longitudinal study is required to access injury rates following intervention and effect duration of the improvements seen.
Rathnapala, Delpagoda Gamage Tharinda(University of Wolverhampton, 2009)
Conventional business procedures are increasingly being replaced by dynamic and revolutionized growth due to the integration of Information and Communication technologies to meet changing business requirements. For survival in this highly competitive field of construction, the adaptation of new technologies enhancement and its revolution is considered as an essential requirement. Emerging ICT developments and new construction techniques have generated much needed discussion about how these two streams are connected together. The concept of prefabrication has grown in recent years to change conventional construction processes and simultaneously Building Information Model (BIM) has emerged to brighten up traditionally ill functioned business communication flow. Building Information Modelling in the early stage of building construction development provides the vehicle to bring the construction industry into line with other technically driven fields, such as Automotive and Aerospace. However, in the past this has not given much consideration towards interaction between itself and the much improved construction industry prefabrication process. This research has reviewed the current state of BIM capability in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) professions and establishes what is technologically possible. It also closely scrutinises one of the leading UK‟s cold rolled steel prefabricator‟s design and manufacturing process. The result of the findings leads the research to undertake in-depth benchmarking process to review and select an appropriate BIM application for live implementation. Upon selection, BIM application is customised to cater current and future design process of the above SME unit and implemented within a live construction project environment. Latest design process within SME unit along with BIM solution then evaluated against commercial criteria which determine the validity of incorporating construction industry prefabricating processes into current BIM applications iiand highlighted its overall benefits for the prefabricators and construction industry as a whole. Latter part of the research investigated the latest technological advancement available within BIM applications. Review has lead to highlight Application Programming Interface (API) available within the BIM applications. API provided much needed control mechanism to end users via standard programming mechanisms which captured during this research as the gateway to incorporate prefabricating information into BIM. Future Novel Framework developed based on API capabilities of the BIM applications in order to incorporate prefabricating processes into BIM Applications
Walton, Julie(University of Wolverhampton, 2012-07)
This study investigated the effect of detergent treatment on susceptibility of attached Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes to subsequent disinfectant treatment, in relation to food industry cleaning procedures. E. coli attached to stainless steel surfaces became significantly more susceptible to benzalkonium chloride (BAC) after treatment with sodium alkyl sulphate (SAS) by 0.51 Log10 cfu ml-1 and fatty alcohol ethoxylate (FAE) by 0.96 Log10 cfu ml-1. No change in susceptibility was observed with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), sodium lauryl ethyl sulphate (SLES) or polyethoxylated alcohol (PEA). L. monocytogenes became significantly less susceptible to BAC after treatment with anionic detergents SAS by 0.79 Log10 cfu ml-1, SDS by 0.33 Log10 cfu ml-1 and SLES by 0.22 Log10 cfu ml-1, yet no change in susceptibility was observed with FAE. Following treatment with all detergents both organisms became significantly more susceptible to sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) demonstrating that the effect of the disinfectant was independent of detergent type. Flow cytometry using the fluorochrome propidium iodide (PI) revealed significant increases in cell membrane permeability of both organisms by all detergents except sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the effect was much greater in E. coli. Increasing above the in-use concentration of SAS and FAE had no further effect on cell membrane permeability, or susceptibility to BAC. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) showed that E. coli became less hydrophobic following treatment with SAS, SDS, FAE and L. monocytogenes became less hydrophobic following treatment with SAS and SDS but no effect was seen with FAE. Investigations into carbon chain length of detergent revealed that SAS and the C18 standard increased susceptibility of E. coli to BAC which, with permeability results, suggests a link between increase in susceptibility to BAC and increase in membrane permeability. Efflux experiments with L. monocytogenes showed that efflux of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was greater from cells treated with SAS than with FAE suggesting that the anionic charge on the detergent molecule influences an efflux mechanism that reduces susceptibility to BAC. Overall the results demonstrate that detergent type can influence the sensitivity of persistent food borne microorganisms to BAC and NaDCC and the significance of the findings may impact on the choice of agents used in cleaning procedures in the food industry.
It is the aim of this study to establish live neonatal nurse and parental infant-directed singing as a potentially efficacious intervention that is beneficial to the health and development of infants in neonatal care and which could conceivably be integrated into nursing practice and the neonatal care environment in a way that is both practical and viable. An appraisal of extant literature highlights the need for further intervention in neonatal care, explains how music meets the necessary criterion as appropriate intervention and discusses its potential, specifically infant-directed singing, to be provided by neonatal nurses and parents. The willingness of neonatal nurses and parents to engage in infant-directed singing in the neonatal care unit environment is assessed through an informal questionnaire survey. From the findings of this and other studies, implications and recommendations for both areas and methods for future research are extrapolated. The intention behind this study is to generate interest and awareness of academics and medical professionals in this potentially cost effective intervention, promoting future research and practice. It is hoped that this will ultimately result in the comfort of song providing profound benefits to the physiological, psychological and emotional development and wellbeing of all infants in neonatal care.
Chohan, Sandeep Singh(University of Wolverhampton, 2008)
Based upon two years fieldwork in Wolverhampton and Coventry, and several field trips to Punjab, this thesis focuses on the prevalence of possession and exorcism as a manifestation of Punjabi religion amongst the Punjabi diaspora in Wolverhampton. Euro-centric scholarship and reform movements in the 1900s, in India, suppressed religious traditions that did not conform to the textual and institutionalised forms of religion. This thesis proposes that the phenomenon of possession and exorcism observed amongst the Punjabi diaspora in Wolverhampton is in no way novel, rather it is a diasporic reconstruction of a vital tradition found within the religious traditions from the Punjab, and on a larger scale in the Indian sub-continent. Furthermore the Punjabi diaspora in Wolverhampton are in no way unique in the re-construction of this religious tradition in Britain. Various forms of supernatural malaise are prevalent amongst the Punjabi diaspora in Wolverhampton that are utilised by the community to explain the inexplicable diversities they face in daily life. These supernatural afflictions provide the Punjabi diaspora with a useful method of accepting adversity but also various methods to tackle it through the assistance of a baba or bhagat. This thesis explores the underlying cosmological discourses prevalent in the worldview of north Indian religious traditions in an attempt to analyse a relatively untouched phenomenon of religious beliefs and practices of the Punjabi diaspora in Wolverhampton.
Atkinson, David(University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
A Global New Product Introduction and Development (GNPID) process is one of the cornerstones towards a competitive advantage in the automotive marketplace today. A fully optimised GNPID process in combination with other lean and agile manufacturing techniques and systems is guaranteed to reduce lead-time and save on cost. In the typical post-launch product life-cycle the problems faced by most manufacturing companies lies not only in accelerating and maintaining sales after the launch but in reducing the costly development time before the launch. In an effort to improve timelines and effectiveness, a number of firms within the automotive industry are experimenting with different best practices in their NPID processes. While much of the previous research has focused on NPID in a single location, little has been reported on how actual companies are addressing the problems with globalisation of NPID. The author aims to develop a set of methodologies for rapid new product introduction in a global manufacturing environment using an integrated framework of concurrent engineering tools and methods. This is to support the development of customer focused agile product and to meet customer expectations in terms of innovation and customisation, quality, competitive price, sustainable and environmentally friendly product.
In recent times, the development and manufacture of new products and the necessary tools required to carry out such activities has resulted in vast amounts of knowledge and information being generated. In product development there are no hard and fast rules determining the length of product development projects and quite often over a 10-year period several hundreds of projects could come into being, quite often coinciding with huge advances in technology over the same period. This advancement in technology has often taken over the role of the designer who carries out calculations and attempt to provide solutions. This has resulted in certain cases with designers having very little to no understanding or practical experience of the manufacturing process and design expertise required to ratify product designs. The resultant loss of information and intent and the lack of exploitation of manufacturing constraints and product knowledge can quite often lead to difficulties resulting in product re-design and in some cases failure in the hands of the customer. In order to provide knowledge to support product development, there is a requirement to capture the knowledge of the manufacturing processes within the organization, which includes the process, materials, resource, design rules, capacity and other constraints that may limit the capabilities of the organization. The research presented in this thesis proposes a knowledge based framework to support product development Furthermore, the research includes the development of a knowledge based system in order to identify, capture, formalize, present and utilize knowledge within a product development environment. In this research, a knowledge based framework to support product development was developed in order to create an “AS-IS” process map of current product development practices within a case company from the cold roll forming industry. The process map guided the identification of information and knowledge required to support the product development process and formed the basis of the knowledge based system developed to provide effective decision support. Finally, the framework and knowledge based system were implemented within the case company. The results from the case study demonstrated how the knowledge based frame work and knowledge based system provided effective decision support by providing information and knowledge in the place, time and format required, thus ultimately reducing product development costs and improving quality
Abstract Cropping allocations have normally been studied using frameworks that assume the existence of a representative farmer who cares about maximising gross margin. Evidence has shown that results obtained from these studies to predict cropping allocations in response to policy reforms are not satisfactory. On the other hand, an alternative research using multivariate models (i.e. models that consider economic and social-psychological variables to explain farmers’ behaviour) has been developed with the purpose of identifying farmers’ motivations to adopt specific environmental policies. However, this research has not been extended to study strategic cropping decisions. This is surprising given the fact that policy reforms strongly affect the allocation of crops when they are accompanied with the elimination of domestic distorting policies. The objective of this thesis is to fill this gap by proposing a novel holistic multivariate model designed exclusively to study farmers’ strategic cropping decisions. The proposed model integrates a number of alternative and complementary approaches that can explain farmers’ strategic behaviour. The model was applied to a sample of ex-sugar beet farmers in the West Midlands region of the UK to investigate the way in which these individuals adjusted to the Sugar Regime reform introduced on 20th February 2006. As a consequence of this reform, the sugar beet factory located in Allscott in Shropshire was closed and the sugar beet growers in this area adjusted by replacing sugar beet with alternative crops. Evidence has revealed that these farmers replaced sugar beet with crops with low gross margin such as oilseed. This choice is puzzling because other crops with high levels of gross margin such as carrots and parsnips were also available when the reform was implemented. The proposed multivariate model not only was useful to explain this choice, but also identified heterogeneous behavioural responses that no related research has identified so far.
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